• C3/C4 Production Shift on Seasonal Burns: Northern Mixed Prairie

      Steuter, A. A. (Society for Range Management, 1987-01-01)
      This study investigates the potential of fire to manipulate the balance of C3 (cool-season) and C4 (warm-season) herbage in 2 northern Mixed Prairie communities. The xeric high prairie community and mesic low prairie community were chosen to represent regional moisture extremes. Treatments included dormant spring burn, mid-summer burn, dormant fall burn, and untreated. The high prairie community appears to be a C3-dominant type. All 3 burn treatments increased the C3 herbage fraction relative to untreated sites. Total production, however, was unaffected by treatment. The C3/ C4 ratio of high prairie communities appears to be the result of long-term adaptation rather than short-term adjustments to fire or weather effects. Spring burning shifted low prairie communities towards C4 herbage relative to other treatments. This was due to an increase in C4 herbage (and total) rather than to a decrease in C3 herbage. The C3/C4 ratio of low prairie communities did appear to respond to short-term adjustments in moisture, temperature, and light caused by the spring burn. The response of low prairie C3/C4 ratios to mid-summer and dormant fall burns appeared to be related to phenological and indirect weather effects rather than to changes in site microclimate caused by the fires.
    • Caatinga vegetation dynamics under various grazing intensities by steers in the semi-arid Northeast, Brazil

      de Albuquerque, S. G. (Society for Range Management, 1999-05-01)
      The effects of cattle grazing were evaluated on range dynamics of the Caatinga which is a deciduous dry woodland, covering most of the semi-arid Brazilian Northeast. Three stocking rates (SR) were studied (heavy, 1 steer 6.7 ha(-1); moderate 1 steer 10 ha(-1); light, 1 steer 13.3 ha(-1)), in addition to an ungrazed exclosure (zero stocking). In the first phase (1978-81) each stocking rate was tested under continuous and deferred grazing. In the second phase (1981-84), deferred grazing was eliminated, so that pastures became replications of continuous grazing. Six steers per pasture were used, and pasture size was used to vary stocking rate. There was no effect of stocking rate or grazing system period on the frequency of the herbaceous species. They were, however, influenced by rainfall in the period, and could be divided into 3 groups. Sixteen species increased with increasing rainfall during the last months of the rainy season, and reached the highest frequency in 1984. Eleven species also increased with increasing rainfall but reached the highest frequency in 1983. Rainfall had no effect on the frequency of 2 important species. Herissantia crispa (L.) Briz. and Selaginella convoluta Spring. Death rate of 5 shrubs (Lippia microphylla Cham., Croton rhamnifolius (Kunth em.) Mull. Arg. Calliandra depauperata Benth. Cordia leucocephala Moric., and Bauhinia cheilantha (Bong.) Steud.) decreased with decreasing stocking rate, 11.7, 9.3, 7.7. and 4.5%, respectively on heavy, moderate, light, and zero stocking. Death rates were higher in easily broken shrub species. L. microphylla and C. leucocephala. Stocking rate also influenced the height growth rate of the tagged shrubs, being respectively -2.7 and 9.8% for heavy and zero stocking. Mean density of shrubs and trees, determined by the Point-Centered Quarter Method, was respectively 21,109, and 447 plants ha(-1) in 1982, and 13,230 and 401 plants in 1984; the main cause of the high shrub death (37.3%) was probably the 1982 drought. Density was not affected by stocking rate. Considering the 7 experimental areas separately, there was no regression between 1982 and 1984 shrub densities. There was, however, regression between 1982 density and the difference between 1982 and 1984 densities.
    • Calculating Foraging Area Using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Technology

