• Jackrabbit densities on fair and good condition Chihuahuan desert range

      Daniel, A.; Holechek, J.; Valdez, R.; Tembo, A.; Saiwana, L.; Fusco, M.; Cardenas, M. (Society for Range Management, 1993-11-01)
      This study was conducted on Chihuahuan desert range near Las Cruces, in southcentral New Mexico, to determine the relationship of blacktailed jackrabbit (Lepus californicus) densities to good (GC) and fair (FC) range condition. The Soil Conservation Service procedure was used to classify ecological range condition. Line transect procedures were used to estimate jackrabbit populations from July 1988 to December 1990. Concurrently vegetation cover and mean plant height were determined with the line intercept procedure. Jackrabbit densities on the fair condition range were higher (P < 0.10) than those on the good condition range. This difference is attributed to the fair condition range containing more protective cover and preferred forage than good condition range. Jackrabbit abundance showed no season (P < 0.10) or year differences (P < 0.10). Jackrabbits preferred grass-shrub mosaic habitats more than shrubland and grassland habitats. The need for diverse food sources and protective cover were apparently major determinants of habitat selection by jackrabbits. The good condition range contained greater (P < 0.10) grass cover and less (P < 0.10) shrub cover than the fair condition range. Our results indicated that maintaining Chihuahuan desert ranges in good to excellent condition is the best means of achieving lower abundance of jackrabbit populations.
    • Jackrabbits

      McAdoo, J. Kent; Young, James A. (Society for Range Management, 1980-08-01)
    • Jackson Hole, Wyoming: A Summer Tradition Continues

      Samuel, Marilyn J. (Society for Range Management, 1986-02-01)
    • Jaguar and Puma Predation on Cattle Calves in Northeastern Sonora, Mexico

      Rosas-Rosas, Octavio C.; Bender, Louis C.; Valdez, Raul (Society for Range Management, 2008-09-01)
      Predation by jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor) is often a source of conflict with cattle ranching in northeastern Sonora, Mexico. Because jaguars are endangered in Mexico, such conflicts have biological, social, and economic consequences. We documented the extent of predation by jaguars and pumas on cattle in 1999-2004 in northeastern Sonora, where the northernmost breeding population of jaguars exists in North America. Jaguars and pumas killed only calves , 12 mo old, and calves constituted 58% of prey biomass consumed by jaguars and 9% by pumas. Annual cause-specific mortality rates of confirmed jaguar predation (< 0.018), confirmed and suspected jaguar predation (< 0.018), and all confirmed and suspected large felid predation (< 0.018) were low and cattle calf survival was high (0.89-0.98 annually). If calves reported as missing but for which no evidence of mortality could be found were classed as large felid predation, annual cause-specific rates increased to 0.006-0.038. Collectively, confirmed jaguar and puma predation accounted for < 14% (57/408) of total cattle losses, with jaguars responsible for 14% of all calf losses; this could increase to a maximum of 36% (146/408) if missing calves were included in the totals. While jaguar and puma predation may have an impact on some small cattle operations, it is generally minor compared to losses from other causes in northeastern Sonora. Moreover, 91% of all confirmed calf kills were associated with three individual jaguars in our study. Targeting problem cats rather than broad-scale predator control may therefore be a viable alternative to address chronic predation problems. Because most (83%) instances of jaguar predation occurred during the dry season along thick riparian habitats, modified cattle husbandry operations, such as establishment of permanent water sources in uplands and away from dense vegetative cover, could ameliorate many cases of predation by jaguars on cattle. 
    • Jaguar Critical Habitat Designation Causes Concern for Southwestern Ranchers

      Svancara, Colleen M.; Lien, Aaron M.; Vanasco, Wendy T.; Lopez-Hoffman, Laura; Bonar, Scott A.; Ruyle, George B. (Society for Range Management, 2015-12-01)
      On the Ground • The designation of jaguar critical habitat in April 2014 in southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico created concern for livestock ranchers in the region. • We interviewed ranchers to understand their concerns with the jaguar critical habitat designation and their attitudes toward jaguars, wildlife conservation, and resource management in general. • Ranchers we interviewed were concerned about direct impacts of designated critical habitat on ranching, as well as possible alternative agendas of critical habitat advocates and issues specific to the borderlands region. • The ranchers were less concerned about the presence of jaguars but were more concerned about possible limiting effects of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), distrust of government entities, and litigious environmental groups. • To maximize effectiveness, government agencies should work to foster trust in the ranching community, be cognizant of sensitive issues specific to the region that may challenge endangered species conservation goals, recognize the opportunity to work with ranchers for endangered species management, and provide outreach about implications of the ESA.
    • Japanese Brome Response to Atrazine in Combination With Nitrogen Fertilizer in the Mixed Prairie

