• Preceramic Subsistence in Two Rock Shelters in Fresnal Canyon, South Central New Mexico [No. 199]

      Bohrer, Vorsila L. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2007)
      Many plant fragments recovered from two pre-ceramic rock shelters occupied some 3000 or more years ago look no different from modem plants. When plant material preserves so well, the contribution of ethnobotany to archaeological research can be enormous. Volney Jones (1941: 220) defined ethnobotany as the study of the interrelationship of pre-industrial people and plants. In archaeological sites ethnobotanists, through attention to taxonomic peculiarities, can identify plant fragments primarily at the generic level, but also to races and varieties in some cultivated plants. Existing traditions of utilization, the context of recovery (such as a burned seed in a hearth), and other indirect lines of evidence serve to categorize plant remains according to use: foods, fuels, basketry, sandals, cordage, medicinal, or ceremonial items. This study attempts to identify and interpret food usage when cultivated crops were initially available in south-central New Mexico. (excerpted from Introduction)
    • Echoes in the Canyons: The Archaeology of the Southeastern Sierra Ancha, Central Arizona [No. 198]

      Lange, Richard C.; Ciolek-Torrello, Richard S.; Huckell, Lisa W.; Teague, Lynn S.; Virden-Lange, Christine H. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2006)
    • The Hardy Site at Fort Lowell Park, Tucson, Arizona [No. 175]

      Gregonis, Linda M. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997)
      A small portion of the Hardy site, a large, pre-Classic Hohokam village, was excavated by University of Arizona students and other volunteers between 1976 and 1978. The portion of the site that was excavated revealed houses and associated features dating from the Sweetwater or Snaketown phase through the Late Rincon subphase. Information retrieved from the site was used to examine occupation space use and reuse through time, to better define the Canada del Oro phase, and to propose the inclusion of the Cortaro phase (now subsumed within the Late Rincon subphase) in the Tucson Basin Hohokam cultural sequence.
    • River of Change: Prehistory of the Middle Little Colorado River Valley, Arizona

      Adams, E. Charles; Adams, Karen R.; Bubemyre, Trixi D.; Cole, Sally J.; Gann, Douglas W.; Hays-Gilpin, Kelley; Jones, Anne Trinkle; Lange, Richard C.; Lyons, Patrick D.; McKim, Rebecca; et al. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996)
    • Copper Bell Trade Patterns in the Prehispanic U.S. Southwest and Northwest Mexico [No. 187]

      Vargas, Victoria D. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995)
      The nature and extent of interaction between prehispanic Mesoamerica and the U.S. Southwest and Northwest Mexico has been debated by archaeologists for decades. This work investigates interaction between these areas based upon the stylistic, temporal, and geographic distribution of copper bells in the North American Southwest. Copper bells (also called crotals) have been identified in the past as probable mesoamerican trade items which may have been used as prestige goods. The copper bell inventory is used as the primary data set in the distributional analyses in Chapter 5 and builds upon past inventories by Pendergast (1962a) and Sprague and Signori (1963). Previously undocumented copper bells are added to these inventories. The updated inventory contains 622 bells from 93 sites from the U.S. Southwest and Northwest Mexico and is presented in Chapter 4. The possible origin(s) of these copper bells is also addressed in this study. The evidence presented by Di Peso et al. (1974) for copper production at Paquime, also known as Casas Grandes, in Northwest Chihuah~ Mexico is evaluated. West Mexico, known as a copper producing area, is also considered as a possible origin of bells found at sites in the U.S. Southwest and Northwest Mexico. (Excerpt from Introduction)
    • Pinto Beans and Prehistoric Pots: The Legacy of Al and Alice Lancaster [No. 183]