      Anderson, Dean M. (Society for Range Management, 2014-12-01)
      On the Ground • Optimum forage utilization on animal-dominated landscapes can only occur when stocking rate (SR) and stocking density (SD) are considered and managed simultaneously. • Landscapes with foraging animals contain vegetation ranging from unused to over-used even under a proper SR. • The global navigation satellite system (GNSS) technology has catapulted our understanding of spatial–temporal management of free-ranging livestock into a 24/7 opportunity. • Location-specific data will improve management of stocked landscapes, both ecologically and economically. • GNSS data from instrumented animals provides an opportunity to understand when and where a landscape is used to improve animal distribution. • A proper SR and management of animal distribution (i.e., SD) will facilitate adaptive management of animal dominated landscapes.
    • Calculating Grazing Intensity for Maximum Profit on Ponderosa Pine Range in Northern Arizona

      Pearson, H. A. (Society for Range Management, 1973-07-01)
      The profit formula is based on forage production, digestibility and utilization, animal weight and daily gain, costs per animal day, and beef prices. Rangeland producing 500-1,000 lb forage per acre would produce maximum profit with moderate utilization.
    • Calculating Yearlong Carrying Capacity: An Algebraic Approach

      Workman, J. P.; MacPherson, D. W. (Society for Range Management, 1973-07-01)
      Estimates of yearlong carrying capacity obtained by three different techniques are compared in terms of accuracy as measured by actual carrying capacity of a northern Utah cattle ranch. A new "algebraic" approach appears superior to two established techniques currently in use.
    • Calibrating fecal NIRS equations for predicting botanical composition of diets

      Walker, J. W.; McCoy, S. D.; Launchbaugh, K. L.; Fraker, M. J.; Powell, J. (Society for Range Management, 2002-07-01)
      The objectives of this study were to investigate the use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of fecal samples for predicting the percentage of mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb) Beetle) in sheep diets and to quantify the limitations of using NIRS of fecal samples to predict diet composition. Fecal material from a sheep feeding trial with known levels of sagebrush and several background forages was used to develop fecal NIRS calibration equations validated with fecal material from 2 other sheep feeding trials with known levels of sagebrush in the diets. The 1996 calibration trial varied the level of sagebrush, alfalfa, and grass hay in the diets. The 1998 trial compared frozen to air-dried sagebrush. The Wyoming trial was a metabolism study using frozen sagebrush. Trials used different levels of sagebrush varying from 0 to 30% of the diet in increments of 4 to 10 percentage points. Internal validation of the 1996 trial with a subset of the samples not used for calibration showed that when predicted samples are from the same population as the calibration samples, this procedure can accurately predict percent sagebrush (R2 = 0.96, SEP = 1.6). However, when predicted samples were from a different population than calibration samples, accuracy was much less, but precision was not affected greatly. Low accuracy was caused by a compression of the range of data in the predicted values compared to the reference values, and the predicted sagebrush levels in the diet should be considered to represent an interval scale of measurement. Modified partial least squares regression resulted in better calibration than stepwise regression, and calibration data sets with only high, low, and no sagebrush resulted in calibrations almost as good as data sets with several intermediate levels of sagebrush. High values of the H statistic were related to low precision but did not affect the accuracy of predictions. We believe the interval scale of measurement will contain sufficient information for the purpose of addressing many questions on rangelands.
    • California Annual Grassland and Oak Savannah

      Bartolome, James W. (Society for Range Management, 1987-06-01)
    • California Certified Rangeland Manager Program

      Frost, William E.; Bartolome, James W.; Connor, J. Michael (Society for Range Management, 1997-12-01)
    • California oak-woodland overstory species affect herbage understory: Management implications

      Ratliff, R. D.; Duncan, D. A.; Westfall, S. E. (Society for Range Management, 1991-07-01)
      Concerns for the future of California's oak-woodlands have intensified the need to better understand how different overstory species affect herbage standing crops and species frequencies. Data from over 8,000 plots harvested between 1961 and 1968 at the San Joaquin Experimental Range in the Sierra Nevada foothills of central California show that peak standing crops averaged 2,795 kg/ha in the open; 3,086 kg/ha under blue oak (Quercus douglasii); 1,840 kg/ha under interior live oak (Quercus wislizenii); 1,696 kg/ha under digger pine (Pinus sabiniana), and 1,917 kg/ha under buck brush (Ceanothus cuneatus). Overstory species affected standing crops differently on different range sites. On swales, standing crops were less under live oak and digger pine than in open areas. On open-rolling uplands, standing crops were less in the open and under live oak than under blue oak. On rocky-brush uplands, standing crops were less under all other overstory species than under blue oak. Data on species frequency suggest that herbage species of inter successional stages are more common under trees. The frequency of plant species varied with the species of overstory, and a diversity of overstory species may help to maintain adequate species diversity among understory species.
    • California Rangeland Reference Area (RRA) Inventory and Database

