• Oak (Quercus spp.) Sprouts Growth Rates on a Central Oklahoma Shallow Savannah Range Site

      Powell, J.; Lowry, D. P. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
    • Oak Consumption by Cattle in Arizona

      Ruyle, G. B.; Grumbles, R. L.; Murphy, M. J.; Cline, R. C. (Society for Range Management, 1986-06-01)
    • Oak seedling establishment on California rangelands

      Adams, T. E.; Sands, P. B.; Weitkamp, W. H.; McDougald, N. K. (Society for Range Management, 1992-01-01)
      Factors responsible for poor recruitment of blue oak (Quercus douglasii H. & A.) and valley oak (Q. lobata Nee) need to be determined on California hardwood rangelands so that management strategies for enhancement of recruitment can be developed. To examine selected factors, exclusive of large herbivore impacts, a series of acorn seeding experiments was initiated in 1985 in 6 counties on representative sites. At each site, the experimental treatments were the factorial combination of herbs vs. no herbs and screen protection vs. no protection. The experimental design was 4 randomized complete blocks of the herb treatments with each main plot split for the 2 levels of protection. Rainfall and edaphic factors were used to help interpret measures of seedling emergence, survival, and growth. Herbaceous plant control for reduction of moisture stress was the most important factor examined. Emergence was significantly improved by control in nearly 80% of blue oak seedings and in 33% of valley oak seedings. Average first year survival, expressed as a percent of acorns sown, was significantly improved with control in seedings of both blue oak (33% vs. 18%) and valley oak (45% vs. 21%). Limited data suggest the difference in survival remains consistent over time as overall survival declines. With few exceptions, the addition of screen protection discouraged predation and significantly enhanced survival and growth. Window screen cages also may have contributed an unmeasured shade effect.
    • Observation on cattle liveweight changes and fecal indices in Sudan

      Hasham, I. M.; Fadlalla, B. (Society for Range Management, 1989-03-01)
      Changes in liveweight of sedentary and migratory herds of cattle in south Kordofan Province, Sudan, were determined monthly. Feces of these animals were analyzed for N and ADF during the same period. Both the sedentary and the migratory herds gained liveweights during periods August to September and November to February and lost liveweight during October and from March to July. Changes in liveweights were more highly related to fecal ADF concentrations (r = -0.60, P<0.002) than to fecal N concentrations (r = -0.085, P<0.305).
    • Observation: Botanical and other characteristics in Arctic salt-affected coastal areas

      Bruce, L. B.; Panciera, M. T.; Gavlak, R. G.; Tilman, B. A.; Cadle, J. M. (Society for Range Management, 1995-05-01)
      This study was designed to provide information on cover, botanical composition, and frequency of major plant species in a brood-rearing area used by migratory geese south of Howe Island on the Sagavanirktok River Delta near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. The area is split by the Endicott road and the information was also used to gain preliminary information concerning the effect of the road on goose and caribou activity. Transects on the east and west sides of the access road at the base of the Endicott causeway were established to evaluate occurrences of vegetation, goose fecal pellets, caribou tracks, and coastal debris. The point intercept method characterized plant cover, species frequency, and botanical composition. The recorded occurrence of fecal pellets and tracks on the transects were used as estimates of the presence of geese and caribou. Vegetative cover was 21% west and 38% east of the road near the Endicott causeway base in 1991. The 3 species most prominent west of the road were Carex sub-spathacea Wormsk., Salix spp., and Puccinellia phryganodes (Trin.) Scribn. & Merr. (botanical composition of 26, 23, and 21%, respectively). East of the road, Salix spp. (43%) dominated botanical composition followed by Carex aquatilis Wahlenb. (13%) and Dryas integrifolia M. Vahl (11%). The west and east sides differed botanically. Caribou tracks were observed in 60% of the transects on both sides of the road and goose fecal pellets were more prevalent on the west side (86%) than on the east side (48%). Geese pellets and caribou tracks occurred in different locations in the study area. Goose fecal pellets were from all goose species and may have included more than 1 year.
    • Observation: Cattle diets on excellent and good condition Chihuahuan desert rangelands