      Adams, Jenny L. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1994)
      Preface (Watson Smith, Tucson, Arizona, 1988) The westering of America - a story told a thousand times - is old but ever new - in terms as varied as were the many individuals who have played their roles in a vast and mostly anonymous company. Most of them followed ill-marked paths toward the sunset, unwittingly becoming the stuff of a hallowed modem legend that ranges from suffering, horror, degradation, and failure to the romanticized grandeur of heroism, self-sacrifice, and fortune finally realized in the golden glow of hope fulfilled. That there were such westering pioneers at either extremity of that vast spectrum of human movement across North America is certain. But for most of them their way lay somewhere between the extremes, and for those few whose names are remembered, there were millions of ordinary folk who, though they passed unrecorded, have given genuine substance to what otherwise might be only the folk-legend of a restless people. Some where near the middle of the middle are Al and Alice Lancaster, whose story partakes of many of the commonplaces of their fellow wanderers, and whose record in many ways can be a paradigm for that of countless others. But the hearty particulars of their own lives, both beginning in the east and moving by very different routes to Colorado where they met and married, are remarkable. The satisfactions implicit in this evolution and its fulfillment are uncommon - for the very simple reason that Al and Alice are uncommon people. Their story, in itself is neither fabulous nor mythically heroic - it is as real and as human as are those of most of their fellows. And it is worthy of the telling for that very reason. There are some special considerations, though: Alice's pursuit of education, both for herself and for those she guided as a rural school-teacher and as the mother of six children, speaks for a greatness of spirit that is possessed by few people. And Al's insight and empathy with the archaeological past and its people have made him one of the most productive and honored dirt-archaeologists of the Southwest. But their story does not tell itself; it is revealed through the eyes of an author with a deep understanding of her subject. This author is advantaged in her telling by her genuine emotional rapport with Al and Alice, who have given of themselves because they have seen her as one who could have shared their Odyssey, if she had ever had the chance to do so, and who can certainly feel its pulse in her own heartbeat. A glorious story told without embellishment, it would probably not have inspired the reverence of Whitman in his paean Pioneers! 0 Pioneers! or Foss's melodramatic call for men to match his mountains. But it is as heartwarming as those impassioned poets could have made it. And I should know, because of my own privileged involvements in it for more than fifty years. The author gains, too, from a shared love of the Southwest, engendered by her experience within it and by her unusual emotional kinship with its spirit and its soul. One who reads this book will be rewarded not by just another tale of breaking sod, or homesteading, or following the sweating oxen in a dusty wagon-train (and Al and Alice did these things [except for the oxen]), nor even by the momentary thrill of riding the gossamer trestles that Otto Mears flung across the gorges of the San Juan Mountains, where there is, indeed, a touch of Katharine Lee Bates' "purple mountain majesty." Instead, it is the sharing of a rare kinship with people whose lives might have been ordinary, but for the miracle that they were lived by extraordinary people, and have been chronicled by a sympathetic and qualified recorder.
    • The Northern Tucson Basin Survey: Research Directions and Background Studies [No. 182]

      Madsen, John H.; Fish, Paul R.; Fish, Suzanne K. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1993)
      An overview of the prehistoric natural and cultural setting of the region between Tucson and Picacho, Arizona.
    • Hohokam Marine Shell Exchange and Artifacts [No. 179]

      Nelson, Richard S. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1991)
      This study analyzes the shell industry of the Hohokam, the prehistoric inhabitants of southern Arizona. The primary focus is upon exchange and utilizes the concept of spheres of exchange, derived from social anthropology. After first examining the problems of sources, procurement and processing of unworked shell, the analysis then proceeds to define the patterns of context and distribution characteristic of different shell artifacts, demonstrating that different classes of shell artifacts do exhibit different and distinctive patterns of context and of both intra-site and inter-site distribution. These different distributional patterns are shown to influence the distribution of these shell artifacts beyond the boundaries of Hohokam territory. It is shown that some shell artifacts are widely distribution both within and beyond Hohokam territory, and are found within a wide variety both of sites and contexts. Such artifacts appear to be accessible to a relatively broad segment of individuals and communities. Other shell artifacts, however, are more sharply restricted in both context and distribution, and rarely occur in non-Hohokam sites. This second group is more likely to be abundant mainly at sites which may be reigonal centers, and even there are more likely to occur in certain parts of such sites, often in such specialized contexts as caches or especially rich cemetaries. ln those areas, they may also be associated with uncommon artifacts of other materials. Some associated artifacts are of Mesoamerican origin. Based upon these data, as well as information relating to settlement systems an burial practices, it is concluded that this second group of Hohokam shell artifacts represents a distinct, prestige sphere of exchange, access to which is restricted, perhaps on the basis of rank or ritual ties. This phenomenon seems to be most clearly delineated during the late Colonial and Sedentary periods, but may have existed during the Classic Period as well. This prestige sphere seems to have involved exchange ties with Mesoamerica, at least at certain times, and probably operated within the region through exchange links and mechanisms different from those by which more widely distributed shell artifact types were exchanged. Thus the Hohokam can be said to have had a multi-tiered system of exchange spheres, the existence of which can probably be linked to existence of some sort of social ranking within Hohokam society.
    • Historic Archaeology at the Tucson Community Center [No. 181]

