• The 1968 Excavations at Mound 8 Las Colinas Ruins Group, Phoenix, Arizona [No. 154]

      Hammack, Laurens C.; Sullivan, Alan P. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1981-09)
      This report describes the nature, extent, and results of archaeological excavations conducted at Mound 8 of the Las Colinas Ruins Group, Phoenix, Arizona. The excavations, undertaken in 1968, and subsequent analyses carried out during the following decade, were supervised by Laurens C. Hammack, then of the Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona. The Arizona State Museum excavations were authorized by the Arizona Department of Transportation as part of an annual Statewide Archaeological Contract between the two agencies. Las Colinas is a Classic period (A.D. 1100-1450) Hohokam site located between Interstate 17 and 27th Avenue, south of McDowell Road, in Phoenix. The site consists of a specially constructed platform mound, habitation structures, and assorted features. These prehistoric remains were damaged by the construction of a historic adobe house in the 1880s and by vandalism through the following years. Mound 8, and the remains in the immediate vicinity, are threatened by the proposed construction of a segment of Interstate 10 known as the Papago Freeway. Excavations focused on Mound 8, although the flat area east of the mound was tested; a single cremation area was discovered there. Habitation structures on and around the mound were excavated also. It was determined that the mound was composed of post-reinforced, adobe-walled cells and encircling walls that formed the core of the structure. Various additions were made to this core, the most notable of which was a massive, solid-adobe wall. The top of the mound was capped with a layer of adobe on four different occasions. At least 22 habitation structures, both pit houses and houses with solid-adobe walls, were discovered during the excavations. The range of structure morphology for any given period of occupation is much greater than that previously reported for other Classic period Hohokam sites. These and numerous other architectural features are discussed in this report. Substantial collections of ceramic, chipped stone, and ground stone artifacts were recovered. These assemblages were thoroughly analyzed. The methods and results of these analyses are reported in this volume. In addition, specialized analyses were performed on a wide range of materials recovered from the excavations. These analyses, described in appendices, pertain to human osteological remains, disposal of the dead, mammalian remains, bone artifacts, avian remains, shell artifacts, pollen identification, charcoal identification, and historic artifacts. A final appendix lists Arizona State Museum catalogue numbers for many of the artifacts and illustrations found in the volume.
    • The 1979-1983 Testing at Los Morteros (AZ AA:12:57 ASM), A Large Hohokam Village Site in the Tucson Basin [No. 177]

      Lange, Richard C.; Deaver, William L. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1989)
      Los Morteros (AZ AA:12:57 [ASM]) is a large Hohokam village site located at the northern end of the Tucson Mountains along the Santa Cruz River. Named for the bedrock mortars located near the center of the site, Los Morteros has a rich and varied history. Several phases of prehistoric occupation are suggested by ceramics representing the Colonial, Sedentary, and Classic periods (A.D. 500 to 1450). The range of features present is considerable, including cremation pits, pit houses, roasting pits, mounds, canals, petroglyphs, hill-side terraces (trincheras), a ballcourt, and the bedrock mortars. Spatially, th~ site covers a large area, but most features are clustered in a limited core area (Fig. 1.1). The area around Los Morteros has also been used during historical times (see Stein 1982). In this report reference to the historical period is limited to those events that bear directly on the site of Los Morteros, in particular the history of archaeological interest in the site. Our major concern is with the prehistoric components at Los Morteros. (excerpt from Introduction)
    • The 1982-1984 Excavations at Las Colinas: Research Design [No. 162 Vol. 1]