      Smith, G.; Holechek, J. L.; Cardenas, M. (Society for Range Management, 1994-09-01)
      Information is limited on the influence of range condition on cattle diets in the Chihuahuan desert. Botanical composition of cattle diets on Chihuahuan desert ranges in excellent and good condition was studied by microhistological analysis. Cattle feces were analyzed seasonally from fall 1991 through fall 1992. Excellent condition and good condition ranges supported 86% and 72% of the climax vegetation, respectively. Key species in cattle diets on the excellent condition range were black grama (Bouteloua eripoda Torr.) and threeawns (Aristida spp.). On the good condition range the key species were dropseeds (Sporobolus spp.), threeawns and black grama. Total grass and black grama content of cattle diets were greater on the excellent condition range. Seasonal trends occurred in cattle diets on good condition but not on excellent condition range. Low availability of forbs and shrubs explained the high diets similarities among seasons on the excellent condition range. Cattle on good condition range readily used forbs and shrubs when green grass was unavailable. Nitrogen and phosphorus analyses of fecal samples indicated diets were nutritionally superior on the good compared to the excellent condition range. Our research and other studies show consumption of forbs and shrubs permits cattle to maximize their nutritional welfare when grasses are dormant. The excellent condition range in our study had a different(P<0.05) mean grass standing crop (999 kg/ha) across periods compared to on the good condition range (659 kg/ha). Based on our research and other studies excellent condition Chihuahuan desert range maximizes forage quantity for cattle but good condition range appears better from a nutritional standpoint in the spring and early summer. Our research and other studies indicate Chihuahuan desert ranges dominated by black grama are most effectively used in winter while ranges with a high dropseed component are best suited for use in summer and early fall.
    • Observation: Comparative live-history of cheatgrass and yellow starthistle

      Sheley, R. L.; Larson, L. L. (Society for Range Management, 1994-11-01)
      The objective of this research was to characterize the life-histories of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) and yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L.) growing in association. Biweekly demographic attributes were monitored during 1991 (moist spring) and 1992 (dry spring). Data were arranged into life-history tables, and sensitivity analysis was performed to determine key transition phases. The entire cheatgrass seed crop reached the soil surface, 41% of yellow starthistle's seed output was lost during seed rain. Frost heaving reduced winter seedling populations of cheatgrass (53%) more than yellow starthistle (40%). All cheatgrass seedlings surviving the frost heaving period became adults. Yellow starthistle density was reduced by 75% during the juvenile phase. Cheatgrass adults appeared about 6 weeks before yellow starthistle adults. Cheatgrass seed output remained about 7,000 m2 with moist and dry spring conditions. Yellow starthistle seed output was about 21,600 m2 and 5,200 m2 with moist and dry spring conditions, respectively. Reduction of yellow starthistle seed output with dry spring conditions suggest oscillatory community dynamics. Key processes associated with life-history transitions were interference (competition), resource acquisition rates and duration, and reproductive allocation.
    • Observation: Leafy spurge control in western prairie fringed orchid habitat

      Kirby, D. R.; Lym, R. G.; Sterling, J. J.; Sieg, C. H. (Society for Range Management, 2003-09-01)
      The western prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera praeclara Sheviak and Bowles) is a threatened species of the tallgrass prairie. Invasion by leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is a serious threat to western prairie fringed orchid habitat. The objectives of this study were to develop a herbicide treatment to control leafy spurge while sustaining western prairie fringed orchid populations and to evaluate the soil seedbank composition of leafy spurge-infested sites to guide long-term management strategies. Quinclorac (3,7-dichloro-8-quinolinecarboxylic acid), imazapic {(+/-)-2-[4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2=yl]-5-methyl-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid}, and glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] plus 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) were applied in the fall for 2 consecutive years, and changes in leafy spurge cover, density, yield, and herbaceous yield were assessed. In a separate study, quinclorac, imazapic, and glyphosate plus 2,4-D were each fall-applied to 12 western prairie fringed orchids and assessed for reoccurrence and density of orchids 1-year after treatment. Quinclorac and imazapic, but not glyphosate plus 2,4-D, reduced leafy spurge cover, density, and yield without causing deleterious effects to associated native herbaceous cover and yields. Western prairie fringed orchid reoccurrence and density were unaffected by any herbicide 1 year after treatment. Soil cores were removed in spring and fall following the first year herbicide treatment, washed and placed in trays. Seedlings were allowed to germinate for 16 weeks in the greenhouse. Over 50 plant species were identified in the soil seedbank, of which approximately 60% were early seral species indicative of disturbance. Given the dominance of leafy spurge in the seed bank, a long-term management program to control this noxious species is warranted. Although these results are promising, longer-term studies need be conducted to ensure that repeated herbicide treatments do not harm the western prairie fringed orchid.
    • Observation: Life history of spotted knapweed

