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dc.contributor.authorTindall, Alyssa M
dc.contributor.authorPetersen, Kristina S
dc.contributor.authorSkulas-Ray, Ann C
dc.contributor.authorRichter, Chesney K
dc.contributor.authorProctor, David N
dc.contributor.authorKris-Etherton, Penny M
dc.date.accessioned2019-10-10T20:11:42Z
dc.date.available2019-10-10T20:11:42Z
dc.date.issued2019-05-01
dc.identifier.citationTindall, A. M., Petersen, K. S., Skulas‐Ray, A. C., Richter, C. K., Proctor, D. N., & Kris‐Etherton, P. M. (2019). Replacing Saturated Fat With Walnuts or Vegetable Oils Improves Central Blood Pressure and Serum Lipids in Adults at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease: A Randomized Controlled‐Feeding Trial. Journal of the American Heart Association, 8(9).en_US
dc.identifier.issn2047-9980
dc.identifier.pmid31039663
dc.identifier.doi10.1161/JAHA.118.011512
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10150/634749
dc.description.abstractBackground-Walnuts have beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, but it is unclear whether these effects are attributable to the fatty acid (FA) content, including alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), and/or bioactives. Methods and Results-A randomized, controlled, 3-period, crossover, feeding trial was conducted in individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease (n=45). Following a 2-week standard Western diet run-in (12% saturated FAs [SFA], 7% polyunsaturated FAs, 12% monounsaturated FAs), participants consumed 3 isocaloric weight-maintenance diets for 6 weeks each: a walnut diet (WD; 7% SFA, 16% polyunsaturated FAs, 3% ALA, 9% monounsaturated FAs); a walnut FA-matched diet; and an oleic acid-replaced-ALA diet (7% SFA, 14% polyunsaturated FAs, 0.5% ALA, 12% monounsaturated FAs), which substituted the amount of ALA from walnuts in the WD with oleic acid. This design enabled evaluation of the effects of whole walnuts versus constituent components. The primary end point, central systolic blood pressure, was unchanged, and there were no significant changes in arterial stiffness. There was a treatment effect (P=0.04) for central diastolic blood pressure; there was a greater change following the WD versus the oleic acid-replaced-ALA diet (-1.78 +/- 1.0 versus 0.15 +/- 0.7 mm Hg, P=0.04). There were no differences between the WD and the walnut fatty acid-matched diet (-0.22 +/- 0.8 mm Hg, P=0.20) or the walnut FA-matched and oleic acid-replaced-ALA diets (P=0.74). The WD significantly lowered brachial and central mean arterial pressure. All diets lowered total cholesterol, LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, and non-HDL cholesterol. Conclusions-Cardiovascular benefits occurred with all moderate-fat, high-unsaturated-fat diets. As part of a low-SFA diet, the greater improvement in central diastolic blood pressure following the WD versus the oleic acid-replaced-ALA diet indicates benefits of walnuts as a whole-food replacement for SFA.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipCalifornia Walnut Commission; Pennsylvania State University Clinical and Translational Research Institute; Pennsylvania State University Clinical and Translational Science Award; National Institutes of Health/National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences [UL1TR000127]en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherWILEYen_US
dc.rightsCopyright © 2019 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial‐NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.en_US
dc.subjectarterial stiffnessen_US
dc.subjectbioactivesen_US
dc.subjectnutritionen_US
dc.subjectpolyunsaturated fatty acidsen_US
dc.subjectpulse‐wave velocityen_US
dc.subjectwalnutsen_US
dc.subjectα‐linolenic aciden_US
dc.titleReplacing Saturated Fat With Walnuts or Vegetable Oils Improves Central Blood Pressure and Serum Lipids in Adults at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease: A Randomized Controlled-Feeding Trialen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.contributor.departmentUniv Arizona, Dept Nutr Scien_US
dc.identifier.journalJOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATIONen_US
dc.description.noteOpen access journalen_US
dc.description.collectioninformationThis item from the UA Faculty Publications collection is made available by the University of Arizona with support from the University of Arizona Libraries. If you have questions, please contact us at repository@u.library.arizona.edu.en_US
dc.eprint.versionFinal published versionen_US
dc.source.journaltitleJournal of the American Heart Association
refterms.dateFOA2019-10-10T20:11:43Z


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