      Heathington, Carol Ann; Gregory, David A. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1985)
      This volume presents the research design constructed to guide both the field work and analysis stages of the Las Colinas Project. It is the first in a series of seven volumes covering the project; the remaining volumes will document and interpret the substantive results of the research. The seven volumes are collectively designated as Arizona State Museum Archaeological Series 162. The Las Colinas Project was conducted by the Cultural Resource Management Division of the Arizona State Museum, under my direction. The work was performed under the provisions of Contract 82-10, Project I-10-2(86) with the Arizona Department of Transportation, and was sponsored by that agency, in cooperation with the Federal Highways Administration. In accordance with state and federal laws, the project was designed to mitigate the impacts to archaeological resources which would result from the construction of a segment of Interstate Highway 10. The primary focus of the project was on the large Sedentary and Clasic period Hohokam site of Las Colinas, AZ T:12:10 (ASM), but work was also undertaken at AZ T:12:38 (ASM), a much smaller site located within the freeway corridor and some 3 kilometers west of Las Colinas. Excavations at Las Colinas were accomplished during two field seasons, from September 1982 to April 1983, and from October 1983 to February 1984; the second field season was necessitated by the addition of some 10,000 square meters of new right-of-way to the project area, an alteration in the scope of work which occurred in April of 1983, as the originally proposed field work was nearing completion. Field studies of the canals and related features at the site were con- ducted during June and July of 1983 under the direction of Fred L. Nials. A field laboratory operated during both field seasons, and in-house analyses of the materials recovered began in February of 1983 and were completed in August of 1984. (Excerpt from Preface)
    • The 1985 Excavations at the Hodges Site, Pima County, Arizona [No. 170]

      Layhe, Robert W. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986)
      In 1985 Pima County Department of Transportation contracted with the Cultural Resource Management Division of the Arizona State Museum to mitigate the adverse effects on the Hodges Site that would result from the renovation of Ruthrauff Road in northwestern Tucson, Arizona. Seventeen architectural features and numerous pit features were present. During the six-week period of data recovery 13 architectural features and 6 extramural features were excavated or sampled. The structures date from the Rillito phase to the Tanque Verde phase. In addition to the feature descriptions, this report presents detailed information on archival research, ceramics, chipped stone, small artifacts and ground stone, floral remains (flotation and pollen), mortuary treatment, and fauna! remains. The archival chapter and appendices present descriptive data from all the mortuary and architectural features excavated in the late 1930s by Isabel Kelly.
    • An Archaeological Assessment of the Middle Santa Cruz River Basin, Rillito to Green Valley, Arizona, for the Proposed Tucson Aqueduct Phase B, Central Arizona Project [No. 164]

      Czaplicki, Jon S.; Mayberry, James D. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1983)
      This report presents the results of an intensive archaeological assessment of Phase B of the Tucson Division, Central Arizona Project. Because of the relatively large amount of survey data available for the Phase B area, the Bureau of Reclamation and the Arizona State Museum decided that in lieu of the additional field investigations usually expected at the class 2 level survey, an in-depth review and assessment of existing data in terms of Phase B alternatives would be more appropriate. The survey data were used to discuss the Paleo-Indian, Archaic, Hohokam, Protohistoric, and Historic periods in the Phase B area. Settlement patterning and subsistence strategies for these periods were studied, as were various models for prehistoric cultural development in the area. Against this background, the three proposed canal-pipeline alternatives and the two reservoir and two sump site alternatives were assessed in terms of their impacts on known and expected cultural resources. Routes B-1 and B-2, the Twin Hills Reservoir, and the Bopp Road sump site were determined to be the best choices because they would have fewer impacts on the cultural resource base. Finally, to help determine a research orientation for future Phase B cultural resource studies, various research problems were discussed for each of the above-mentioned periods.
    • An Archaeological Assessment of the Proposed Catalina State Park [No. 141]

      Huckell, Lisa W. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1980-05)
      In April of 1980, the Cultural Resource Management Section (CRMS) of the Arizona State Museum (ASM) contracted with Arizona State Parks to provide an archaeological assessment of a portion of the proposed Catalina State Park lands. Approximately 9.7 square km (3.75 square miles) of the proposed park, which is located roughly 22 km (14 miles) north of Tucson, Arizona, were surveyed, and a records check and literature search were undertaken for the area. Two previous CRMS projects, the Rancho Romero reconnaissance (Roubicek, Cummings, and Hartmann 1973) and the Canada del Oro assessment (Brew 1975), had studied portions of the present project area, but to acquire the precise archaeological information required by Arizona State Park planners for the first phase of park development for public use, additional study of the area, especially in the form of survey work, was deemed mandatory. The archaeological survey that was conducted in conjunction with preparing the archaeological assessment resulted in the location of four previously unrecorded prehistoric sites (two camp sites, one resource- processing locality, and one agriculture-related water-control system); the relocation of known sites, with the correction of some erroneous site loca- tions; the definition of zones of moderate artifact density that will require additional investigation; and photographic documentation of all recent his- toric structures encountered in the project area. The literature search revealed seven previously recorded sites in the project area, some additional historical information on ranching activities in the vicinity, and sources that should produce more in-depth data for future studies. This report provides both a summary of the available information on the prehistoric and historic resources contained in the study area and recommendations regarding their management, and discusses the eligibility of various sites for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places and the Arizona State Register of Historic Places.
    • Archaeological Assessment of the Sells Vicinity, Papago Indian Reservation, Arizona [No. 131]