      Ayres, James E. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      The archaeology for the Tucson Convention Center Expansion Project, sponsored by the Tucson Local Development Corporation (TI..DC), was performed by archaeologists from the Cultural Resource Management Division (CRMD) of the Arizona State Museum (ASM). Project fieldwork was carried-out in two stages, testing and mitigation, between mid-March and mid-May, 1988. Laboratory work, artifact identification and analysis, historical research, and report preparation, followed the fieldwork phase over the subsequent two years. The project was the first of an archaeological nature undertaken by the TLDC, a private non-profit corporation created by the City of Tucson in 1979. This organization provides long-term financing for small business expansion in the Tucson Metro area and eastern Pima County.
    • Arizona State Museum Style Guide (Second Edition) [No. 180]

      Gifford, Carol A.; Heathington, Carol Ann (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1989)
    • Archaeological Investigations in the Snowflake-Mesa Redonda Area, East-Central Arizona: The Apache-Navajo South Project [No. 173]

      Neily, Robert B. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1988)
      The Apache-Navajo South Project was conducted by the Cultural Resource Management Division (CRMD) of the Arizona State Museum under contract with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The project was designed to evaluate 20 parcels of public land comprising 10,369 acres in the southern part of Apache and Navajo counties, Arizona, that were being considered for possible disposal in conjunction with the Navajo-Hopi Land Exchange Program. An archaeological survey was conducted between August 27 and September 28, 1984, and 65 prehistoric sites, 3 historic sites, and a petroglyph site were recorded. A report was submitted to the BLM in January, 1985, documenting the results of this survey and outlining recommendations for the mitigation of impacts to these cultural resources. In June of 1985, a research design was submitted to the BLM for data recovery at five prehistoric sites dating between approximately A.D. 850 and 1250 and situated in four of the parcels designated for disposal. The emphasis of the research design was the documentation of prehistoric land use and subsistence patterns primarily in the upland regions of the Snowflake-Mesa Redonda area, where four of the sites were located. The fifth site, situated along a tributary wash of Millet Swale, was to provide a comparative data base on valley land-use patterns. The initial data recovery efforts at the five sites extended between July 22 and August 12 of 1985, with additional work being performed between September 10 and October 25, 1985. This report, in addition to summarizing the results of the 1984 survey, presents the results of the data recovery efforts at the five sites and a synthesis of the project. (excerpted from Preface)
    • Archaeological Investigations at AZ U:14:75 (ASM): A Turn-of-the-Century Pima Homestead [No. 172]

      Layhe, Robert W. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986)
      During June, 1986, the Cultural Resource Management Division of the Arizona State Museum conducted archaeological excavations for the Gila River Housing Authority at AZ U:14:75 (ASM) to mitigate the adverse effects that would occur to this turn-of-the-century Pima homestead as a result of a proposed housing project. A Pima round house, brush kitchen, and a possible ramada were excavated. In addition to the feature descriptions, detailed ethonohistorical information is provided. The report also contains information on historic artifacts, ceramics and restorable vessels, chipped stone, faunal remains, and abundant macrobotanical remains.
    • The 1985 Excavations at the Hodges Site, Pima County, Arizona [No. 170]

      Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986
      In 1985 Pima County Department of Transportation contracted with the Cultural Resource Management Division of the Arizona State Museum to mitigate the adverse effects on the Hodges Site that would result from the renovation of Ruthrauff Road in northwestern Tucson, Arizona. Seventeen architectural features and numerous pit features were present. During the six-week period of data recovery 13 architectural features and 6 extramural features were excavated or sampled. The structures date from the Rillito phase to the Tanque Verde phase. In addition to the feature descriptions, this report presents detailed information on archival research, ceramics, chipped stone, small artifacts and ground stone, floral remains (flotation and pollen), mortuary treatment, and fauna! remains. The archival chapter and appendices present descriptive data from all the mortuary and architectural features excavated in the late 1930s by Isabel Kelly.
    • Archaeological Excavations at AZ I:10:30 (ASM), A Sinagua Settlement: Townsend-Divide Unit I, U.S. Highway 89, Coconino County, Arizona [No. 169]

      Tagg, Martyn D.; Layhe, Robert W. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1985)
      This report describes and discusses archaeological data recovery at a Sinagua site (AZ 1:10:30, ASM) within an Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) right-of-way near Flagstaff, Arizona. A brief discussion of the research potential of the site and of the cultural history and natural setting of the region is provided. This is followed by feature descriptions, artifact analyses and results, and interpretations of the subsistance patterns, chronology, and external relationships of the inhabitants of the site. Specialized analyses are provided in four appendixes at the end of the report. The investigations at Townsend-Divide (AZ 1:10:30, ASM), involving excavations on a small portion of a larger site, revealed two pit houses and four burials associated with the late Rio de Flag, Angell-Winona phases (A.D. 1000 to 1100). This work added useful information to our understanding of the Sinagua in the Flagstaff region in the Preeruptive-Posteruptive period, just after the formation of Sunset Crater in A.D. 1064 to 1066.
    • The 1982-1984 Excavations at Las Colinas: Research Design [No. 162 Vol. 1]

