• Control Huisache and Associated Woody Species in South Texas

      Bovey, R. W.; Baur, J. R.; Morton, H. L. (Society for Range Management, 1970-01-01)
      Picloram effectively controlled huisache (Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.) when applied in May, June, July and October. It was more effective than several other herbicides at comparable dosages. Mixtures of picloram + 2,4,5-T were effective on huisache in spring and fall applications. Picloram rates could be reduced by adding comparable amounts of 2,4,5-T. Several herbicides, including 2,4,5-T, effectively controlled mesquite in April, May and June. Herbicides applied at other dates were usually ineffective. Aerial applications of picloram and mixtures of picloram + 2,4,5-T in the fall controlled huisache, blackbrush (Acacia rigidula Benth.), and several other woody species, but were ineffective on such species as Texas persimmon (Diospyros texana Scheele), wolfberry (Lycium berlandieri Dunal), and algerita (Berberis trifoliolata Moric.).
    • Control of Annual Grasses and Revegetation in Ponderosa Pine Woodlands

      Christensen, M. D.; Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1974-03-01)
      Application of 1.12 kg/ha of the herbicide atrazine sufficiently controlled medusahead or downy brome to permit establishment of perennial wheatgrass in ponderosa pine woodlands previously burned in wildfires. Fall application of atrazine greatly improved survival of ponderosa pine or bitterbrush seedlings transplanted to plots the following spring. Bitterbrush seedlings established naturally in areas treated with atrazine. Apparently the herbicide treatment created a desirable habitat for seed caching by rodents, along with reduction of competition from annual grasses. Higher rates of atrazine controlled most herbaceous vegetation and resulted in greater growth of ponderosa pine seedlings. Failure to establish perennial grasses resulted in reinvasion by annual grasses.
    • Control of Arizona Chaparral With 2,4,5-T and Silvex

      Lillie, D. T. (Society for Range Management, 1963-07-01)
    • Control of Aspen and Prickly Rose in Recently Developed Pastures in Saskatchewan

      Bowes, G. G. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      Two consecutive yearly applications of 2,4-D and 2,4-D plus 2,4,5-T (2:1) at 2 lb/acre gave good control of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) for 5 years in Saskatchewan. There was virtually no regeneration of new shoots from parental root stocks by the third year after the initial treatment. Control of prickly rose (Rosa acicularis Lindl.) was erratic with 2,4-D plus 2,4,5-T at 2 lb/acre, but the mixture was needed when both woody plants were present.
    • Control of Aspen Poplar , Balsam Poplar, and Prickly Rose by Picloram Alone and in Mixtures with 2,4-D

      Bowes, G. (Society for Range Management, 1976-03-01)
      Picloram alone and in combination with 2,4-D was evaluated for the control of aspen poplar (Populus tremuloides Michx.), balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.), and prickly rose (Rosa acicularis Lindl.) on rangeland in Saskatchewan which had alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) as an important grazing component. The addition of picloram at 0.5 lb/acre to 2,4-D amine at 2 lb or less per acre did not improve the control of aspen poplar when compared to the presently recommended treatment in Saskatchewan of 2 lb/acre of 2,4-D ester. However, there was some evidence that the addition of 1 lb/acre of picloram to 2 lb/acre of 2,4-D amine may improve control. Picloram applied at 1 lb/acre alone or in combination with 2 lb/acre of 2,4-D amine provided effective control of balsam poplar. There was excellent control of prickly rose for 4 to 5 years following the application of 0.5 lb/acre of picloram with or without the addition of 2,4-D. The herbicide rates that were necessary for the control of any of the woody species, almost completely removed alfalfa from the rangeland. The significance of alfalfa on rangeland and the potential loss of grazing from using or not using herbicides is discussed.
    • Control of Aspen Regrowth by Grazing with Cattle