      Coe, Carol A. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1979)
      In July 1978 STRAAM Engineers, Inc., contracted with the Cultural Resource Management Section of the Arizona State Museum to prepare an assessment of archaeological resources in the vicinity of Sells, some 60 miles southwest of Tucson on the Papago Indian Reservation. An extensive review of literature on the Papagueria resulted in a discussion of environmental factors, culture history and previous research. A records check for the 12.75 square mile area around Sells defined as the project area resulted in an inventory of 18 sites previously recorded by the Western Archeological Center, National Park Service, Tucson, and by the Arizona State Museum. This inventory, in conjunction with site specific data for the project area, was used to identify archaeologically sensitive areas within the project boundaries. Recommendations for survey and monitoring were made for the areas to be affected by planned sewer facilities improvements. At the conclusion of this report a long term inventory survey is recommended for planning purposes.
    • Archaeological Excavations at AZ I:10:30 (ASM), A Sinagua Settlement: Townsend-Divide Unit I, U.S. Highway 89, Coconino County, Arizona [No. 169]

      Tagg, Martyn D.; Layhe, Robert W. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1985)
      This report describes and discusses archaeological data recovery at a Sinagua site (AZ 1:10:30, ASM) within an Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) right-of-way near Flagstaff, Arizona. A brief discussion of the research potential of the site and of the cultural history and natural setting of the region is provided. This is followed by feature descriptions, artifact analyses and results, and interpretations of the subsistance patterns, chronology, and external relationships of the inhabitants of the site. Specialized analyses are provided in four appendixes at the end of the report. The investigations at Townsend-Divide (AZ 1:10:30, ASM), involving excavations on a small portion of a larger site, revealed two pit houses and four burials associated with the late Rio de Flag, Angell-Winona phases (A.D. 1000 to 1100). This work added useful information to our understanding of the Sinagua in the Flagstaff region in the Preeruptive-Posteruptive period, just after the formation of Sunset Crater in A.D. 1064 to 1066.
    • Archaeological Investigations at AZ U:14:75 (ASM): A Turn-of-the-Century Pima Homestead [No. 172]

      Layhe, Robert W. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986)
      During June, 1986, the Cultural Resource Management Division of the Arizona State Museum conducted archaeological excavations for the Gila River Housing Authority at AZ U:14:75 (ASM) to mitigate the adverse effects that would occur to this turn-of-the-century Pima homestead as a result of a proposed housing project. A Pima round house, brush kitchen, and a possible ramada were excavated. In addition to the feature descriptions, detailed ethonohistorical information is provided. The report also contains information on historic artifacts, ceramics and restorable vessels, chipped stone, faunal remains, and abundant macrobotanical remains.
    • Archaeological Investigations in the Snowflake-Mesa Redonda Area, East-Central Arizona: The Apache-Navajo South Project [No. 173]

      Neily, Robert B. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1988)
      The Apache-Navajo South Project was conducted by the Cultural Resource Management Division (CRMD) of the Arizona State Museum under contract with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The project was designed to evaluate 20 parcels of public land comprising 10,369 acres in the southern part of Apache and Navajo counties, Arizona, that were being considered for possible disposal in conjunction with the Navajo-Hopi Land Exchange Program. An archaeological survey was conducted between August 27 and September 28, 1984, and 65 prehistoric sites, 3 historic sites, and a petroglyph site were recorded. A report was submitted to the BLM in January, 1985, documenting the results of this survey and outlining recommendations for the mitigation of impacts to these cultural resources. In June of 1985, a research design was submitted to the BLM for data recovery at five prehistoric sites dating between approximately A.D. 850 and 1250 and situated in four of the parcels designated for disposal. The emphasis of the research design was the documentation of prehistoric land use and subsistence patterns primarily in the upland regions of the Snowflake-Mesa Redonda area, where four of the sites were located. The fifth site, situated along a tributary wash of Millet Swale, was to provide a comparative data base on valley land-use patterns. The initial data recovery efforts at the five sites extended between July 22 and August 12 of 1985, with additional work being performed between September 10 and October 25, 1985. This report, in addition to summarizing the results of the 1984 survey, presents the results of the data recovery efforts at the five sites and a synthesis of the project. (excerpted from Preface)
    • Archaeological Investigations in West-Central Arizona: The Cyprus-Bagdad Project [No. 136]

