• Labor Savings from Controlling Brush in the Texas Rolling Plains

      Ethridge, Don; Weddle, Jon; Bowman, Kenneth; Wright, Henry (Society for Range Management, 1991-02-01)
    • Laboratory germination responses of 3 love-grasses to temperature in relation to seedbed temperature

      Roundy, B. A.; Young, J. A.; Sumrall, L. B.; Livingston, M. (Society for Range Management, 1992-05-01)
      Laboratory tests are often conducted to determine seed germination responses to temperatures for seedbed ecology interpretations and revegetation seeding rate calculations. To determine the utility of laboratory germination tests for indicating seedbank germinability of lovegrasses we measured seedbed temperatures and soil water on 2 semidesert grassland sites in the Southwest. We also tested germination of Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana Nees), 'Cochise' lovegrass (E. lehmanniana Nees X E. trichophora Coss & Dur.), and plains lovegrass (E. intermedia Hitch.) seed collections associated with natural or artificial revegetation studies on these 2 sites in relation to an array of constant and alternating temperatures. Germination responses to different temperatures varied with the year and source of collection and seed age and differed compared to those reported in the literature. Lehmann and Cochise lovegrass had high germination at temperature alternations similar to wet seedbed temperature extremes in December (0,2/15 degrees C) and these species and plains lovegrass were germinable at moderate temperature alternations representative of wet seedbeds in April (10/30 degrees C). Ability to germinate in laboratory tests at these temperatures is not necessarily indicative of germinability in the field for Lehmann lovegrass, which has been observed to germinate in April, not December, in wet seedbeds. All species had maximum or near maximum germination at a temperature alternation of 20/40 degrees C, which is similar to wet seedbed temperature extremes during the summer rainy period when these species usually emerge. Because of the variability in germinability of different seed collections of lovegrass over time, specific collections should be tested at specific ages relevant to seedbed ecology and revegetation studies or projects. Laboratory germination tests which mimic actual wet seedbed temperature curves might be more predictive of seedbed germinability than the usual tests which expose the seeds to abrupt temperature alternations.
    • Lack of Native Vegetation Recovery Following Biological Control of Leafy Spurge

      Butler, Jack L.; Wacker, Stefanie D. (Society for Range Management, 2010-09-01)
      Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is an aggressive exotic species that has been successfully suppressed in a variety of situations using classical biological control (flea beetles; Aphthona spp.). This 9-yr study investigated patterns of vegetation responses following significant reductions in leafy spurge cover and density by flea beetles in southeastern Montana. We hypothesized that the vegetation following leafy spurge suppression would be dominated by species and plant functional groups able to persist through heavy infestations. Flea beetles were first released in 1998, and by 2006 leafy spurge foliar cover was reduced 80% to 90% compared to 1998 values on both release and nonrelease plots. Although total cover of the resident vegetation, excluding leafy spurge, increased 72% to 88%, relative cover of the functional groups (native forbs, native sedges, native grasses, and non- native species) was similar among years and between release and nonrelease plots. Mean diversity and mean species richness values did not differ among years or between release and nonrelease plots (P < 0.05), but mean diversity on both release and nonrelease plots was significantly less than noninfested plots, although richness was similar (P<0.05). Indicator species analysis revealed that non-native Poa spp. replaced leafy spurge as the dominant species on release and nonrelease plots. Conversely, noninfested plots contained a variety of native species with high indicator values. Although total abundance of the resident vegetation in 2006 was significantly greater than 1998, plant species composition and relative cover showed little change for the duration of the study. Failure of the native vegetation to recover to a community that approached nearby noninfested conditions may be attributed to a variety of interacting scenarios, some of which may be ameliorated by treating infestations as soon as possible to avoid long-term residual effects. 
    • Lake Missoula and Its Floods

      Johnson, Kendall L. (Society for Range Management, 2011-10-01)
    • Lana Vetch for Medusahead Control