      Hewlett, D. B.; Johnson, J. R.; Butterfield, R. I.; Mosley, V. K. (Society for Range Management, 1981-01-01)
      Atrazine was used to control Japanese brome in conjunction with nitrogen fertilization to determine if herbage production could be increased more than by fertilization alone. Atrazine treatments included a single application, application in alternate years, and application for two or three consecutive years. Atrazine did not significantly increase production more than fertilizer alone and caused some decreases in western wheatgrass production at low rates of N in one year at one location. Unless atrazine was applied in two or more years, Japanese brome was a prevalent the second growing season after application as where it had never been controlled. Application of atrazine in consecutive years increased shortgrass production at one location.
    • Jarbidge Ranger District: It Can Be Done

      Timothy, Kenneth (Society for Range Management, 1980-08-01)
    • Jean Snider Schadler—A Woman in Range Management

      Turner, Sherry (Society for Range Management, 1984-02-01)
    • Joseph H. Robertson—Range Scientist Pioneer

      Davis, Barry (Society for Range Management, 1989-10-01)
    • JRM Rangeland Research Funding (1989-1993)

      Derner, Justin D. (Society for Range Management, 1994-12-01)
    • Judging and Evaluating Range and Pasture Forage Utilization (Proper Grazing Use) for Certain Portions of the Central Great Plains

      May, Joseph A. (Society for Range Management, 2014-08-01)
      On the Ground • Many guidance documents and references have been prepared by federal and state agencies on proper grazing use. This article summarizes these documents for use by field personnel. • Proper grazing use or acceptable forage utilization can be judged by the use of key forage plants in designated key grazing areas.
    • Juniper Consumption Does Not Adversely Affect Meat Quality in Boer-Cross Goats

      Menchaca, Matthew W.; Scott, Cody B.; Braden, Kirk W.; Owens, Corey J.; Branham, Loree A. (Society for Range Management, 2011-11-01)
      Goat browsing can be used as an alternative brush management option for redberry (Juniperus pinchotii Sudw.) and ashe (Juniperus asheii Buch) juniper instead of more expensive and invasive brush control methods, assuming consumption of juniper does not adversely affect the marketability of offspring. Some wildlife species reportedly retain juniper flavor when consumed. We determined if juniper consumption affected meat quality or flavoring of Boer-cross kid carcasses. Twenty recently weaned, Boer-cross wethers were randomly assigned to one of four treatments with treatments fed different amounts of juniper (0%, 10%, 20%, 30% juniper in the diet). All goats were fed juniper for 28 d at the Angelo State University (ASU) Management, Instruction, and Research Center. All goats were also fed a feedlot ration to meet maintenance requirements (2% body weight). Juniper intake varied (P < 0.05) between all treatments (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%) primarily because treatments were fed different amounts of juniper. Following a 28-d trial, goats were harvested at the ASU Food Safety and Product Development Laboratory. Carcass characteristics including live weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, loineye area, body wall fat thickness, and leg circumference were similar (P>0.05) among treatments. Sensory characteristics including tenderness, juiciness, flavor intensity, off-flavor, and overall acceptability were also similar (P > 0.05) among treatments. Landowners can utilize goats as a biological management tool without adversely affecting goat meat quality or flavoring.
    • Juniper encroachment in aspen in the Northwest Great Basin

      Wall, T. G.; Miller, R. F.; Svejcar, T. J. (Society for Range Management, 2001-11-01)
      In the northwest Great Basin, western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis subsp. occidentalis Hook.) is encroaching into aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) communities. There is a concern that aspen communities in this region are in a state of decline, but their status has not been documented. This study determined the timing, extent, and some of the effects of this expansion. Ninety-one aspen stands were sampled for density, canopy cover, age, stand structure, and recruitment of western juniper and aspen. Soils and tree litter beneath aspen and western juniper were collected to analyze the effects of western juniper on soils. Additionally, 2 large aspen complexes in southeast Oregon were intensively aged to determine disturbance (fire) frequencies. Western juniper encroachment peaked between 1900 and 1939 with 77% of all juniper trees sampled having been established during this period. Three-fourths of aspen stands sampled have established populations of western juniper. Twelve percent of aspen stands sampled were completely replaced by western juniper and another 23% dominated by western juniper. Average density of western juniper in aspen sites was 1,573 trees ha(-1). Seventy percent of aspen stands sampled had zero recruitment of new aspen. Aspen stands averaged 98 years old. There was an inverse correlation between aspen canopy cover and western juniper canopy cover. Soils influenced by western juniper had a higher C:N ratio, pH, salts, lime, and sulfate, and lower amounts of magnesium, iron, copper, and manganese. Aspen litter had a lower C:N ratio than western juniper litter. Two major aspen complexes sampled had even-age, 2-tiered even-age, and multiple-age aspen trees. The absence of presettlement juniper within all sampled aspen stands suggests fire was the primary stand-replacing disturbance in these northwest Great Basin aspen communities. The lack of fire coupled with aspen stand decadence and low recruitment levels will allow for the continued encroachment and replacement of aspen communities by western juniper in the northwest Great Basin.
    • Juniper Extract and Germination of Six Range Species