      Jacobs, J. S.; Sheley, R. L. (Society for Range Management, 1998-11-01)
      Spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam.) is a non-indigenous weed infesting large areas of rangeland in western North America. Life history models have been used to identify key processes regulating weed population dynamics and may be valuable in developing and testing integrated weed management strategies. Our objective was to characterize the life history of spotted knapweed. Demographic attributes were monitored monthly during snow free periods beginning August 1994 through October 1996 on 2 sites. Data were arranged into life history tables, and sensitivity analysis was performed to determine key transition phases affecting seed output. Spotted knapweed seed production ranged from 998 to 7815 viable seeds/m2 at both sites during the study. Seeds reaching the soil averaged 41 and 50% of seed output at sites 1 and 2, respectively. Less than 6% of seeds reaching the soil germinated in the fall at both sites. Recruitment peaked in April at 36% and in June at 20% of seeds reaching the soil on sites 1 and 2, respectively. Spotted knapweed juvenile density peaked August 1995 and June 1996 at both sites. Peaks corresponded with the beginning of the summer dry period. Plants bolted beginning June 1995 and May 1996. Sensitivity analysis identified early-summer juvenile survivorship, late-summer adult survivorship, transition from juvenile to adult, and seeds produced per adult as critical stages for spotted knapweed seed output. Management strategies that reduce spotted knapweed populations at these stages are likely to have the greatest impact on spotted knapweed population growth and spread. A weed population dynamics model using the life history demographic data was developed and can be used to design and test integrated spotted knapweed strategies.
    • Observation: Long-term increases in mesquite canopy cover in a north Texas savanna

      Ansley, R. J.; Wu, X. B.; Kramp, B. A. (Society for Range Management, 2001-03-01)
      It is necessary to quantify rates of woody plant encroachment on southwestern USA rangelands to determine the economic feasibility of treatments designed to manage these plants. This study observed changes in honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) canopy cover over a 20-year period (1976-1995) in 2 treatments: an untreated area that initially had a moderately dense mesquite stand (14.6% cover), and an area cleared of mesquite with root-plowing in 1974. Canopy cover of mesquite was estimated from scanned color-infrared aerial photograph images by manually delineating mesquite canopies with a computer using ArcView software. During the 20 years, mesquite cover in the untreated area increased (P less than or equal to 0.05) from 14.6 to 58.7%, averaging 2.2 percentage units per year. Cover in the root-plow treatment also significantly increased during the same period from 0 to 21.9% (1.1 percentage units per year), but the rate of increase was significantly lower than in the untreated area because mesquite growth was from new seedlings instead of established plants and/or new seedlings as occurred in the untreated area. Rate of increase was significantly lower from 1976 to 1990 (1.6 and 0.2 percentage units per year) than from 1990 to 1995 (4.1 and 3.7 percentage units per year) in the untreated and root-plow treatment, respectively. These differences were attributed to precipitation which was near normal from 1976 to 1990 but 25% above normal from 1991 to 1995.
    • Observations of cattle use of prairie dog towns

      Guenther, D. A.; Detling, J. K. (Society for Range Management, 2003-09-01)
      We investigated the use of prairie dog towns by cattle (Bos taurus) on the shortgrass steppe of northeastern Colorado by conducting surveys of cattle and vegetation from June to August 1999. Cattle presence and behavior were recorded 3 times a week during driving surveys of 15 black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) towns. A subset of 3 pastures with prairie dog towns was intensively surveyed twice weekly wherein the habitat and activity of a randomly chosen focal animal was recorded every 6 minutes for 3.5 hours. Bite and step counts of other individuals were recorded for 5-minute intervals. Vegetation height and cover data were collected monthly on each of 6 habitats. Results from driving surveys and intensively surveyed pastures were similar; cattle neither significantly preferred nor avoided prairie dog towns. Bare ground cover on prairie dog towns did not significantly differ from most other habitats, but vegetation on prairie dog towns was significantly shorter on (mean = 6.7 cm) than that off (mean = 11.9 cm) prairie dog towns. Nevertheless, foraging observations indicated that there was no significant difference between cattle foraging rates on swales (70.9 bites/min) and prairie dog towns (69.5 bites/min). Thus, cattle on the shortgrass steppe appear to use prairie dog towns in proportion to their availability and, while there, they graze as intensively as they do on habitats not inhabited by prairie dogs.
    • Observations of Lupinus sulphureus-induced "crooked calf disease"