      Mac Laughlan, R. S.; Miller, H. W.; Hoglund, O. K. (Society for Range Management, 1970-09-01)
      Medusahead is invading California and western Oregon rangeland at an alarming rate. Overseeding with Lana vetch, a self-perpetuating annual legume, appears to be one of the most practical controls. Because Lana vetch can be successfully established without seedbed preparation it offers a practical method of controlling medusahead on rough terrain. Increased production and improved quality of forage from infested annual grass range are the result.
    • Land Ecology Essay I: The Siren Song of the Finish Line

      Brown, Joel; Smith, David (Society for Range Management, 2015-12-01)
    • Land Ecology Essay II: Thresholds, Novel Ecosystems, and the Sanctity of History

      Bestelmeyer, Brandon T. (Society for Range Management, 2015-12-01)
    • Land Lines

      Salo, Cindy (Society for Range Management, 2015-12-01)
    • Land Lines: Big Sagebrush: Fine Variations on a Winning Theme

      Salo, Cindy (Society for Range Management, 2011-10-01)
    • Land Lines: Meat With a Story

      Salo, Cindy (Society for Range Management, 2011-12-01)
    • Land Lines: Old and New Agrarians in Quivira

      Salo, Cindy (Society for Range Management, 2012-06-01)
      My first job after college in the 1970s must have horrified my parents. But I never actually heard them tell me that milking cows and driving tractors might not be the first step on a solid career path. I wanted to be a farmer. (We were in the Midwest, where livestock live on farms, not ranches.) Working on a farm was as much fun as I had known it would be. I was thin and tan and, with the help of a come-along and a nose leader, I could handle just about anything on the dairy farms where I lived and worked. One summer, in the drumlins of upstate New York, I slept on the porch each night and fell asleep to the frogs singing in the pasture pond. 
    • Land Lines: On Science, Art, and Ecotone

      Salo, Cindy (Society for Range Management, 2012-02-01)
      I have recently heard some SRM members wonder if the society might be focusing too much on science. They worry that we are forgetting about the art of managing rangelands. A recent SRM Section newsletter explained, “What I mean is that when the average rancher, myself included, reads through the SRM publications or attends meetings, he/she is bombarded with way more scientific jargon that what they can wrap their heads around.”
    • Land Lines: The Cheatgrass That Wasn’t There

      Salo, Cindy (Society for Range Management, 2011-04-01)
    • Land Lines: Waves of the Future: Radar, LiDAR, and GRACE

      Salo, Cindy (Society for Range Management, 2011-08-01)
    • Land management history of Canadian grasslands and the impact on soil carbon storage

      Wang, X.; Vandenbygaart, A. J.; McConkey, B. C. (Society for Range Management, 2014-07)
      Grasslands represent a large potential reservoir in storing carbon (C) in plant biomass and soil organic matter via C sequestration, but the potential greatly depends on how grasslands are managed, especially for livestock and wild animal grazing. Positive and negative grazing effects on soil organic carbon have been reported by various studies globally, but it is not known if Canadian grasslands function as a source or a sink for atmospheric C under current management practices. This article examines the effect of grassland management on carbon storage by compiling historical range management facts and measurements from multiple experiments. Results indicate that grazing on grasslands has contributed to a net C sink in the top 15-cm depth under current utilization regimes with a removal rate of CO2 at 0.19 ± 0.02 Mg · C · ha-1 · yr-1 from the atmosphere during recent decades, and net C sequestration was estimated at 5.64 ± 0.97 Mg · C · ha-1 on average. Naturalization of 2.3 M ha of previously cultivated grasslands in the 1930s has also led to C sequestration in the Canadian prairies but has likely abated as the pool has saturated. Efforts made by researchers, policymakers, and the public has successfully led to the restoration of the Canadian prairies to a healthier state and to achieve considerable C sequestration in soils since their severe deterioration in the 1930s. In-depth analysis of management, legislation, and agricultural programs is urgently needed to place the focus on maintaining range health and achieving more C storage in soils, particularly when facing the reduced potential for further C sequestration. © 2014 The Society for Range Management.
    • Land Management Planning: An Assessment

