• 14 Years of Rabbitbrush Control in Central Oregon

      Mohan, J. M. (Society for Range Management, 1973-11-01)
      Fourteen years (1956 to 1970) of chemical control for rubber and green rabbitbrush using the ester forms of 2,4-D produced consistent control, ranging from 85 to 98% on rubber rabbitbrush. The amount of new twig growth, soil moisture, rate and methods of application, total seasonal twig growth, and subsequent drought conditions proved critical for effective kills. Selective kills were achieved by manipulation of these factors. Site potential and response to changes that result from chemical control must be recognized. "Drainage Effect" is a complex of thermal drafts, topography, and soil differences that can adversely influence the percentage of rabbitbrush control achieved.
    • 14- Vs. 42-Paddock Rotational Grazing: Aboveground Biomass Dynamics, Forage Production, and Harvest Efficiency

      Heitschmidt, R. K.; Dowhower, S. L.; Walker, J. W. (Society for Range Management, 1987-05-01)
      Research was initiated at the Texas Experimental Ranch in 1981 to quantify the effects of 2 stocking densities, equivalent to 14- and 42-paddock rotational grazing (RG) treatments, on aboveground biomass dynamics, aboveground net primary production (ANPP), and harvest efficiency of forage. Baseline data were collected in 1981 from 3 adjacent 30-ha paddocks in a 14-paddock, cell designed RG treatment. Near the beginning of the 1982 growing season the center paddock was subdivided into three, 10-ha paddocks to establish the RG-42 treatment. Stocking densities in the 14- and 42-paddock treatments were 4.2 and 12.5 AU/ha, respectively, from March 1982 to June 1984 and 3.0 and 9.1 AU/ha from June to November 1984. During 1981, estimated ANPP in the two RG-14 paddocks averaged 4,088 kg/ha as compared to 5,762 in the single RG-42 paddock. Following subdivision, ANPP in the RG-14 paddocks averaged 2,533 kg/ha as compared to 2,670 kg/ha in the RG-42 paddocks. Although ANPP varied significantly among the 4 years of the study it was not affected by density treatment. Likewise, harvest efficiency varied among years but was unaffected by density treatment. Average harvest efficiency over the 4 years was about 42%. Aboveground biomass dynamics were also generally unaffected by density treatments.
    • 14- Vs. 42-Paddock Rotational Grazing: Forage Quality

      Heitschmidt, R. K.; Dowhower, S. L.; Walker, J. W. (Society for Range Management, 1987-07-01)
      Research was initiated at the Texas Experimental Ranch in 1981 to quantify the effects of 2 livestock densities on forage quality in a rotational grazing (RG) treatment. Livestock densities evaluated were equivalent to 14 and 42-paddock RG treatments. Baseline data were collected in 1981 from 3 adjacent 30-ha paddocks in a 465-ha, 14-paddock, cell designed RG treatment stocked at a rate of 3.6 ha/cow/year. Near the beginning of the 1982 growing season the center paddock was subdivided into three, 10-ha paddocks to establish the RG-42 treatment. Herbage standing crop was harvested before and after each grazing event during the 40-month period, separated by species or species group into live and dead tissue, and each fraction analyzed for percentage crude protein (CP) and organic matter digestibility (OMD). Livestock density had minimial effect on forage quality. Live tissue was of higher quality than senesced tissue regardless of plant species. Increases and decreases in overall quality during grazing periods were positively associated with rates of plant growth. Number of periods when forage quality increased or decreased during grazing and magnitude of change were unaffected by treatment. Lack of significant treatment effects on forage quality is attributed to the general absence of significant treatment effects on forage production, species composition, and live/dead ratios.
    • 1990 President's Address: SRM Today and Tomorrow

      Bedell, Thomas E. (Society for Range Management, 1990-03-01)
    • 30 Years of Vegetal Change Following Burning of Sagebrush-Grass Range

      Harniss, R. O.; Murray, R. B. (Society for Range Management, 1973-09-01)
      A sagebrush-grass range was burned according to plan in 1936. Long-term results show that sagebrush yields have increased while most other important shrub, grass, and forb yields have decreased. Evaluation by subspecies of sagebrush was helpful in interpreting sagebrush behavior. The return of sagebrush shows the need for planning sagebrush control on a continuing basis for maximum forage qualities.
    • A 3-Year Evaluation of Taste Aversion Coyote Control in Saskatchewan

      Gustavson, C. R.; Jowsey, J. R.; Milligan, D. N. (Society for Range Management, 1982-01-01)
      Taste aversion programs using lithium chloride (LiCl) in sheep baits and carcasses have been applied in Washington to one sheep herd for 2 years; applications have been made in California and in Saskatchewan on 46 herds over 3 years. Ten of these 46 herds were available for statistical analysis, indicating a significant reduction in the percent of sheep lost to coyotes. All applications have suggested reduced sheep losses to coyotes (Canis latrans). This method of predation control may cost less than traditional techniques, save sheep, and should allow coyotes to carry out positive functions in the ecosystem.
    • A Basis for Conservation Lease of Rangeland on the Edwards Plateau

