• A comparison of drills for direct seeding alfalfa into established grasslands

      Waddington, J. (Society for Range Management, 1992-09-01)
      Information is presented on the suitability of various drills for direct seeding into permanent pastures and rangelands in Saskatchewan. Strips of sod 30 to 100-cm wide were killed during the growing season by glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl] glycine) in grazing lands at several sites in Saskatchewan. Six drills: 1 with a powered disk furrow opener, 2 with hoe openers, and 3 with rolling disk openers were used to seed measured amounts of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed in the killed strips in late fall of the same year or early the subsequent spring. Drill performance was assessed during the seeding operation, and emerged seedlings were counted early the following growing season. Seedling emergence ranged from near 0 to 48% of seed sown. Soil moisture conditions in early spring, which in turn were a function of winter precipitation, were a major limitation on seed germination. All of the furrow-opening mechanisms were capable of placing seed at a suitable depth for successful establishment in some situations. The best seedling emergence was obtained with drills having each opener suspended independently with sufficient weight to penetrate dead thatch and hard ground, and with mechanisms to control seeding depth and pack the soil around the seeds.
    • Animal and plant response on renovated pastures in western Canada

      McCartney, D. H.; Waddington, J.; Lefkovitch, L. P. (Society for Range Management, 1999-01-01)
      Extending the present 4 month grazing season in the Aspen parklands of western Canada is of major economic interest to cow-calf producers. A long-term experiment was conducted on 375 ha to compare the present practice of continuous grazing with no fertilizer to a rotational grazing system of 4 paddocks fertilized in alternate years with 90 kg N, 45 kg P2O5, 10 kg S ha-1 and a 6 paddocks rotational grazing system including fertilizing and species replacement by cultivation and reseeding. Compared to the continuously-grazed control, the grazing period was extended by 14-days on the 4-paddock rotation system, and by a further 15-days on the 6-paddock rotation system, divided about equally between spring and fall. Forage yield, cow weight gains and calf growth were significantly improved, and year-to-year variation in forage yield and animal weight gain was reduced. In the 6-paddock rotation system, breaking 1 paddock at a time in summer after grazing, and reseeding the following spring caused no noticeable reduction in grazing capacity. Replacing the bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.) dominated vegetation in 1 of the 6 paddocks with an early-growing grass contributed to the grazing season extension. Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.) performed well in this role; Russian wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea (Fisch.) Nevski) died out within 6 years of seeding.
    • Effects of management on species dynamics of Canadian aspen parkland pastures

      Waddington, J.; McCartney, D. H.; Lefkovitch, L. P. (Society for Range Management, 1999-01-01)
      The effects of grazing, fertilizing, and seeding on persistence of herbaceous species was monitored by point quadrat about every second year from 1975 to 1989 in a low-fertility pasture in the aspen parkland vegetation zone of east-central Saskatchewan, Canada. Ground cover response to continuous grazing was contrasted with that of 4- and 6-paddock rotationally-grazed areas fertilized in the fall of every other year with 90 kg N, 45 kg P2O5, 10 kg S ha-1. The original vegetation in 2 paddocks of the 6-paddock system was replaced with Russian wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea (Fisch.) Nevski) in 1976, and in 1 of the other 4 paddocks in turn with smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.)-alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in 1979 and 1981, crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.) in 1983, and a meadow brome (Bromus riparius Rehm.)-alfalfa mix in 1985. Initially, smooth brome and creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) dominated the vegetation with ground cover estimates of 10-20% and 40-60%, respectively. Alfalfa ground cover was less than 1%. With the changes in management, Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) replaced creeping red fescue. Alfalfa increased until 1980 and then declined to its original level, apparently in response to precipitation trends. Russian wildrye almost died out and was replaced by brome and Kentucky bluegrass. Reseeding with smooth bromegrass-alfalfa did not consistently increase brome ground cover beyond that obtained by rotational grazing and fertilization, and increased alfalfa only temporarily. Cultivation during the summer before spring seeding resulted in partial recovery of the old vegetation and invasion by Kentucky blue-grass. Total ground cover varied from year to year in response to spring precipitation. Forbs usually increased after reseeding, but declined to their original levels within 5 years.
    • Seeding blue grama in old crested wheatgrass fields in southwestern Saskatchewan

      Bakker, J. D.; Christian, J.; Wilson, S. D.; Waddington, J. (Society for Range Management, 1997-03-01)
      Crested wheatgrass [Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.] fields have low plant diversity and a limited grazing season. We tested whether blue grama [Bouteloua gracilis (HBK.) Lag.] could be established in crested wheatgrass fields to increase plant diversity and grazing season length. Three seeding methods (unseeded, seed broadcast after rototilling, or seed drilled) and 2 herbicide treatments (none or glyphosate [N (phosphonomethyl)-glycine] sprayed at 1.1 kg a.iha-1) were applied in a complete factorial design to 3 X 10 m plots in 1994 in two 50 year-old crested wheatgrass stands. Blue grama established in seeded plots, but the effectiveness of seeding methods varied between sites. At both sites, herbicide control of crested wheatgrass greatly promoted the establishment of blue grama. Crested wheatgrass biomass and cover were reduced by rototilling and by spraying. The results suggest that the establishment of blue grama in crested wheatgrass stands is possible if seed is added and competition from crested wheatgrass is controlled.