• “Wagons Ho!”

      Caring, Jude (Society for Range Management, 2002-08-01)
    • Wall Creek Game Range—A Dissenting View

      Wuerthner, George (Society for Range Management, 1992-02-01)
    • Warm Springs Wildlife Management Area: A Study in Managing for Multiple Values

      Gallagher, Jerry; Frisina, Michael R. (Society for Range Management, 1995-12-01)
    • Warm-season grass establishment as affected by post-planting atrazine application

      Bahler, C. C.; Moser, L. E.; Griffin, T. S.; Vogel, K. P. (Society for Range Management, 1990-09-01)
      Atrazine [6-chloro-N-ethyl-N’-(l-methylethyl)-1,3,4-diamine] provides effective weed control during big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) establishment. However, most other desirable warm-season grasses are susceptible to atrazine injury at establishment. The objective of this study was to determine if atrazine application after seeding would affect susceptible warm-season grass establishment. Big bluestem, switchgrass, indiangrass [Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash] sideoats grama [Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.], and little bluestem [Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash] were seeded into greenhouse flats or field plots and 2.2 kg a.i. atrazine/ha applied at 0 (atrazine control), 7, 14, or 21 days after planting. An untreated control was used also. In greenhouse experiments, Indiangrass and sideoats grama plant survival increased when atrazine applications were delayed. Switchgrass, big blue stem, and little bluestem plant survival was not affected by atrazine application. Field studies were conducted in 1983, 1985, and 1986 using the same soil type, grass species, and application periods as the greenhouse study. Delaying atrazine application 7 or more days after planting generally favored survival of lndlangrass and sideoats grama. Big bluestem, switchgrass, and little bluestem were not affected by atrazine treatment. Delaying the application of atrazine may favor the survival of atrazine sensitive species. However, further research needs to be conducted on various soil types and environmental conditions before this can be a recommended practice.
    • Warm-Season Grasses in the Northern Great Plains

      Tober, Dwight A.; Chamrad, A. Dean (Society for Range Management, 1992-08-01)
    • Was the High Plains a Pine-Spruce Forest?

      Hall, Stephen A. (Society for Range Management, 2000-02-01)
    • Washington Cattleman of the Year Program Promotes Good Range Management

      Ausman, D. (Society for Range Management, 1952-09-01)
    • Water and nitrogen effects on growth and allocation patterns of creosotebush in the northern Chihuahuan Desert

      Fisher, F. M.; Zak, J. C.; Cunningham, G. L.; Whitford, W. G. (Society for Range Management, 1988-09-01)
      A field experiment using 2 patterns of irrigation and 1 level of nitrogen fertilizer (10 g-N m-2) was conducted in order to discern water and nitrogen interactions that may control production of creosotebush, (Larrea tridentata (D.C.) Cov. The 2 patterns of irrigation simulated precipitation from small, frequent events (6 mm water added weekly) or large, infrequent events (25 mm water added monthly). Understanding the factors controlling the production of this rangeland shrub may aid in the development of strategies for its management. Vegetative growth occurred mostly during March-May (spring) and August-October (summer-fall). Fruit production occurred mainly in the spring and root growth occurred mainly in the summer-fall. Irrigation increased vegetative growth and decreased fruit production. Responses to irrigation were greater during summer-fall than in the spring. Small, frequent water additions caused larger increases in vegetative plus fruit growth than did large, infrequent water additions. Nitrogen fertilization increased the growth of both vegetation and fruit in irrigated and unirrigated plots. Stem mortality and root growth were not significantly affected by irrigation or nitrogen fertilizer. These results suggest that creosotebush production is limited by both soil moisture and nitrogen availability and that temporal patterns of rainfall may be as important as total amounts.
    • Water Balance Calculations and Net Production of Perennial Vegetation in the Northern Mojave Desert

      Lane, L. J.; Romney, E. M.; Hakonson, T. E. (Society for Range Management, 1984-01-01)
      Measurements obtained between 1968 and 1976 indicate the influence of climatic factors and soil characteristics upon soil moisture and production of perennial vegetation in the northern Mojave Desert. Seasonal distribution patterns of precipitation are shown to have a strong effect on plant-available soil moisture, and these patterns are, in turn, reflected in net production of perennial vegetation. Available climatic data and soil characteristics were used as input to a continuous simulation model to calculate the water balance for a unit area watershed. Computed and measured soil moisture agreed quite well over a range of values from close to the wilting point to near field capacity. We used computed evapotranspiration rates to estimate water use by perennial vegetation. Computed water use was multiplied by a water use efficiency factor to estimate net production of perennial vegetation. Estimated net production exhibited year-to-year variability comparable with measured values, and agreed quite closely with available observations. This paper briefly describes soil-water-plant relationships in the northern Mojave Desert and illustrates an application of a continuous simulation model to predict soil moisture and net production of perennial vegetation. Based on our analysis, the simulation model would appear to have potential for estimating the water balance and above ground net primary production on arid and semiarid rangelands.
    • Water balance in pure stand of Lehmann lovegrass