      Holzman, Barbara A.; Isaacs, Jodene (Society for Range Management, 1999-04-01)
    • California Rangelands in Historical Perspective

      Burcham, L. T. (Society for Range Management, 1981-06-01)
    • California's privately owned oak woodlands: Owners, use, and management

      Huntsinger, L.; Fortmann, L. P. (Society for Range Management, 1990-03-01)
      Social science research is an important tool for guiding development of education programs for owners of private rangelands. California oak woodland, a productive and extensive range type in California that is undergoing rapid changes in use and management, is the focus of this study. Results indicate that landowners with different property size differ demographically, make different uses of their land, and have distinctly different attitudes toward oak management and living in the oak woodland. Owners of smaller properties, on the increase in rural California, do not earn their living from their land, and will respond best to resource education programs that they believe will contribute to bettering the quality of life they seek by residing in the oak woodland. Owners of larger properties, the traditional clientele of advisory agencies, will more likely respond to programs that protect and enhance earnings from their property. Still, even a third of the owners of the largest (over 5,000 acres) properties earn the majority of their income from sources other than their lands. To be effective, range-oriented education programs and policies must track the changing composition of rural populations, and the changes in attitudes, needs, and interests that accompany demographic shifts.
    • California’s Rangeland Water Quality Management Plan: An Update

      George, Melvin; Larson-Praplan, Stephanie; Harper, John; Lewis, David; Lennox, Michael (Society for Range Management, 2011-04-01)
    • Callie Bermudagrass Yield and Nutrient Uptake with Liquid and Solid N-P-K Fertilizers

      Mooso, G. D.; Jolley, V. D.; Nelson, S. D.; Webb, B. L. (Society for Range Management, 1984-11-01)
      A 2-year study to compare the effect of liquid and solid N-P-K (9:1:4) fertilizers on 'Callie' bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon var. aridus Harlan et de Wet) production and nutrient uptake was conducted in Central Florida. There was a positive linear relationship between yield and amount of N-P-K fertilizer applied from both sources. Forage N and K concentrations were positively affected and P levels were unaffected by increased fertility levels. Solid fertilizer increased dry matter production and resulted in higher relative uptake efficiencies of the applied N, P, and K than the liquid source. It also maintained higher N concentrations in the forage in some cuttings than the liquid, but neither P nor K concentrations were affected by the fertilizer source. Ammonia volatilization of the urea in the liquid source was probably the major reason for the lower yield, N concentration, and N uptake efficiency with that source. The trend for lower P and K uptake efficiencies by the liquid-treated forage appears to be associated with the lower yields obtained with this source.
    • Caloric Content of Rocky Mountain Subalpine and Alpine Plants

      Andersen, D. C.; Armitage, K. B. (Society for Range Management, 1976-07-01)
      Caloric equivalents for aboveground parts of Rocky Mountain subalpine and alpine herbaceous plants averaged 4,859 cal/g ash-free oven-dry weight. Ash content averaged 9.8% for 17 forbs. Both caloric content and ash content ranged higher than values for alpine species from New Hampshire.
    • Camels on the Western Range

      Young, James A. (Society for Range Management, 1982-12-01)
    • Campbell & Sons Ranch: Colorado Section SRM 1999 Excellence in Rangeland Conservation Award

      Bradford, David; Reed, Floyd; Campbell, Jess; Campbell, Calvin; Campbell, Chad (Society for Range Management, 2000-08-01)
    • Can Abundant Summer Precipitation Counter Losses in Herbage Production Caused by Spring Drought?