      Pantner, K. E.; Gardner, D. R.; Gay, C. C.; James, L. F.; Mills, R.; Gay, J. M.; Baldwin, T. J. (Society for Range Management, 1997-11-01)
      Lupine-induced "crooked calf disease" occurred in a fall calving herd of cows in Northeastern Oregon. Sixty-seven calves from a herd of 131 cows (51%) were born with congenital skeletal malformations primarily of the front limbs, neck, or spine and a few had cleft palates. Because of the nature of the malformations, lupine was suspected, and investigation of the ranch and pastures where cows grazed revealed 2 species of lupine (Lupinus sulphureus; Douglas ex. Lindl. and Lupinus leucophyllus; Douglas ex. Hooker) and poison-hemlock (Conium maculatum). Poison-hemlock was not grazed and therefore eliminated as the teratogenic plant. Extensive grazing of the Lupinus sulphureus especially the seed pods was evident. Chemical analysis of the 2 lupine species demonstrated that L. sulphureus was likely the cause of the birth defects because it contained high levels of the quinolizidine alkaloid anagyrine, a known teratogen. Lupinus sulphureus is a yellow-flowered lupine and contained 1.84% anagyrine in the seed, whereas Lupinus leucophyllus, a purple flowered lupine, contained other quinolizidine alkaloids but no anagyrine. The seed pods of L. sulphureus were high in total alkaloids (42 mg/g of dry seed), of which 45% was anagyrine. After a review of breeding records, grazing patterns and growth stage of plants, it was determined cattle probably ingested L. sulphureus in the seed pod stage during critical fetal developmental periods of gestation. Epidemiologic studies suggested the critical gestational period included day 21 to day 100; 70% of the malformed calves were born to cows that were exposed to the plant during gestation days 60 to 80. The risk of deformities was markedly increased in fetuses exposed during this interval. A few malformations occurred in cows exposed to the lupine as early as gestation day 21 and as late as day 100. We conclude that L. sulphureus was the teratogenic species, and producers should prevent cows from grazing L. sulphureus during gestation days 40 to 100 and consider herbicide control of this lupine species.
    • Observations of predator activity at wildlife water developments in southern Arizona

      DeStefano, S.; Schmidt, S. L.; DeVos, J. C. (Society for Range Management, 2000-05-01)
      Wildlife water developments have been constructed and maintained throughout the arid western United States to benefit big game and upland gamebird populations. There is debate, however, over possible detriments to wildlife from artificial water sources in deserts and other arid environments. One concern is that water developments attract predators, which then impact the prey populations that these developments are intended to benefit. To examine the extent of predator activity around water developments, we examined 15 paired water and non-water (random) sites for sign (scats, tracks, visual observations, animal parts such as feathers and bones, and carcasses) of predators and prey. Predator sign was 7x greater around water sites than non-water sites (P = 0.002). Coyote (Canis latrans Say) sign accounted for 79% of all predator sign and was 7x greater near water than away from water (P = 0.006). Amount of sign for all prey species combined was not different between paired sites (P = 0.6), but results for individual species and groups of species was variable; passerine and gallinaceous bird sign was greater around water sites (P = 0.008), ungulate sign was not different between water and non-water sites (P greater than or equal to 0.20), and lagomorph sign was almost 2x greater away from water than near water (P = 0.05). Predators were probably attracted to wildlife water developments to drink rather than hunt; without water developments, predators may be even more concentrated around the fewer natural water sites.
    • Observations of shoots and roots from interspecific grafted rosaceous shrubs

