• Can Imazapic and Seeding Be Applied Simultaneously to Rehabilitate Medusahead-Invaded Rangeland? Single vs. Multiple Entry

      Davies, K. W.; Madsen, M. D.; Nafus, A. M.; Boyd, C. S.; Johnson, D. D. (Society for Range Management, 2014-11)
      It has recently been proposed that the cost of rehabilitating medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae [L.] Nevski)–invaded rangelands may be reduced by concurrently seeding desired vegetation and applying the preemergent herbicide imazapic. However, the efficacy of this “single-entry” approach has been inconsistent, and it has not been compared to the multiple-entry approach where seeding is delayed 1 yr to decrease herbicide damage to nontarget seeded species. We evaluated single- and multiple-entry approaches in medusahead-invaded rangelands in southeastern Oregon with seeding for both approaches occurring in October 2011. Before seeding and applying herbicide, all plots were burned to improve medusahead control with imazapic and prepare the seedbed for drill seeding–introduced perennial bunchgrasses. Both approaches effectively controlled medusahead during the 2 yr postseeding. However, almost no seeded bunchgrasses established with the single-entry treatment (< 0.5 individals · m-2), probably as a result of nontarget herbicide mortality. Perennial grass cover and density in the single-entry treatment did not differ from the untreated control. In contrast, the multiple-entry treatment had on average 6.5 seeded bunchgrasses · m-2 in the second year postseeding. Perennial grass (seeded and nonseed species) cover was eight times greater in the multiple-entry compared to the single-entry treatment by the second year postseeding. These results suggest that the multiple-entry approach has altered the community from annual-dominated to perennial grass–dominated, but the single-entry approach will likely be reinvaded and dominated medusahead without additional treatments because of a lack of perennial vegetation. © 2014 Society for Range Management
    • Can Imazapic Increase Native Species Abundance in Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) Invaded Native Plant Communities?

      Elseroad, Adrien C.; Rudd, Nathan T. (Society for Range Management, 2011-11-01)
      Native plant communities invaded by cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) are at risk of unnatural high intensity fires and conversion to cheatgrass monocultures. Management strategies that reduce cheatgrass abundance may potentially allow native species to expand and minimize further cheatgrass invasion. We tested whether the selective herbicide imazapic is effective in reducing cheatgrass and ‘‘releasing’’ native species in a semiarid grassland and shrub steppe in north-central Oregon. The experiment consisted of a completely randomized design with two treatments (sprayed with 70 g ai ha-1 of imazapic and unsprayed) and three replicates of each treatment applied to either 2.5 or 4 ha plots. We repeated this experiment in three different sites dominated by the following native species: 1) bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata [Pursh] A. Löve ssp. spicata) and needle and thread (Hesperostipa comata [Trin. Rupr.] Barkworth), 2) needle and thread and Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda J. Presl), and 3) big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.). Nested frequency of all plant species in 1-m2 quadrats was collected for 1 yr pretreatment and 4 yr posttreatment. In all three sites, cheatgrass frequencies were significantly lower in sprayed plots than unsprayed plots for 3-4 yr posttreatment (P<0.1). Other annual plant species were also impacted by imazapic, but the effects were highly variable by species and site. Only two native perennial species, hoary tansyaster (Machaeranthera canescens [Pursh] Gray) and big sagebrush, increased in sprayed plots, and increases occurred only at two sites. These results suggest that a short-term reduction in cheatgrass alone is not an effective strategy for increasing the abundance of most native perennial plant species.
    • Can Ranch Owners Include the Ranch in An Investment Portfolio?

      Hawkes, Jerry M.; Libbin, James D.; Kohler, Jeremy D. (Society for Range Management, 2004-12-01)
      Reducing ranching financial risk can be achieved by diversification of assets.
    • Can Ranch Profits Be Improved?

      Whitson, Robert E. (Society for Range Management, 1979-10-01)
    • Can Ranchers Adjust To Fluctuating Forage Production

      Skeete, G. M. (Society for Range Management, 1966-09-01)
      Experience in the Edwards Plateau area of West Texas since 1960 demonstrates that soundly planned range improvement and ranch management make it possible to operate profitably and to adjust to fluctuating forage supplies.
    • Can Ranchers Slow Climate Change?

      Campbell, Sara; Mooney, Siân; Hewlett, John P.; Menkhaus, Dale J.; Vance, George F. (Society for Range Management, 2004-08-01)
      Carbon credits can be created on rangelands at costs that are competitive with credits from cropland and forestry, revealing that ranchers could play a role in reducing climate change.
    • Can Range Management Objectives Be Attained within Political and Judicial Systems?