      Frasier, G. W.; Cox, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1994-09-01)
      Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana Nees), an introduced warm season grass, has invaded grasslands in southern Arizona, in many areas replacing the native warm-season grasses. A water balance evaluation in a pure stand of Lehmann lovegrass showed that more soil water was used through evapotranspiration than occurred as precipitation during 2 years of a 3-year study period. During the winter season, an appreciable amount of water was used by Lehmann lovegrass or lost by evaporation from the soil surface. The remaining available soil water was used in the spring dry period. In the dry early spring the soil water contents (to depths of 120 cm) were less than the traditional wilting point tension of -1.5 MPa. The invasion of Lehmann lovegrass into grasslands of southern Arizona is partially related to its ability to utilize soil water during parts of the year when the native species are dormant and also to extract water from the soil profile to very low water contents.
    • Water Balance of a Stock-Watering Pond in the Flint Hills of Kansas

      Duesterhaus, J. L.; Ham, J. M.; Owensby, C. E.; Murphy, J. T. (Society for Range Management, 2008-05-01)
      Small ponds are often the main source of drinking water for grazing livestock. The hydrology of these ponds must be understood so impoundments can be located, designed, and managed to avoid water shortages during dry weather. A study was conducted to measure the water balance of a stock-watering pond in the Flint Hills region of east-central Kansas from June 2005 to October 2006. The 0.35-ha pond supplied water to 250-kg yearling steers in a 65-ha pasture of native tallgrass prairie. Evaporation, depth change, and cattle consumption were measured continuously using meteorological sensors, depth recorders, and water meters. Seepage, transpiration, and inflow were measured periodically or modeled. Evaporation was also predicted from weather data using forms of the Penman and Priestley-Taylor models. Evaporation accounted for 64% of the total water loss annually, while seepage, cattle consumption, and transpiration accounted for 31%, 3%, and 2%, respectively. The greatest water loss was observed in July, with total monthly losses over 358 mm and peak daily losses sometimes exceeding 18 mm d-1. Cattle consumption averaged 30 L day-1 animal-1 with peak usage of 46 L day-1 animal-1. On average, the Priestley-Taylor and Penman evaporation models estimated monthly evaporation to 3% and 5%, respectively. Thus, evaporation, the main form of loss, can be predicted with simple models using data from weather station networks. Inflows from runoff proved difficult to predict and were highly dependent on antecedent soil water content. Results showed that losses from ponds can be measured or predicted with reasonable accuracy. These data could be incorporated into catchment-scale hydrology models to provide site-specific designs for stock-watering ponds and livestock-watering strategies.
    • Water budget for south Texas rangelands

      Weltz, M. A.; Blackburn, W. H. (Society for Range Management, 1995-01-01)
      Understanding hydrologic processes is essential to determine if water yield augmentation is possible through vegetation manipulation. Nine large non-weighing lysimeters, each 35 m2, were installed on the La Copita Research Area, 20 km south of Alice, in the eastern Rio Grande Plain of Texas. The non-weighing lysimeters were used to test the hypothesis that honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa var glandulosa Torr.) shrub clusters have greater evapotranspiration rates than grass interspaces. Annual evapotranspiration rates of shrub clusters and grass interspaces were found to be similar, and both were significantly greater than evaporative losses from bare soil. Surface runoff and deep drainage of water (> 2 m) from the bare soil were significantly greater than from the grass interspaces and shrub clusters. There was no drainage of water below 2 m from the shrub clusters. A total of 22 mm of water percolated below 2 m from the grass interspace during the 18 month study period. These results indicate that no net change in the water budget would occur if shrub clusters were replaced with grasses in years with below average or normal rainfall. Increasing water yield from converting shrub-dominated rangelands to grass-dominated rangelands in south Texas is marginal in this area and limited to years when winter and spring rainfall exceeds potential evapotranspiration. There is little evidence to suggest that the minimal (non-significant difference) increase in percolation and surface runoff from the grass interspaces could be reliably captured and dependably made available off-site.
    • Water Catchments on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation

      Frasier, Gary W.; Simper, Sherri L. (Society for Range Management, 1991-06-01)
    • Water Development—No Drop in the Bucket for Simmes

      Anseth, Brad (Society for Range Management, 1981-08-01)
    • Water erosion prediction project (WEPP) rangeland hydrology component evaluation on a Texas range site

      Savabi, M. R.; Rawls, W. J.; Knight, R. W. (Society for Range Management, 1995-11-01)
      The USDA-Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) is a new technology based on the fundamentals of hydrology, soil physics, plant science, hydraulics, and erosion mechanics. WEPP hydrology includes simulation of excess rainfall using the Green and Ampt infiltration equation, surface runoff routing, evapotranspiration, percolation, and surface drainage. Hydrometeorological, soil, topography, and vegetation data from a range in Texas were used to test the WEPP rangeland hydrology model. Measured surface runoff and root zone soil water content from the site were compared with the simulated results of the WEPP model. The results indicate that the WEPP model (version 93.0) is capable of simulating soil water content and storm runoff. The Nash and Sutcliffe coefficient, NSR, between measured and simulated root zone soil water content and storm runoff was .88 and .84, respectively, for the bare ground plots. However, for the plots with herbaceous vegetation the discrepancy between model simulated storm runoff and soil water content was more than expected (NSR = .46 and NSR = .53, respectively).
    • Water for Wildlife

      Nelle, Stephan A. (Society for Range Management, 1991-08-01)
    • Water Harvesting Efficiencies of Four Soil Surface Treatments

      Rauzi, L.; Fairbourn, M. L.; Landers, L. (Society for Range Management, 1973-11-01)
      Water harvesting efficiency of four soil surface treatments was studied for 5 years at Gillette, Wyoming, and the Central Plains Experimental Range near Nunn, Colorado. The surface treatments consisted of rangeland, salt (NaCl), plastic covered with pea gravel, and asphalt roll roofing. Average water harvesting efficiencies ranged from 5% on rangeland at Gillette to 105% from the asphalt roll roofing treatment at the Central Plains Experimental Range. Spring and fall snowstorms resulted in water harvesting efficiencies of over 100% at the Central Plains Experimental Range. Precipitation was highest in April, May, and June and lowest in August.
    • Water Harvesting From Ranch Roads

      Thorpe, Jim (Society for Range Management, 2007-06-01)
    • Water Harvesting: A Source of Livestock Water

      Frasier, G. W. (Society for Range Management, 1975-11-01)
      Water harvesting is a means of supplying stockwater in any area where precipitation is sufficient to grow forage. There are many types of methods and materials which can be used to collect precipitation. Knowledge of the advantages and disadvantages of each treatment is needed to select the method best suited for a given site. Costs of water collected from various treatments range from less than $0.20 per 1,000 gallons to over $6.00 per 1,000 gallons in a 20-inch precipitation zone.
    • Water holding capacity of litter and soil organic matter in mixed prairie and fescue grassland ecosystems of Alberta

      Naeth, M. A.; Bailey, A. W.; Chanasyk, D. S.; Pluth, D. J. (Society for Range Management, 1991-01-01)
      Litter and organic matter accumulations can reduce soil water through interception of precipitation and subsequent evaporation of absorbed water. Interception varies with mass and water holding capacity (WHC) of litter and organic matter, and is highest from small precipitation events. WHC varies with vegetation type, which is affected by grazing regime. Thus long-term grazing could affect WHC of litter and organic matter and would be important in the hydrologic assessment of rangelands subjected to many small precipitation events throughout the growing season. The study was conducted in mixed prairie, parkland fescue, and foothills fescue grasslands in Alberta, Canada. Grazing regimes were of light to very heavy intensities, grazed early, late, and continuously during the growing season. Litter and organic matter were sorted by sieving into various sized categories. Litter-soil cores were also evaluated. WHC of litter and organic matter was lower in mixed prairie than in fescue grasslands. WHC increased with increazed particle size, being higher for roots and standing and fallen litter than for organic matter. WHC of large particle-sized material decreased with heavy intensity and/or early season grazing. WHC was affected more by intensity than season of grazing. Grazing affected WHC through species composition changes, since species have different WHC, and through trampling which affected particle size. It was concluded that litter and organic matter WHC were important in rangeland hydrologic assessments.