      Heathington, Carol Ann; Gregory, David A. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1985)
      This volume presents the research design constructed to guide both the field work and analysis stages of the Las Colinas Project. It is the first in a series of seven volumes covering the project; the remaining volumes will document and interpret the substantive results of the research. The seven volumes are collectively designated as Arizona State Museum Archaeological Series 162. The Las Colinas Project was conducted by the Cultural Resource Management Division of the Arizona State Museum, under my direction. The work was performed under the provisions of Contract 82-10, Project I-10-2(86) with the Arizona Department of Transportation, and was sponsored by that agency, in cooperation with the Federal Highways Administration. In accordance with state and federal laws, the project was designed to mitigate the impacts to archaeological resources which would result from the construction of a segment of Interstate Highway 10. The primary focus of the project was on the large Sedentary and Clasic period Hohokam site of Las Colinas, AZ T:12:10 (ASM), but work was also undertaken at AZ T:12:38 (ASM), a much smaller site located within the freeway corridor and some 3 kilometers west of Las Colinas. Excavations at Las Colinas were accomplished during two field seasons, from September 1982 to April 1983, and from October 1983 to February 1984; the second field season was necessitated by the addition of some 10,000 square meters of new right-of-way to the project area, an alteration in the scope of work which occurred in April of 1983, as the originally proposed field work was nearing completion. Field studies of the canals and related features at the site were con- ducted during June and July of 1983 under the direction of Fred L. Nials. A field laboratory operated during both field seasons, and in-house analyses of the materials recovered began in February of 1983 and were completed in August of 1984. (Excerpt from Preface)
    • The Prehistoric Occupation of Voigt Mesa, Arizona: The 1983 TEP Springerville Project [No. 166]

      Schreiber, Katharina J.; Sullivan, Alan P., III (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1984)
      The 1983 TEP Springerville Project was conducted by the Cultural Resources Managment Division of the Arizona State Museum under contract to the Tucson Electric Power Company. The project was designed to mitigate the effects of the planned expansion of the fly ash disposal area along the south edge of Voigt Mesa, three miles west of the TEP Springerville Generating Station. The project area was and remains under the ownership of the State of Arizona. Archaeological investigations on this land were carried out under Arizona State Museum Permit Number 83-25. Preliminary survey of the project area by John Wilson (1983) located three sites requiring intensive study: two ceramic period rock shelters along the south margin of Voigt Mesa, and an Archaic period site on the mesa top. One additional Archaic period site was located on the mesa top during the course of the mitigation project. Because of the limited areal scope of the project, the research design for each site stressed its chronological placement, and the elucidation of intrasite variability reflecting activity areas, seasonality of occupation, and temporally and spatially discrete occupations. Analysis of the artifacts was aimed at describing variability in lithic reduction technology, and the temporal and cultural change reflected by this variability. The site on the mesa top yielded evidence for intermittent occupation during late Paleo-Indian times (Southern Cody complex, about 6600 to 6000 B.C.), possibly during the early Archaic period (Jay phase, about 5500 to 4800 B.C.), and during the late Archaic period (Armijo phase, about 1800 to 800 B.C.). Other sites on the mesa top exhibit similar evidence for intermittent occupation, although none was studied in detail during this mitigation project. The two rock shelters were occupied during late Basketmaker and Pueblo times, and correspond in date to a number of sites located during the Dead Valley archaeological project (Doyel and Debowski 1980).
    • An Archaeological Assessment of the Middle Santa Cruz River Basin, Rillito to Green Valley, Arizona, for the Proposed Tucson Aqueduct Phase B, Central Arizona Project [No. 164]

      Czaplicki, Jon S.; Mayberry, James D. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1983)
      This report presents the results of an intensive archaeological assessment of Phase B of the Tucson Division, Central Arizona Project. Because of the relatively large amount of survey data available for the Phase B area, the Bureau of Reclamation and the Arizona State Museum decided that in lieu of the additional field investigations usually expected at the class 2 level survey, an in-depth review and assessment of existing data in terms of Phase B alternatives would be more appropriate. The survey data were used to discuss the Paleo-Indian, Archaic, Hohokam, Protohistoric, and Historic periods in the Phase B area. Settlement patterning and subsistence strategies for these periods were studied, as were various models for prehistoric cultural development in the area. Against this background, the three proposed canal-pipeline alternatives and the two reservoir and two sump site alternatives were assessed in terms of their impacts on known and expected cultural resources. Routes B-1 and B-2, the Twin Hills Reservoir, and the Bopp Road sump site were determined to be the best choices because they would have fewer impacts on the cultural resource base. Finally, to help determine a research orientation for future Phase B cultural resource studies, various research problems were discussed for each of the above-mentioned periods.
    • An Archaeological Survey of the Cholla-Saguaro Transmission Line Corridor (Volume 1) [No. 135]