      Miller, R. Keith; Papworth, W. Robert (Society for Range Management, 1983-02-01)
    • Can Rangeland Projects Survive Cost-Benefit Analysis?

      Kerr, W. A.; Dooley, A. (Society for Range Management, 1982-02-01)
    • Can Regeneration of Green Ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) be Restored in Declining Woodlands in Eastern Montana?

      Lesica, Peter (Society for Range Management, 2009-11-01)
      Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) dominates many deciduous woodlands at the western margin of its range in eastern Montana. Evidence suggests that the majority of green ash woodlands are in degraded condition with declining tree canopies and ground layers dominated by exotic grasses. The dense sod formed by these perennial grasses was hypothesized to interfere with green ash regeneration from seed. The purpose of this study was to test potential methods of restoring green ash regeneration in these declining woodlands. The effects of preseeding grazing and herbicide treatment and postgermination fertilizer on the recruitment, survival, and growth of green ash seedlings at each of four study sites typical of declining green ash woodlands in southeastern Montana were assessed. Six green ash trees at each of three sites were cut to examine the relationship of age, size, and health to sprouting ability and growth. Herbicide application had a positive effect on green ash recruitment and survival of green ash seedlings in woodlands with a dense sod of exotic grasses; seedling survival after 3-4 yr was ca. 10 times greater in herbicide-treated plots compared to controls or grazed plots. Seedlings grew slowly although fertilizer had a small positive effect on growth at one site. All coppiced trees produced basal sprouts, but sprout growth was severely curtailed at two of the three sites by deer browsing, suggesting that coppicing could increase tree canopy cover by replacing weakened trees with new and more vigorous boles and branches, but only where browsing by cattle and deer is reduced. Maintaining eastern Montana green ash woodlands in good condition should be given priority because restoration will be difficult. 
    • Can Shallow Plowing and Harrowing Facilitate Restoration of Leymus chinensis Grassland? Results From a 24-Year Monitoring Program

      Baoyin, Taogetao; Yonghong Li, Frank (Society for Range Management, 2009-07-01)
      Long-term effects of two mechanical interventions, shallow plowing and harrowing, on degraded Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. grassland were studied. Species composition and standing biomass of the grassland were monitored at peak biomass each year for 24 yr after application of these two measures, together with grassland in natural recovery and that under public grazing. Results showed a high resilience of degraded grassland, which recovered naturally after excluding grazing animals to a structure similar to the intact L. chinensis community. In comparison with natural recovery, harrowing facilitated restoration of L. chinensis population and community structure and improved grassland production. Shallow plowing accelerated recovery of L. chinensis population to a larger extent than harrowing and led to a flourish of annual species and improvement of herbage production in the years following its application. But the production improvement was unsustainable and was associated with a decrease in grassland species richness and community complexity. We conclude that the best measure for restoring degraded grassland depends on the restoration objectives and severity of grassland degradation. Harrowing is a feasible technique to assist restoration of the degraded grassland. In contrast, shallow plowing is not appropriate for ecological restoration, but may be applied for quick restoration of herbage production. 
    • Can Solid Matrix Priming With GA3 Break Seed Dormancy in Eastern Gamagrass?

      Rogis, C.; Gibson, L. R.; Knapp, A. D.; Horton, R. (Society for Range Management, 2004-11-01)
      Development of methods for breaking seed dormancy in eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides, L.) could increase its use. Solid matrix priming, the controlled hydration of seed in a system of solid carrier and water, has been used with some success to enhance germination in warm-season grasses. gibberellic acid (ga3), a known promoter of eastern gamagrass germination, can be added to solid matrix priming systems. In this study, systems were evaluated for conditioning eastern gamagrass seeds using the solid carriers Agro-Lig, MicroCel E, and Vermiculite #5. GA3 was added in 0.01 M concentration solutions to systems with water potentials of -0.4 and -0.6 MPa in Agro-Lig and -0.2 and -0.4 in MicroCel E and Vermiculite #5 and compared with systems with deionized water. Priming seed with GA3 increased germination to 18% compared with 13% without GA3. MicroCel E and Vermiculite #5 were suitable materials for controlled hydration of eastern gamagrass seed. Germination was only 11% in Agro-Lig compared with 16%-19% for MicroCel E and Vermiculite #5. Priming with GA3 does not appear to be as successful at breaking seed dormancy as cold, wet stratification.
    • Can spring cattle grazing among young bitterbrush stimulate shrub growth?