      Linford, Laurance D. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1979)
      For ten weeks during the late spring and summer of 1976, the Arizona State Museum conducted data recovery operations at seven archaeological sites as part of the Cyprus-Bagdad Project. These sites were located within the right-of-way of a pipeline to be built by the Cyprus-Bagdad Copper Company, and were investigated in an effort to mitigate adverse impacts from pipeline construction. Research conducted within the project was directed primarily toward problems involving prehistoric adaptation to the local environ- ment. The analyzed data were applied to the testing of hypotheses regarding the relationship of site locations to local availability of water and to the locations of economically significant resources. Also tested were hypotheses intended to assess the importance of agriculture as a mode of subsistence for the area's prehistoric inhabitants. The data were also used to determine the functions of individ- ual project sites. Analysis indicates that these sites represent differing functions ranging from specialized activities such as 1ithic raw material procurement and wild plant food procurement and proces- sing to long-term habitation. At least one site possessed material remains that indicated its inhabitants practiced agriculture. Evi- dence from the project sites also suggests that the availability of water was perhaps the primary consideration of the area's prehistoric inhabitants in determining site location. The history of previous anthropological research and the cul- ture history of the project area are briefly discussed. All seven project sites are described in terms of their condition when discov- ered; morphology; environment; architectural and agricultural features; and chipped stone, ground stone, and ceramic assemblages. The appendices to this report discuss the cr i teria used in evaluating the various artifact assemblages and the location and composition of local source areas of lithic raw material.
    • An Archaeological Sample Survey of the Middle Santa Cruz River Basin, Picacho Reservoir to Tucson, Arizona: A Class II Survey of the Proposed Tucson Aqueduct Phase A, Central Arizona Project [No. 148]

      McCarthy, Carol Heathington (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1982)
      This report presents the results of the Class II (sample) survey of the Tucson Division of the Central Arizona Project. The survey was designed to test the predictive model developed as a part of the Class I (overview) survey of the project area (Westfall 1979). Statistical tests using the survey data show that the model was not particularly successful in predicting the location of cultural resources within the survey area and that it definitely underestimated the archaeological sensitivity of Zone 4, the creosote-bur sage community, which covers most of the project area. Although there was no significant difference in the frequency of sites between zones, the survey results suggest that Zone 3, which includes the desert wash systems of the area, is relatively higher in archaeological sensitivity. An alternate model based on topography and availability of water is evaluated using the survey data. This model may provide a more accurate approximation of site distribution. Finally, recommendations for selection of an aqueduct alignment or alignments and for future archaeological work are provided. As suggested by Westfall, the areas along major water sources such as the Santa Cruz River, McClellan, Brady, and possibly Durham washes, are high in archaeological sensitivity. More sites and larger, more complex sites are concentrated in these areas; construction in these areas should be minimized or avoided if possible. Additional archaeological studies should attempt to assess the relationships between sites, and to determine whether the topographic model proposed in this report may be a reliable predictor of site location. Further survey may permit refinement of this model, or may suggest an alternative which is a better estimator of site distribution. The necessary data concerning functional site types are not readily derived from surface observations, and model testing may await excavation of some sites in the area.
    • An Archaeological Survey of the Cholla-Saguaro Transmission Line Corridor (Volume 1) [No. 135]