      Teague, Lynn S.; Mayro, Linda L.; Robertson, John F. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1979)
      The Arizona Public Service Cholla-Saguaro Transmission Line corridor extends from Red Rock to Joseph City, Arizona, a distance of about 386 kilometers (240 miles). The corridor, a transect 100.5 meters (330 feet) wide, is associated with numerous access roads. The Arizona State Museum began archaeological survey of the corridor in 1974; field work was completed in 1977. During that time, 158 archaeological sites were identified, representing occupation of the areas involved by a wide cultural and temporal range of prehistoric and historic occupants. During the later stages of the survey, Museum personnel worked closely with representatives of Arizona Public Service and the United States Forest Service in order to develop strategies for the avoidance of archaeologically sensitive areas, to monitor any construction near archaeological sites so that damage to sites could be avoided, and to develop a program of data recovery for the mitigation of information loss associated with unavoidable impacts. Later reports will contain the results of this data recovery study; this report focuses on the results of survey and inventory efforts. Because data recovery work was begun before completion of the survey itself, no effort has been made in this report to detail site-specific recommendations for protection and data recovery. These are included in a series of interim reports submitted to the United States Forest Service and now on file at the Tonto and Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest offices and at the Arizona State Museum. Instead, this report provides the archaeological information derived from the survey project, as well as results of early (1974) data recovery efforts within the southern portion of the corridor. It is hoped that this report, in conjunction with the later mitigation reports, will provide a coherent account of the results of these studies.
    • Archaeological Assessment of the Sells Vicinity, Papago Indian Reservation, Arizona [No. 131]

      Coe, Carol A. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1979)
      In July 1978 STRAAM Engineers, Inc., contracted with the Cultural Resource Management Section of the Arizona State Museum to prepare an assessment of archaeological resources in the vicinity of Sells, some 60 miles southwest of Tucson on the Papago Indian Reservation. An extensive review of literature on the Papagueria resulted in a discussion of environmental factors, culture history and previous research. A records check for the 12.75 square mile area around Sells defined as the project area resulted in an inventory of 18 sites previously recorded by the Western Archeological Center, National Park Service, Tucson, and by the Arizona State Museum. This inventory, in conjunction with site specific data for the project area, was used to identify archaeologically sensitive areas within the project boundaries. Recommendations for survey and monitoring were made for the areas to be affected by planned sewer facilities improvements. At the conclusion of this report a long term inventory survey is recommended for planning purposes.
    • The Archaeological Survey of the Northern Tucson 138 kV Transmission Line System: The Northern Tucson Basin and Lower Santa Cruz Valley, Arizona [No. 132]

      Rozen, Kenneth (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1979)
      In August 1978, an archaeological survey of the proposed Northern Tucson 138 kV Transmission Line System was conducted by the Cultural Resource Management Section of the Arizona State Museum, under the sponsorship of the Tucson Gas & Electric Company (TG&E). The rights-of-way of about 40 miles of existing and proposed transmission lines, extending from within the city of Tucson, Arizona, north to the vicinity of Red Rock, Arizona, and the site of the proposed Tortolita Substation were surveyed. Most of the region in which the transmission line system is located has not previously been subjected to archaeological investigation. As a result of the survey, eight areas of archaeological remains were identified; four were assigned Arizona State Museum site numbers. Two of the sites are interpreted as representing the remains of prehistoric agricultural activities, while one site is a historic trash dump; the significance of the prehistoric remains at the fourth site is uncertain. The four areas of archaeological materials that were not assigned site status include two sparse scatters of prehistoric artifacts, a sparse prehistoric and historic artifact scatter, and a small concentration of lithic artifacts that is interpreted as having been produced by the reduction of one or two cobbles. In addition, numerous isolated artifacts were found widely scattered along most of the transmission line rights-of-way. Included in this report are a description of the transmission line system facilities and of the methods by which they were surveyed. The environmental setting of the project area, including its physiography, climate, geology, flora, and fauna, is briefly discussed, and a review of its archaeological background presented. The archaeological remains discovered during the survey are described, and their significance briefly discussed. Recommendations for the management of the archaeological resources are provided, and an opinion given regarding their eligibility for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places and the Arizona State Register of Historic Places.