      Huss, D. L. (Society for Range Management, 1955-09-01)
    • A Behavioral Study of Angora Goats on West Texas Range

      Askins, G. D.; Turner, E. E. (Society for Range Management, 1972-03-01)
      Behavior of four Angora goats was studied in sixteen observation periods for four seasons on a west Texas range. The goats consistently fed during two definite daylight feeding periods: (a) early morning, and (b) late afternoon to dusk. Bedding generally occurred whenever darkness became evident and little or no feeding activity was observed between that time and daybreak. The four goats differed somewhat in their behavioral activities, but were remarkably similar in their vegetation preference. Seasonal difference seemed to have an important effect upon both vegetative preference and behavioral activities./Cuatro cabras fueron marcadas y sus actividades fueron observadas a través del año. Las cabras mostraron un patrón de actividades sistemático a través del año. Empezaron el día levantándose y rumiando por un tiempo breve, seguido por una época de pastoreo de tres horas, luego por 30 minutos de descanso y después pastoreo otra vez hasta mediodía. Tomaron agua y descansaron en la sombra durante medio día hasta tres horas antes de la puesta del sol. Comieron otra vez por tres horas o sea hasta en la noche cuando tomaron agua otra vez y comieron sal, seguido por descanso por toda la noche. Aproximadamente de 34.4% de su tiempo de pastoreo fué con gramíneas y 65.6% fué ramoneo. Parece ser que las estaciones del año tienen un importante efecto en la preferencia del forraje pastoreado, y las actividades de las cabras.
    • A Capacitance Meter for Estimating Forage Weight

      Fletcher, J. E.; Robinson, M. E. (Society for Range Management, 1956-03-01)
    • A Case Study for Optimal Allocation of Range Resources

      D'Aquino, S. A. (Society for Range Management, 1974-05-01)
      A linear programming model was developed to help in the management of range resource systems. This analysis simultaneously considers per acre management costs and resulting per animal gross revenues. The management plan sets out a season-by-season use of land areas and associated forage resources with the objective of maximizing net dollar returns. Procedures developed in this study may also be applied to public resource management problems.
    • A Challenge to Stockmen and Range Officials

      Savage, D. A. (Society for Range Management, 1951-05-01)
    • A chamber design for measuring net CO2 exchange on rangeland

      Angell, R.; Svejcar, T. (Society for Range Management, 1999-01-01)
      Net carbon exchange of terrestrial ecosystems will likely change as atmospheric CO2 concentration increases. Currently, little is known of the annual dynamics or magnitude of CO2 flux on many native and agricultural ecosystems. Remoteness of many ecosystems has limited our ability to measure CO2 flux on undisturbed vegetation. Today, many plant ecologists have portable photosynthesis systems with which they make single-leaf photosynthesis measurements. Utility of this equipment is enhanced when canopy-level CO2 flux is also measured. We designed a portable 1-m3 closed chamber for use in measuring CO2 exchange in short statured vegetation with widely varied canopy structure. The design includes external ductwork equipped with doors which are used to open the chamber for ventilation with outside air between measurements. The chamber was tested on a Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. Wyomingensis Nutt.)/Thurber's needlegrass (Stipa thurberiana Piper) community using 10 plots equally divided between shrub and interspace. The ductwork and doors provided adequate ventilation to allow consecutive measurements of CO2 flux without removing the chamber from the plot. The chamber could differentiate CO2 flux between plots with sagebrush and those with grass only, even at relatively low fluxes. Net CO2 uptake per unit ground area was greater (P = 0.04) on sagebrush-grass plots (7.6 +/- 1.4 micromoles m-2 s-1) than on interspace plots without sagebrush (3.1 +/- 1.0 micromole m-2 s-1). Chamber and leaf temperature increased by an average of 0.5 and 1.2 degrees C, respectively, during measurements.
    • A Chemical-Fallow Technique for Control of Downy Brome and Establishment of Perennial Grasses on Rangeland

      Eckert, R. E.; Evans, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1967-01-01)
      Downy brome was controlled with three soil-active herbicides: atrazine, EPTC, and IPC. Seedings were made 1 year after herbicide application. If fallow were effective during this year, soil moisture was conserved. Seeding in deep furrows resulted in superior seedling stands and greater 2nd and 3rd year production than did surface drilling. Performance of Amur intermediate wheatgrass was superior to Standard crested and Topar pubescent wheatgrasses.
    • A Comparative Study of Soils of Selected Creosotebush Sites in Southern New Mexico

      Valentine, K. A.; Norris, J. J. (Society for Range Management, 1964-01-01)
    • A Comparison of Average Variable Costs of Private vs. Public Land Ranches in Southeastern Montana