      Teague, Lynn S.; Mayro, Linda L.; Robertson, John F. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1979)
      The Arizona Public Service Cholla-Saguaro Transmission Line corridor extends from Red Rock to Joseph City, Arizona, a distance of about 386 kilometers (240 miles). The corridor, a transect 100.5 meters (330 feet) wide, is associated with numerous access roads. The Arizona State Museum began archaeological survey of the corridor in 1974; field work was completed in 1977. During that time, 158 archaeological sites were identified, representing occupation of the areas involved by a wide cultural and temporal range of prehistoric and historic occupants. During the later stages of the survey, Museum personnel worked closely with representatives of Arizona Public Service and the United States Forest Service in order to develop strategies for the avoidance of archaeologically sensitive areas, to monitor any construction near archaeological sites so that damage to sites could be avoided, and to develop a program of data recovery for the mitigation of information loss associated with unavoidable impacts. Later reports will contain the results of this data recovery study; this report focuses on the results of survey and inventory efforts. Because data recovery work was begun before completion of the survey itself, no effort has been made in this report to detail site-specific recommendations for protection and data recovery. These are included in a series of interim reports submitted to the United States Forest Service and now on file at the Tonto and Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest offices and at the Arizona State Museum. Instead, this report provides the archaeological information derived from the survey project, as well as results of early (1974) data recovery efforts within the southern portion of the corridor. It is hoped that this report, in conjunction with the later mitigation reports, will provide a coherent account of the results of these studies.
    • The Archaeological Survey of the Northern Tucson 138 kV Transmission Line System: The Northern Tucson Basin and Lower Santa Cruz Valley, Arizona [No. 132]

      Rozen, Kenneth (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1979)
      In August 1978, an archaeological survey of the proposed Northern Tucson 138 kV Transmission Line System was conducted by the Cultural Resource Management Section of the Arizona State Museum, under the sponsorship of the Tucson Gas & Electric Company (TG&E). The rights-of-way of about 40 miles of existing and proposed transmission lines, extending from within the city of Tucson, Arizona, north to the vicinity of Red Rock, Arizona, and the site of the proposed Tortolita Substation were surveyed. Most of the region in which the transmission line system is located has not previously been subjected to archaeological investigation. As a result of the survey, eight areas of archaeological remains were identified; four were assigned Arizona State Museum site numbers. Two of the sites are interpreted as representing the remains of prehistoric agricultural activities, while one site is a historic trash dump; the significance of the prehistoric remains at the fourth site is uncertain. The four areas of archaeological materials that were not assigned site status include two sparse scatters of prehistoric artifacts, a sparse prehistoric and historic artifact scatter, and a small concentration of lithic artifacts that is interpreted as having been produced by the reduction of one or two cobbles. In addition, numerous isolated artifacts were found widely scattered along most of the transmission line rights-of-way. Included in this report are a description of the transmission line system facilities and of the methods by which they were surveyed. The environmental setting of the project area, including its physiography, climate, geology, flora, and fauna, is briefly discussed, and a review of its archaeological background presented. The archaeological remains discovered during the survey are described, and their significance briefly discussed. Recommendations for the management of the archaeological resources are provided, and an opinion given regarding their eligibility for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places and the Arizona State Register of Historic Places.
    • Archaeological Test Excavations in Southern Arizona [No. 152]

      Brew, Susan A. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1982)
    • The Archaic Occupation of the Rosemont Area, Northern Santa Rita Mountains, Southeastern Arizona [No. 147, Vol. 1]

      Huckell, Bruce B. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1984)
      This report describes and discusses data recovery operations at 10 Archaic sites within the ANAMAX-Rosemont land exchange area in the northern Santa Rita Mountains on the Coronado National Forest, south- eastern Arizona. The nature of the post-Paleo-Indian, preceramic occupation of the Southwestern region is briefly discussed, and use of the term "Archaic" to describe this occupation is justified. A general description of the upland or montane environmental setting of the Rosemont area is provided, and a brief discussion of paleoenvironmental conditions is presented. Theoretical foundations for the study of the sites as examples of the use of the area by prehistoric hunting- gathering societies are also stated, as are the principal research problem domains: the cultural and temporal affinities, and the subsistence-settlement systems reflected by the sites. Field methods are discussed, followed by specific descriptions of the results of investigations conducted at each site. The methods by which the artifact assemblages from the sites were analyzed are next presented, and the nature and composition of the artifact assemblage from each site is described in detail. Three periods of occupation: Early(?), Middle, and Late Archaic, are represented in these assemblages. Each of these periods is defined and discussed, and extensive comparisons of the artifact assemblages from the Rosemont sites with those recovered from sites elsewhere in the Southwest and surrounding areas are made. It is proposed that the Rosemont sites show close affinities to those elsewhere in the general Southwestern region, and that continued use of the Cochise culture as a subregional cultural-historical entity is inappropriate. Use of the phrase "Southwestern Archaic" is urged, in recognition of these close interregional relationships. Analysis of specific subsistence activities and settlement patterns represented by the Rosemont sites is undertaken. Statistical analyses of artifact assemblage composition suggest functionally differentiated site classes, correlable in certain instances to settlement location, resource distribution, and perhaps seasonality. Data from sites recorded by survey but not further investigated are added to the information from the 10 investigated sites, and a broader view of subsistence-settlement systems through time and the changing role of the Rosemont area in that framework are proposed. Finally, the value of smaller, open Archaic sites for the study of cultural-temporal and subsistence-settlement phenomena is affirmed, and suggestions for future research on the Southwestern Archaic are made.
    • The Arizona State Museum Cultural Resource Management Division Data Recovery Manual [No. 158]

