Estimating surface orientation from microfacet Mueller matrix bidirectional reflectance distribution function models in outdoor passive imaging polarimetry
AffiliationUniv Arizona, Coll Opt Sci
polarized light scattering
Mueller matrix bidirectional reflectance distribution function
bidirectional reflectance distribution matrix
bidirectional polarized reflectance distribution function
multiangle spectropolarimetric imager
MetadataShow full item record
CitationMeredith Kupinski, Christine Bradley, David Diner, Feng Xu, and Russell Chipman "Estimating surface orientation from microfacet Mueller matrix bidirectional reflectance distribution function models in outdoor passive imaging polarimetry," Optical Engineering 58(8), 082416 (25 April 2019). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.58.8.082416
RightsCopyright © The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License.
Collection InformationThis item from the UA Faculty Publications collection is made available by the University of Arizona with support from the University of Arizona Libraries. If you have questions, please contact us at email@example.com.
AbstractRepresentative examples from 3 years of measurements from JPL’s ground-based multiangle spectropolarimetric imager (GroundMSPI) are compared to a Mueller matrix bidirectional reflectance distribution function (mmBRDF). This mmBRDF is used to model polarized light scattering from solar illuminated surfaces. The camera uses a photoelastic-modulator-based polarimetric imaging technique to measure linear Stokes parameters in three wavebands (470, 660, and 865 nm) with a ±0.005 uncertainty in degree of linear polarization. GroundMSPI measurements are made over a range of scattering angles determined from a fixed viewing geometry and varying sun positions over time. This microfacet mmBRDF model predicts an angle of the linear polarization that is consistently perpendicular to the scattering plane and therefore is only appropriate for rough surface types. The model is comprised of a volumetric reflection term plus a specular reflection term of Fresnel-reflecting microfacets. The following modifications to this mmBRDF model are evaluated: an apodizing shadowing function, a Bréon or Gaussian microfacet scattering density function, and treating the surface orientation as an additional model parameter in the specular reflection term. The root-mean-square error (RMSE) between the GroundMSPI measurements and these various forms of the microfacet mmBRDF model is reported. Four example scenes for which a shadowed-Bréon microfacet mmBRDF model yields realistic estimates of surface orientation, and the lowest RMSE among other model options are shown.
NoteOpen access article
VersionFinal published version
SponsorsNational Science FoundationNational Science Foundation (NSF) [CHE-1313892]; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Jet Propulsion Laboratories under University of Arizona; National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNational Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA)
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Copyright © The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
The development of electroactive total internal reflection integrated optical waveguide and total internal reflection fluorescence devices for the characterization of metalloprotein filmsSaavedra, S. Scott; Robertson, Rebecca (The University of Arizona., 2002)Orientation distributions of redox active films that correlate with an electron transfer behavior were reported for the first time using electroactive total internal reflection fluorescence spectroscopy (EA-TIRF) and electroactive integrated optical waveguide (EA-IOW) absorbance technology developed here. The mean tilt angle and the angular distribution about the mean were recovered using a Gaussian model. Previous anisotropy calculations were only possible using a theoretical approach (Hansen's model). In the work presented here, a novel method was developed that was based on experimental measurements. This method used Fresnel's equations and Snell's law to determine the relative polarized electric field intensity at the interface of the EA-TIRF substrate. Optically transparent semiconductor surfaces of indium tin oxide (ITO) were used as the adlayer for EA-TIRF and EA-IOW devices. The ITO surface morphology, optical and conduction properties were characterized. The ITO was found to have adequate conduction, optical and surface morphology properties for molecular orientation distribution measurements. The results indicated the ITO morphology contributes a minimal degree of error to the calculated distribution. Surface-bound films of model methylene blue were used to characterize the EA-TIRF and EA-IOW techniques prior to the investigation of horse heart cytochrome c. The studies demonstrated potential control of redox active adsorbed films. The mean tilt angle and the angular distribution about that mean were successfully determined. In addition, the studies of the methylene blue films indicated the possibility of orientation-dependent quenching (the loss of an electron from the excited state LUMO to the ITO semiconductor conduction band). Studies of the cytochrome c films indicated anisotropic submonolayers electrostatically bound to the negative ITO surface. Cyclic voltammetry measurements showed the films to be electroactive, exhibiting quasi-reversible electrochemistry. An average tilt angle and the orientation distribution about the angle, as a function of potential, were reported for horse heart cytochrome c. This potential-dependent orientation distribution of submonolayer films is reported for the first time.
Press Reflections From 1976 to 1983: Public Opinion of the American Press as Reflected in Motion Pictures of the PeriodLee, Sonja (The University of Arizona., 1985)
Models and validation measurements of bidirectional reflectance factor for diffuse reflecting materialsBiggar, Stuart F.; Slater, Philip N.; Walker, Joe Alan, 1945- (The University of Arizona., 1998)A physical model developed from scattering theory by Hapke was applied to bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) measurement data for several diffuse reflecting materials. All of the material samples were some form of polytetrafluoroethelyne (PTFE) powder. The solar illuminated diffuser for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was one of the samples. The BRF was characterized in seven wavelength bands, covering a spectral range of 400 nm to 2100 nm. The BRFs were determined, using the Santa Barbara Remote Sensing (SBRS) scattering goniopolarimeter, by measuring all four linear polarization components and using those measurements in the BRF equations of Clarke. The scattering goniopolarimeter was carefully characterized in a series of measurements. It was calibrated by comparing BRF measurements to the BRF calibration values of a reflectance standard. A detailed error analysis was done. The uncertainties for each of the four polarization components was considered individually, and then combined to obtain the total estimated uncertainty in the BRF values. The mean-square errors of the measured BRF sample averages were compared to the estimated uncertainties. Results of BRF evaluations and the measurement uncertainties for the different diffusers are presented. A study of several variations of the Hapke scattering model was made. The models were successfully applied to each of the four polarization components of BRF, in addition to the unpolarized BRF. The quality of the models was evaluated using the "root-mean-square of the fit" merit function, RMSf The simplest Hapke model gave RMSf values from two percent down to less than one percent, but the vegetation canopy form of the Hapke model gave higher RMSf values, from six to ten percent. The Henyey-Greenstein single scattering phase function, even when used in the simplest Hapke model, gave RMSf values between two and eight percent, whereas Legendre polynomial phase functions resulted in RMSf values of less than one percent. Equations with an additional forward scatter term usually made a slight improvement, on the order of one to two tenths of a percent. To obtain a representative model, at least two sets of BRF data at different incidence angles were needed.