      Lacey, J. R.; Workman, J. P. (Society for Range Management, 1986-07-01)
      A study was conducted in southeastern Montana to determine the effects of federal range grazing on cattle ranch average variable operating costs per animal unit. Data were obtained through personal interviews in 1980 with 68 ranches in six southeastern Montana counties. T-tests were used to determine if the average variable costs per animal unit were less on ranches that rely on federal ranges than on ranches that do not. Annual variable costs per animal unit averaged $158 and $144, respectively, for ranches obtaining 0-4% and 5-51% of total forage from federal lands. However, this difference was not statistically significant. Regression analysis did indicate that variable costs per animal unit were significantly affected by the percentage of total ranch income from crop sales.
    • A Comparison of Continuous and Rotational Grazing

      Walton, P. D.; Martinez, R.; Bailey, A. W. (Society for Range Management, 1981-01-01)
      Continuous and rotational grazing of a brome-alfalfa-creeping red fescue pasture was compared at the University of Alberta Ranch in 1975, 1976, 1977, and 1978. Productivity, in terms of animal weight gain and dry-matter consumption, was studied together with changes in the sward composition. In 1977 and 1978 the weight gains from the rotationally grazed areas were nearly double those obtained from continuous grazing (218 vs 119 kg/ha). The percentage by weight of alfalfa in the sward increased under rotational grazing from 23 to 47%. The herbage in the rotationally grazed field was more digestible and contained more calcium, magnesium, copper, and crude protein than did that in the continuously grazed area. Animals in the continuously grazed fields spent 2.4 hours longer per day grazing than did the animals which were rotationally grazed.
    • A Comparison of Crested Wheatgrass and Native Grass Mixtures Seeded on Rangeland in Eastern Montana

      McWilliams, J. L.; Van Cleave, P. E. (Society for Range Management, 1960-03-01)
    • A comparison of drills for direct seeding alfalfa into established grasslands

      Waddington, J. (Society for Range Management, 1992-09-01)
      Information is presented on the suitability of various drills for direct seeding into permanent pastures and rangelands in Saskatchewan. Strips of sod 30 to 100-cm wide were killed during the growing season by glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl] glycine) in grazing lands at several sites in Saskatchewan. Six drills: 1 with a powered disk furrow opener, 2 with hoe openers, and 3 with rolling disk openers were used to seed measured amounts of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed in the killed strips in late fall of the same year or early the subsequent spring. Drill performance was assessed during the seeding operation, and emerged seedlings were counted early the following growing season. Seedling emergence ranged from near 0 to 48% of seed sown. Soil moisture conditions in early spring, which in turn were a function of winter precipitation, were a major limitation on seed germination. All of the furrow-opening mechanisms were capable of placing seed at a suitable depth for successful establishment in some situations. The best seedling emergence was obtained with drills having each opener suspended independently with sufficient weight to penetrate dead thatch and hard ground, and with mechanisms to control seeding depth and pack the soil around the seeds.
    • A Comparison of Esophageal Fistula and Fecal Material to Determine Steer Diets

      Vavra, M.; Rice, R. W.; Hansen, R. M. (Society for Range Management, 1978-01-01)
      Cattle diets were determined by esophageal fistula and fecal material collection procedures from yearling cattle grazing shortgrass range in northeastern Colorado. Diets were quantified by microhistological procedures from samples collected in June, July, August, and December of 1969; and June, July, and August of 1970. Total grasses occurred significantly less in esophageal samples, while total forbs were significantly lower in fecal samples. Individual grass species did not appear to follow a set pattern of variation from esophageal to fecal sampling; some were greater in fecal samples while others were greater in fistula samples. Forbs occurred at greater percentages in fistula samples, with the exception of burning bush (Kochia scoparia) in 1969. Correlation and regression analysis revealed little relationship in botanical composition determined on fecal and esophageal samples. However, an importance value ranking revealed esophageal and fecal samples were similar when individual species were ranked from the most common to the least common in the diet.
    • A Comparison of Factors that Affect Ranching Profits

      Bredemeier, L. F. (Society for Range Management, 1970-09-01)
      To evaluate the impact of income and expense factors for beef cow-calf operations, 39 factors were identified. Using these, eight were evaluated independently for impact. A $10.00 difference in net return per cow resulted from the following changes: 57.2 pounds selling weight per calf; 3.6 cents per pound of calf weight sold; 10.3 percent calf crop; $4.02 per ton for hay; 12.2 months of pasture versus hay with hay at $14.00 per ton or 4.1 months with hay at $18.00 per ton; .2 animal unit months per acre in stocking rate; $25.30 per acre grazing land value; and $9.04 tax per animal unit. The input required to produce these changes and others related thereto must be assessed for each individual case before making resource use decisions for increasing income.