• Back to the Future: Forest Service Rangeland Research and Management

      Mitchell, John E.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; Patton-Mallory, Marcia (Society for Range Management, 2005-06-01)
    • Badlands on the Brink! Is Wilderness Designation the Answer?

      Olsen, LaDean (Society for Range Management, 1994-10-01)
    • Bahiagrass Regrowth and Physiological Aging

      Sampaio, E. V. S. B.; Beaty, E. R.; Ashley, D. A. (Society for Range Management, 1976-07-01)
      Pensacola Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge) grows by adding new phytomers to the terminal ends of vegetative stolons. A new phytomer and its attached leaf is added on average each 7 to 12 days during growth as long as the tiller is vegetative. The new leaf is supplied with energy primarily for the first 2 to 3 days of growth and, from 3 days of age until fully expanded at 12 days, photosynthates are retained by the leaf. After 12 days, exports are made to other sinks in the sheath, stolon, root, and new tillers. An investigation was completed in which (a) shoot growth (leaves) of plants fertilized with 0, 100, or 300 kg/ha of N were measured for length and clipped at the top of the stolon daily or weekly until the stolons died, (b) photosynthesis rate of leaves of different ages was determined, and (c) photosynthesis was correlated with leaf chlorophyll, and N content by weeks. Thirteen weeks of daily or weekly clipping were required to kill the stolons and regrowth amounted to 749 to 850 kg/ha of dry leaves. Total length of shoot regrowth per square meter ranged between 13 to 22 m for the 13 weeks and was negatively related to N application rate. Photosynthesis started dropping after approximately 25 days, but leaf N and chlorophyll contents were relatively stable for the first 45 days. After 45 days of age all three factors declined rapidly until leaf death occurred 60 ± 6 days after initiation. Stolons live much longer than do leaves.
    • Balance of Ration Nutrients and Efficiency of Feed Utilization by Ruminants. A Review.

      McCullough, M. E. (Society for Range Management, 1955-03-01)
    • Balancing Biodiversity and Food Production: A Better Understanding of Wildlife Response to Grazing Will Inform Off-Reserve Conservation on Rangelands

      Neilly, H.; Vanderwal, J.; Schwarzkopf, L. (Society for Range Management, 2016)
      Protected areas are essential, but not sufficient on their own, to conserve biodiversity into the future. Rangelands, used primarily for livestock grazing, have the potential to complement existing reserve systems and be used for "off-reserve" conservation. Success relies on our ability to manage rangelands to simultaneously achieve positive economic outcomes for graziers while maintaining the ecological processes that support biodiversity. However, we argue that research has failed to effectively inform off-reserve conservation strategies, particularly in relation to vertebrate fauna. Most research has focused on the difference in faunal diversity between ungrazed and heavily grazed areas, but faunal responses between these extremes have received less attention. In reality, moderate levels of grazing seem more likely to achieve the ecological, economic and social balance that would be required for successful offreserve conservation on rangelands. Here we review the current knowledge on the impact of grazing by domestic livestock on terrestrial vertebrate fauna in rangelands, highlighting the relative lack of research on the impact of grazing regimes between the extremes. We argue that a more detailed understanding of vertebrate responses to different grazing intensities is required. Furthermore, if the potential for off-reserve conservation on rangelands is to be realized, graziers need management advice based on the integration of ecological, economic, and social data. © 2016 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of The Society for Range Management. All rights reserved.
    • Balancing Livestock Numbers, Feed and Forage on Ranching Units

      Rasmussen, Leroy H. (Society for Range Management, 1958-07-01)
    • Balancing Livestock with Range Forage and Harvested Feed in South Dakota

      Albee, L. (Society for Range Management, 1957-11-01)
    • Barb Goatgrass: A Threat to California Rangelands

      Peters, A.; Johnson, D. E.; George, M. R. (Society for Range Management, 1996-02-01)
    • Barbwire Russian Thistle Seed Germination

      Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1979-09-01)
      Barbwire Russian thistle (Salsola paulsenii) is the dominant species of severely degraded plant communities in the most arid portions of the Great Basin. The seed germination of this alien annual plant was compared with that of common Russian thistle (S. iberica). In general, the two species of Salsola have similar germination characteristics. However, there were important differences that apparently favor barbwire Russian thistle in arid environments. These advantages were (a) less restrictive after-ripening requirements that allow some germination at a broader range of temperature sooner after maturity, (b) more rapid germination at low temperatures during the first 10 days of incubation, and (c) dehiscence of seeds without the necessity of the plants uprooting and tumbling.
    • Barrier Effect of the Shrub Elaeagnus commutata on Grazing Cattle and Forage Production in Central Alberta

      Bailey, A. W. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      Excellent condition range occurred under silverberry shrubs while fair to good condition range occurred between shrubs. The herbaceous layer dominants, rough fescue and western porcupine grass, produced nearly twice as much under shrubs. Forb increasers had a lower frequency and produced less herbage under shrubs. Silverberry is an increaser but the barrier effect it has on grazing cattle permitted a small patch of grassland directly beneath each shrub to return to near-climax condition.
    • Barriers to Successful Drought Management: Why Do Some Ranchers Fail to Take Action?