      Kyle, N. E.; Righetti, T. L. (Society for Range Management, 1996-07-01)
      Plants with various shoot and root combinations of Cowania mexicana var. stansburiana (Torr.) Jeps. (cliffrose), Purshia glandulosa Curran (desert bitterbrush), and Purchia tridentata (Pursh) DC. (antelope bitterbrush) were relatively easy to produce by grafting. The foreign roots or shoots in multi-shoot or multi-root systems were not as vigorous as the original scion or rootstock. With time the original scion or rootstock became dominant and the foreign portions usually senesced. If growth of the original scion or rootstock was restricted by pruning or removal, satisfactory growth for both shoot or root types occurred. Manipulating grafted systems where Fallugia paradoxa, (D. Don) Endl., Apache plume, (a non-nodulating genus) is combined with any of the above 3 nodulating species was much more difficult. Graft incompatibility occurred in most intergeneric Fallugia systems, but some combinations survived for several years. A large quantity of nodules was produced on 1 very sparsely rooted P. tridentata scion attached to a Fallugia rootstock. Apparently, the plant derived much of its nitrogen from Purshia nodules, and the majority of its other nutrients and water from the Fallugia roots.
    • Observations of white-tailed deer cattle diets in Mexico

      Martinez, A.; Molina, V.; Gonzáles, F.; Marroquín, J. S.; Navar, J. (Society for Range Management, 1997-05-01)
      Most rangelands in northern Nuevo Leon, Mexico, have been grazed intensely for more than 10 years simultaneously by cattle and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus texanus). There is a lack of information concerning diet selection of white-tailed deer and cattle in this region. We observed the dietary preferences of these ungulates in northeastern Nuevo Leon for a 6 month period. Two adjacent areas were subjected to rotational grazing (RG) and continuous cattle grazing (CG). Fecal analysis was used to determine dietary overlap of these 2 sympatric ruminants. Cattle diets averaged 70% grasses, 23% browse, and 4% forbs. Deer diets were 63% browse, 24% forbs and 12% grasses in both areas. The preferred species for cattle in both areas were grasses. Deer preferred fortes on the continuous grazed area and grasses on rotational grazed area. Zacate toboso [Hilaria mutica (Buckl.] Benth.) was the most preferred species by both ruminants in both management systems. Differences between cattle and deer diets were significant (P < 0.05). The similarity index was higher on the rotational grazed (23%) than on the continuous grazed area (15%) (P < 0.05). The higher similarity index in RG area may have been a result of the altered forage preferences of deer. Zacate toboso under RG could be an important feed resource in those areas where white-tailed deer and cattle graze in common.
    • Observations on Artemisia in Nevada

      Brunner, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1972-05-01)
      Seven years of study of the various species and forms of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) found in Nevada reveal that although there are about 28 different sagebrushes, there are only 4 of grazing importance. Thin-layer chromatography was used to identify the sagebrushes and a system of identification using leaf shape has been devised.
    • Observations on biomass dynamics of a crested wheatgrass and native shortgrass ecosystem in southern Wyoming

      Redente, E. F.; Biondini, M. E.; Moore, J. C. (Society for Range Management, 1989-03-01)
      Above- and belowground net primary production (ANPP and BNPP) were compared between a 30-year-old crested wheatgrass site and an adjacent native shortgrass prairie. ANPP was estimated using successive harvests in May, June, July, and October 1985. BNPP was estimated using soil cores to a depth of 100 cm at the same time that aboveground harvests were made. ANPP was significantly greater in the crested wheatgrass site compared to the native site, but belowground and total net primary production were not different. The native shortgrass system, however, had greater live root biomass early in the growing season. The crested wheatgrass system had a high accumulation of aboveground dead material at the start of the growing season, which was followed by a significant decline in June and an increase in July and October. The native shortgrass system, however, had significantly lower accumulations of aboveground dead material. Approximately 92% of the fixed carbon in the native site was allocated belowground, while crested wheatgrass allocated about 85% of its fixed carbon belowground.
    • Observations on Herbage Growth, Disappearance, and Accumulation Under Livestock Grazing

      Scarnecchia, D. L.; Kothmann, M. M. (Society for Range Management, 1986-01-01)
      Expressing the effects of grazing animals on herbage requires explicitly defined variables describing herbage growth and herbage disappearance, as well as variables describing net changes in herbage. This paper presents a mathematical framework on variables describing herbage growth, disappearance, and accumulation, which can be used to model herbage dynamics, and to develop and present field research.
    • Observations on Rangelands and the Political Process: Public Lands and Public Policy

      Lundburg, Frank L. (Society for Range Management, 1980-10-01)