      Teague, Lynn S. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1982)
      While the Cultural Resource Management Division (CRMD) of the Arizona State Museum (ASM) has had an official Survey Manual since 1980, it has not had a corresponding Data Recovery Manual. The need for such a manual has become increasingly apparent in recent years as the CRMD has conducted a growing number of projects involving collection and excavation of sites. This volume will satisfy that need. lt is not possible to present in one publication all of the information required to guide personnel in the field. For this reason the CRMD has adopted the Simon Fraser University Guide to Basic Archaeological Field Procedures (Fladmark 1980) as a standard background text for field techniques. The CRMD Data Recovery Manual will concentrate on specific technical procedures for intensive surface collection and site excavation in Southwestern contexts. The information presented in this manual should not be accepted as dogma. Every project is unique, and no single inflexible approach to all technical problems will be appropriate. Rather, the manual should be used for general guidance and should not stand in the way of project-specific decision making when this is called for. The CRMD Data Recovery Manual has been organized in a sequence comparable to that of the Simon Fraser Guide (SFG). Sections of the manual amend and add to the specific sections of the SFG. The ASM Survey Manual (Vogler 1980) serves this function for Chapter 1 of the SFG. Examples of standard forms are provided in the Data Recovery Manual along with instructions for their use. Although individual projects may require data not elicited by these forms, and the detail with which individual information classes are covered may vary, all information requested on these forms is essential to good basic recording. Some response should be made in each information category. (excerpt from the Introduction)
    • Arizona State Museum Style Guide (Second Edition) [No. 180]

      Gifford, Carol A.; Heathington, Carol Ann (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1989)
    • Copper Bell Trade Patterns in the Prehispanic U.S. Southwest and Northwest Mexico [No. 187]

      Vargas, Victoria D. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995)
      The nature and extent of interaction between prehispanic Mesoamerica and the U.S. Southwest and Northwest Mexico has been debated by archaeologists for decades. This work investigates interaction between these areas based upon the stylistic, temporal, and geographic distribution of copper bells in the North American Southwest. Copper bells (also called crotals) have been identified in the past as probable mesoamerican trade items which may have been used as prestige goods. The copper bell inventory is used as the primary data set in the distributional analyses in Chapter 5 and builds upon past inventories by Pendergast (1962a) and Sprague and Signori (1963). Previously undocumented copper bells are added to these inventories. The updated inventory contains 622 bells from 93 sites from the U.S. Southwest and Northwest Mexico and is presented in Chapter 4. The possible origin(s) of these copper bells is also addressed in this study. The evidence presented by Di Peso et al. (1974) for copper production at Paquime, also known as Casas Grandes, in Northwest Chihuah~ Mexico is evaluated. West Mexico, known as a copper producing area, is also considered as a possible origin of bells found at sites in the U.S. Southwest and Northwest Mexico. (Excerpt from Introduction)
    • Echoes in the Canyons: The Archaeology of the Southeastern Sierra Ancha, Central Arizona [No. 198]

      Lange, Richard C.; Ciolek-Torrello, Richard S.; Huckell, Lisa W.; Teague, Lynn S.; Virden-Lange, Christine H. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2006)