      Dunn, Barry; Smart, Alexander; Gates, Roger (Society for Range Management, 2005-04-01)
    • Basal-Area Growth and Reproductive Responses of Thurber Needlegrass and Squirreltail to Weed Control and Nitrogen Fertilization

      Eckert, Richard; Spencer, John S. (Society for Range Management, 1982-09-01)
      Effects of weed control and added nitrogen were evaluated in terms of basal area growth, number of reproductive culms, seed yields, and test weight and germination of seed from individual plants of squirreltail (Sitanion hystrix) and Thurber needlegrass (Stipa thurberiana) from 1974 to 1979. Basal-area growth of Thurber needlegrass plants continued during the study period but at a reduced rate during dry years. Parts of squirreltail crowns died during dry periods. A reduction in competition by weed control and added nitrogen stimulated basal area growth of Thurber needlegrass, enhanced germination of squirreltail seed, and increased the number of reproductive culms and seed yield of both species, particularly in years of high precipitation. Germination of squirreltail was much greater than that of Thurber needlegrass. Results are discussed in relation to community ecology, range improvement practices, and seed production for commerce.
    • Baseline Elemental Concentrations for Big Sagebrush from Western U.S.A.

      Gough, L. P.; Erdman, J. A. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      The analysis of samples of big sagebrush from 190 sites in 8 western physiographic provinces resulted in measurable concentrations of 30 elements. Except for Sb, U, and V, whose concentrations were generally below the analytical detection limits, the expected (baseline) concentration range of each element was defined. The variability in the concentration of Ba, Ca, Li, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn among the 8 provinces was found to be nonsignificant and therefore a mean and deviation (for all provinces combined) for these elements was used to define their baseline. For concentrations of 20 of the elements (including the environmentally important metals As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Hg, and Mo), significant variability was found among province populations so that baseline values are reported for each province or group of provinces. Physiographic provinces were incorporated in the study design as a convenient natural unit in presenting the element baselines and we anticipate that these data may be useful in assessing biogeochemical changes brought about by the activities of energy development, mineral processing, and other anthropogenic disturbances.
    • Basin Wildrye—It's More Than Just Another Forage

      Jarecki, Charles M. (Society for Range Management, 1985-08-01)
    • Bath-Vyvey Ranch—Saratoga, Wyoming

      Blaylock, D. Morris (Society for Range Management, 1989-10-01)
    • Beavers and Riparian Ecosystems

      Clements, Charlie (Society for Range Management, 1991-12-01)
    • Beef and Beyond: Paying for Ecosystem Services on Western US Rangelands

      Goldstein, Joshua H.; Presnall, Carrie K.; López-Hoffman, Laura; Nabhan, Gary P.; Knight, Richard L.; Ruyle, George B.; Toombs, Theodore P. (Society for Range Management, 2011-10-01)
    • Beef and Forage Production on Contour Furrowed Rangeland Interseeded with Alfalfa

      Kartchner, R. J.; Wight, J. R.; Bishop, J. L.; Bellows, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1983-07-01)
      Over a 4-year period, average annual herbage production on native range was 603 kg/ha compared to 1,350 kg/ha on contour-furrowed range interseeded with alfalfa. Addition of 112 kg N/ha and 15 kg P/ha on furrowed, interseeded range increased herbage production to 1,658 kg/ha. Forage production on furrowed areas showed more variation in response to precipitation changes than did production on untreated rangeland. Differences in rate of gain by yearling cattle were small in most years, indicating beef production varied largely as a function of stocking rate. Total beef production over a 5-year period was 113 kg/ha on the control, 217 kg/ha on contour-furrowed range with alfalfa interseeded, and 236 kg/ha on furrowed, interseeded range receiving fertilizer. Observations on management of furrowed, interseeded areas were made.
    • Beef cattle distribution patterns on foothill range

      Pinchak, W. E.; Smith, M. A.; Hart, R. H.; Waggoner, J. W. (Society for Range Management, 1991-05-01)
      A 3-year experiment designed to quantify the spatial and temporal utilization patterns of range sites by beef cattle on summer foothill range was conducted on the Wick Brothers Management Unit of the Wyoming Game and Fish Commission, 8 km w. of Arlington, Wyo. The grazing seasons, in replicate pastures, were from 15 July-9 August, 15 June-26 July, and 15 June-2 August in 1980, 1981, and 1982, respectively. Daily observations were made of radio-telemetry collared cattle (3 per pasture). Cattle dispersion was constrained by the spatial distribution of water and slope. Across 3 seasons, 77% of observed use was within 366 m of water. Approximately 65% of the land area was beyond 723 m from water and sustained only 12% of observed use. Cattle concentrated use (79%) on slopes less than 7%. Consequently 35% of the area, on or surrounded by slopes > 10%, received only 7% of observed use. Loamy, grazable woodland and wetland/subirrigated range sites were most preferred and accounted for over 65% of observed use while occupying less than 35% of the land area. Overall, coarse upland, very shallow and shallow loamy sites were not preferred; however, site preference varied as areas further from water were utilized. Observed use was significantly (P < 0.10) correlated (r 0.41 to 0.69) with standing crop and crude protein standing crop over various growth form characteristics of the forage component. Associated stepwise regression models accounted for 44 to 73% of the variation in observed use over the 1982 grazing season. As the forage complex became more similar, in terms of standing crop and crude protein content, significantly less (P < 0.05) variation in use was accounted for by the forage variables (0-37%).