      Lavin, Fred; Jameson, Donald A.; Gomm, F. B. (Society for Range Management, 1968-07-01)
      Juniper foliage extract significantly decreased seed germination for three of six range species tested. Deficient aeration severely decreased germination for two species and completely inhibited germination of the other four.
    • Junk or Science in the Court System: You may be surprised!

      Schroeder, W. Alan (Society for Range Management, 2000-06-01)
    • Justification for grazing intensity experiments: analysing and interpreting grazing data

      Bransby, D. I.; Conrad, B. E.; Dicks, H. M.; Drane, J. W. (Society for Range Management, 1988-07-01)
      Grazing trials in which treatments are compared at only 1 grazing intensity greatly outnumber those in which treatments are compared at several grazing intensities. This suggests that, compared to other treatments and the need for replication in grazing trials, researchers consider grazing intensity lower in priority. In this study, a regression modeling approach for analyzing and interpreting data was developed to enhance the value of grazing intensity trials. As an example, results from 5 irrigated bermudagrasses (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers) (Callie, Coastal, Brazos and experimental hybrids S-54 and S-16) which were continuously grazed without field replication by Santa Gertrudis steers at 4 grazing intensities were considered. The relationships between average daily gain (ADG) and stocking rate, ADG and herbage present (Mg/ha), and between stocking rate (animals/ha) and herbage present were well described by linear functions for all cultivars, with correlation coefficients (r) mostly above 0.9. Coefficients of determination (R2) for linear regression models derived for ADG vs stocking rate, ADG vs herbage present, and stocking rate vs herbage present were 0.90**, 0.89**, and 0.87**, respectively. Significant cultivar × grazing intensity (as measured by stocking rate or herbage present) interactions (P≤0.01) were observed. Furthermore, estimated stocking rates which provided maximum gain/ha ranged from 6.6 to 9.4 animals/ha, and the range in herbage present which provided maximum gain/ha was 0.35 to 1.95 Mg/ha. Callie provided an estimated maximum gain/ha of 881 kg/ha/season, while maximum gain/ha for the other cultivars ranged from 613 to 687 kg/ha/season. Comparison between these 5 cultivars at only 1 grazing intensity would have had very narrow application. The procedure described allowed statistical comparison of cultivars without replication, and inferences about the separate effects of forage quality and quantity on animal performance could be made. Herbage present and cultivar were descriptors of the pasture. Since there was a substantial range of values for herbage present and stocking rate, all important assumptions underlying linear regression were met and designs utilized in analysis of variance were not needed.
    • Justification for grazing intensity experiments: economic analysis

      Bransby, D. I. (Society for Range Management, 1989-09-01)
      Economic arguments in favor of grazing intensity trials are provided by economic analysis of grazing intensity results from Coastal, Callie and experimental hybrid S-16 bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. Pers), and by emphasizing the biological and economic differences among cultivars. Cattle buying prices of 1.20, 1.30, and 1.40/kg and price margins (selling price minus buying price) from -0.20 to 0.20 were considered on a return/ha and /animal basis, assuming land or capital to buy animals to be limiting, respectively. When price margin was -0.20, the stocking rate at which profit/ha was maximized ranged from 4.19 to 5.85 animals/ha, while profit/animal was maximized between 4.77 and 6.89 animals/ha. Corresponding ranges in average weight of herbage present/ha which maximized profit/ha and /animal were 2.83 to 3.60 Mg and 2.34 to 3.72 Mg. For a price margin of 0.20, profit/ha and /animal were maximized at stocking rates of 7.36 to 9.86 and 4.14 to 5.93 animals/ha respectively, with corresponding levels of herbage present/ha in the ranges 0.33 to 1.79 Mg and 2.73 to 4.06 Mg. Relative differences in profit/ha and /animal among cultivars did not correspond to differences in gain/ha and /animal. Economic comparison of the cultivars considered in this study would have had little relevance if only one grazing intensity had been used in the field trial. Only grazing trials with several grazing intensities per treatment can allow for the determination of economic optimum grazing intensities in respect of a wide range in economic conditions.
    • Kangaroo Rats

      Sjoberg, Diana E.; Young, James A.; McAdoo, Kent; Evans, Raymond A. (Society for Range Management, 1984-02-01)
    • Kangaroos in Australian Rangelands

      Grice, A. C.; Beck, R. F. (Society for Range Management, 1994-10-01)