      Heitschmidt, R. K.; Vermeire, L. T. (Society for Range Management, 2006-07-01)
      Drought is an inherent trait of most rangelands and sound management necessitates managers address two fundamental questions when facing a drought situation. The first question is, ‘‘what is the probability that a useful amount of precipitation will be received over the period of concern?’’ and the second question is, ‘‘if it does rain, what will the impact be in terms of quantity and quality of herbage produced?’’ The objective of this study was to address the second question. Our hypothesis was that herbage growth response to above normal summer precipitation (i.e., 23 in July and August) would be limited in the northern Great Plains because of a general absence of productive warm-season species. Study plots were twelve 5 X 10-m non-weighing lysimeters. Treatments were: 1) simulated (i.e., rainout shelter imposed), severe spring drought (i.e., 1 May - 1 July) followed by ambient precipitation thereafter; 2) simulated, severe spring drought followed by ambient precipitation thereafter plus summer irrigation (i.e., July and August); 3) ambient precipitation only; and 4) ambient precipitation plus summer irrigation. Results indicated substantial herbage production can be expected in this region during summer when precipitation is well above average because of the positive growth response of blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis [H.B.K.] Lag. ex Griffiths), the dominant warm-season grass growing in this region. However, results also showed that level of production in the study situation (i.e., spring drought, wet summer) was only about 50% of that attained in a normal (i.e., wet spring/dry summer) year. Moreover, long-term weather data shows the probability of receiving 23 normal precipitation in both July and August (i.e., our irrigation treatments) is < 1%. Thus, although these rangelands possess the capacity to respond favorably to summer precipitation, the low probability of receiving substantial levels of summer precipitation ensures levels of ecological and economic risk remain high.  
    • Can Cattle Be Used to Control Sericea Lespedeza?

      Mantz, Gregory K.; Villalba, Juan J.; Provenza, Frederick D. (Society for Range Management, 2013-06-01)
      On the Ground • Supplemental polyethylene glycol (PEG), a polymer that neutralizes the negative effects of tannins, can increase intake and preference of cattle for fresh-cut sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata), an invasive, tannin-containing legume for the tallgrass prairie region of the Great Plains. • In grazing trials, steers supplemented with PEG plus a high-protein supplement tended to eat more sericea than did steers only supplemented with the high-protein supplement. • Supplementing cattle with PEG, protein, or a combination of the two has the potential to enhance the amount of sericea consumed by cattle, contributing to the control of this weed.
    • Can Imazapic Increase Native Species Abundance in Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) Invaded Native Plant Communities?

      Elseroad, Adrien C.; Rudd, Nathan T. (Society for Range Management, 2011-11-01)
      Native plant communities invaded by cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) are at risk of unnatural high intensity fires and conversion to cheatgrass monocultures. Management strategies that reduce cheatgrass abundance may potentially allow native species to expand and minimize further cheatgrass invasion. We tested whether the selective herbicide imazapic is effective in reducing cheatgrass and ‘‘releasing’’ native species in a semiarid grassland and shrub steppe in north-central Oregon. The experiment consisted of a completely randomized design with two treatments (sprayed with 70 g ai ha-1 of imazapic and unsprayed) and three replicates of each treatment applied to either 2.5 or 4 ha plots. We repeated this experiment in three different sites dominated by the following native species: 1) bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata [Pursh] A. Löve ssp. spicata) and needle and thread (Hesperostipa comata [Trin. Rupr.] Barkworth), 2) needle and thread and Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda J. Presl), and 3) big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.). Nested frequency of all plant species in 1-m2 quadrats was collected for 1 yr pretreatment and 4 yr posttreatment. In all three sites, cheatgrass frequencies were significantly lower in sprayed plots than unsprayed plots for 3-4 yr posttreatment (P<0.1). Other annual plant species were also impacted by imazapic, but the effects were highly variable by species and site. Only two native perennial species, hoary tansyaster (Machaeranthera canescens [Pursh] Gray) and big sagebrush, increased in sprayed plots, and increases occurred only at two sites. These results suggest that a short-term reduction in cheatgrass alone is not an effective strategy for increasing the abundance of most native perennial plant species.