      Ganskopp, Dave; Svejcar, Tony; Taylor, Fred; Farstvedt, Jerry (Society for Range Management, 2004-03-01)
      Due to its palatability and forage quality, antelope bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata Pursh DC) is a desirable shrub across western US rangelands. Because little information is available regarding grazing management of young bitterbrush, a study was undertaken to explore stocking pressure thresholds and quantify effects of light and heavy spring cattle grazing on shrub growth. Rates of browsing and trampling and forage availability were monitored over 3 years in southeast Oregon. Across years, 29% of bitterbrush endured trampling in light-grazing treatments, and 55% experienced trampling under heavy grazing. Linear models relating time and cattle density successfully explained (r2 = 0.84-0.86) probabilities of bitterbrush being trampled. Forage utilization averaged 32% and 59% in lightly and heavily grazed units, and 14 and 62% of bitterbrush were browsed in lightly and heavily-grazed pastures, respectively. Cattle began browsing when herbaceous standing crop declined to 100-150 kg ha-1. Browsing in heavily-grazed pastures reduced diameters of bitterbrush by 4.5 to 9.5 cm in 1998 and 1999, but shrub height was unaffected. Lightly-grazed stands exhibited a 50% greater increase in bitterbrush diameter, 30% greater height increment, and 8% longer twigs than shrubs in ungrazed pastures. At the end of the 1997 and 1998 growing seasons, bitterbrush in heavily-grazed pastures were 11 cm greater in diameter than ungrazed controls and equal to shrubs in lightly-grazed pastures. To stimulate bitterbrush growth, young stands can be lightly-grazed (30 to 40% utilization of herbaceous forage) by cattle when bitterbrush is flowering and accompanying grasses are in vegetative to late-boot stages of phenology.
    • Can We Broaden the Rangeland Audience Without Denying our Grazing Heritage?

      Hart, Richard H. (Society for Range Management, 1996-10-01)
    • Can We Predict Forage Nutritive Value With Weather Parameters?

      McCuistion, Kim; Grigar, Michael; Wester, David B.; Rhoades, Ryan; Mathis, Clay; Tedeschi, Luis (Society for Range Management, 2014-02-01)
      On the Ground • The use of easily accessible information to forecast when standing forage may lack nutrients to sustain cattle production could be valuable to the ranching community. • Our study was designed to determine if forage crude protein and acid detergent fiber could be reasonably predicted using precipitation, season, and temperature. • In south Texas, monthly precipitation in the fall accounted for 63% of the variation in crude protein and 73% of the variation in acid detergent fiber. • A better understanding of how forage nutritive value changes over the year can improve strategic supplementation efforts.
    • Can Western Agricultural Water Users Accommodate Instream Flows?

      Magagna, Jim (Society for Range Management, 1990-02-01)
    • Can You Afford Not To Have A Living Trust?

      Cohan, John Alan (Society for Range Management, 1989-08-01)
    • Canada's Rangeland Resource—A Look Ahead

      Johnston, A. (Society for Range Management, 1972-09-01)
      Canada's cattle population is expected to increase from its present 13.7 million head to about 16.5 million head by 1980. About 5.3 million acres of additional pasture will be required to feed the extra cattle and most of it will come from land presently in grain. Range managers will be more concerned than formerly with cultivated pastures and hayland and the integration of these with native range.
    • Canadian bluejoint response to heavy grazing

      Collins, W. B.; Becker, E. F.; Collins, A. B. (Society for Range Management, 2001-05-01)
      A disclimax stand of Canadian bluejoint (Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Beauv.) was heavily grazed by cattle and horses for 4 years to weaken the grass's competition with hardwoods important as browse and cover to wildlife. Stocking at 0.084 ha AUM(-1) resulted in uniform utilization of bluejoint and maintenance of early phenology through the growing season. Etiolated bluejoint declined about 90%, but grass production increased 10 to 15%, as fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium L.), a principal herbaceous component of the stand, decreased in response to trampling. Rhizomes of heavily grazed bluejoint had lower total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC) (p = 0.0127), lower weight (g cm(-1) length) (p = 0.05), and reduced biomass (g cm(-3) of soil) (p = 0.05). Shoots of grazed bluejoint maintained higher nitrogen (p = 0.0001) and higher digestibility (IVDMD) (p = 0.0017) than bluejoint that was never grazed. This enabled heavily grazed bluejoint to retain good forage quality through the entire growing season, as opposed to ungrazed bluejoint, which became poor forage at the time of flowering during early July. Following one season of rest, rhizome TNC, shoot nitrogen, and IVDMD returned to levels of never grazed bluejoint. Seedhead production, seed production, seed weights, and seed viability of rested bluejoint were about the same as in ungrazed stands. On wet sites, heavy grazing does not adequately reduce the vigor of this grass.