      Olson, N. Crystine; Burkhardt, J. Wayne (Society for Range Management, 1992-06-01)
    • Land Management Policy and Development of Ecological Concepts

      Jameson, D. A. (Society for Range Management, 1970-09-01)
      As ecological concepts become incorporated into the training and background information of professional land managers, they also become incorporated into land management policies. Recent developments in ecology, such as nutrient cycling studies and computer simulation of complex processes, have a favorable climate for acceptance. Possible applications should be carefully studied by land managers.
    • Land use change effects on breeding bird community composition

      Boren, J. C.; Engle, D. M.; Palmer, M. W.; Masters, R. E.; Criner, T. (Society for Range Management, 1999-09-01)
      We identified land uses, vegetation cover types, and landscape patterns associated with avian community diversity in 2 rural landscapes in a hardwood forest-tallgrass prairie ecotone that differ with regard to human population density. We obtained long-term (24 years) changes in avian community composition through records from the North American Breeding Bird Survey. We obtained historical and present land use, vegetation cover types, and landscape structure of both landscapes from high-resolution aerial photography. Avian community composition in the low density rural population landscape was primarily related to the amount of land in deciduous forest and land treated with fire or herbicides. In contrast, avian community composition in the high density rural population landscape was primarily related to the amount of land in deciduous forest, native grassland, and roads. Changes in vegetation cover type were related to changes in the avian community composition by increasing prairie habitat associated species in the low density rural population and generalist habitat associated species in the high density rural population landscapes. Loss of neotropical migrants and increased number of generalist species in the high density rural population landscape was related to decreased native vegetation, road development, and increased landscape fragmentation. Biologists and conservationists in this region should focus attention on preserving biological diversity of rural ecosystems by maintaining native plant communities.
    • Land Use Influences Carbon Fluxes in Northern Kazakhstan

      Perez-Quezada, Jorge F.; Saliendra, Nicanor Z.; Akshalov, Kanat; Johnson, Douglas A.; Laca, Emilio (Society for Range Management, 2010-01-01)
      A mobile, closed-chamber system (CC) was used to measure carbon and water fluxes on four land-use types common in the Kazakh steppe ecoregion. Land uses represented crop (wheat or barley, WB), abandoned land (AL), crested wheatgrass (CW), and virgin land (VL). Measurements were conducted during the growing season of 2002 in northern Kazakhstan at three locations (blocks) 15-20 km apart. The CC allowed the measurement of the carbon flux components of net ecosystem exchange (NEE), ecosystem respiration (RE) and soil respiration (RS), together with evapotranspiration (ET). Nonlinear regression analyses were used to model gross primary production (GPP) and ET as a function of photosynthetically active radiation (Q); RE and RS were modeled based on air (Tair) and soil (Ts) temperature, respectively. GPP, RE, RS, and ET were estimated for the entire year with the use of continuous 20-min means of Q, Tair, and Ts. Annual NEE indicated that AL gained 536 g CO2 m-2, WB lost – 191 g CO2 m-2, CW was near equilibrium (–14g CO2 m-2), and VL exhibited considerable carbon accumulation (153g CO2 m-2). The lower GPP values of the land-use types dominated by native species (CW and VL) compared to WB and AL were compensated by positive NEE values that were maintained during a longer growing season. As expected, VL and CW allocated a larger proportion of their carbon assimilates belowground. Non-growing-season RE accounted for about 19% of annual RE in all land-use types. The results of this landscape-level study suggest that carbon lost by cultivation of VLs is partially being restored when fields are left uncultivated, and that VLs are net sinks of carbon. Estimations of carbon balances have important management implications, such as estimation of ecosystem productivity and carbon credit certification. 
    • Land Use, Ethics, and Property Rights—a Western View from the East

      Burch, W. R. (Society for Range Management, 1975-01-01)
      Changes in the nature of property rights regulate the survival potential of social systems. In our era the traditional market system no longer manages the property realities where former scarcities become abundant and former abundance becomes scarce. The experience of land-use in the arid West and John Wesley Powell's vision of the future provide essential lessons for both the dry and humid zones of modern America.