      Fitzgerald, R. D.; Bailey, A. W. (Society for Range Management, 1984-03-01)
      Aspen (Populus tremuloides) forest occupies potentially useful grazing land in the aspen parkland of western Canada, and is expanding. The replacement of forest with grassland involves the removal of trees and the control of suckers which invariably emerge following overstory removal. The control of aspen suckers by heavy browsing with cattle may be a useful technique especially in the presence of logs and stumps. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of browsing by cattle, aspen forest was burned and seeded to forages, after which the regrowth was heavily grazed by cattle either after emergence of suckers (early) or just prior to leaf fall (late). Grazing treatments were conducted over two growing seasons. A single heavy late grazing practically eliminated aspen regeneration, and two quite different plant communities resulted from the two grazing regimes. After the first year, the plant biomass in early-grazed plots consisted of 29% aspen and 28% grass (mainly sown species), while late-grazed plots had only 2.5% aspen and 18% grass, with a higher proportion of shrubs, especially snowberry. Trends established after the first year were still evident after the second year. The results indicated that heavy browsing by cattle in August may be an effective technique for control of aspen suckers following initial top kill.
    • Control of Aspen Regrowth in Western Canada When There Is an Understory of Established Alfalfa

      Bowes, G. G. (Society for Range Management, 1981-09-01)
      The use of 2,4-D alone and in a mixture with 2,4,5-T was evaluated, when applied during the dormant season, for the control of aspen and balsam poplar regrowth in pastures previously seeded with a mixture of bromegrass and alfalfa. When 2,4-D was applied at 2.2 kg/ha for two consecutive years, sufficient control of aspen top growth was achieved to reduce the physical barrier presented by the trees and allowed uniform cattle grazing. An adequate kill of aspen was not obtained until the herbicide rate was increased to 4.4 kg/ha. Herbicide retreatments were required after 5 or 6 years. Balsam poplar canopy cover was not adequately reduced following the use of 2,4-D alone or in a mixture with 2,4,5-T. Grass, alfalfa, forb and woody plant yields were not affected by the herbicide treatments. The use of phenoxy herbicides during the dormant season for pasture improvement is discussed.
    • Control of Big Sagebrush by Aerial Application of 2,4-D

      Cussins, Steven W. (Society for Range Management, 1985-02-01)
    • Control of Bitterweed with Herbicides

      Ueckert, D. N.; Scifres, C. J.; Whisenant, S. G.; Mutz, J. L. (Society for Range Management, 1980-11-01)
      Herbicide 2,4-D was less effective for bitterweed control when applied at air temperatures below 14 degrees C compared to applications at 22 degrees C even when soil water was adequate for active plant growth. There was no difference in bitterweed control whether the ester or amine formulations of 2,4-D were used. At 22° C air temperature, 1.12 kg/ha of 2,4-D + dicamba (3:1), picloram, or 2,4,5-T + picloram (1:1) did not improve short-term control (36 to 182 days) of bitterweed compared to 2,4-D alone at the same rate. However, at 14 degrees C temperature or when bitterweed were in advanced phenological states (75% with inflorescences), these herbicides provided excellent short-term bitterweed control whereas 2,4-D was inconsistent. Mixtures of dicamba with 2,4-D slightly improved residual bitterweed control, compared to the same rate of 2,4-D alone. Picloram at 0.56 to 1.12 kg/ha controlled 60 to 100% of the bitterweed populations for a year or more following applications in winter or spring. Tebuthiuron at 0.56 to 1.12 kg/ha was not as effective as 2,4-D at 1.12 kg/ha relative to initial bitterweed control, but provided excellent residual control after 1 year following winter application.
    • Control of Black Grass Bugs (Labops hesperius Uhler) in Northern New Mexico

      Dickerson, G. W. (Society for Range Management, 1978-09-01)
      Insecticides applied to improved wheatgrass pastures in northern New Mexico in the springs of 1976 and 1977 were all shown to reduce population of black grass bugs significantly (P<.01). Herbage yields were decreased as much as 50% on untreated crested wheatgrass plots in 1976. Plots treated with trichlorofon produced significantly (P<.05) higher herbage yields than the untreated plots. Malathion at rates as low as 354 g/ha of active ingredient were effective in controlling this pest.
    • Control of Common Goldenweed with Herbicides and Associated Forage Release

      Mayeux, H. S.; Drawe, D. L.; Scifres, C. J. (Society for Range Management, 1979-07-01)
      Common goldenweed, an aggressive half-shrub, is rapidly increasing as a management problem on south Texas rangeland. Control with conventional foliar-applied herbicides has been erratic, with the extent of success apparently dictated primarily by growth conditions, especially soil moisture, at the time of treatment. After exceptionally high rainfall, applications of 2,4-D at 1.12 kg/ha in the spring or fall effectively controlled common goldenweed. When conditions were less than optimum for weed response, the addition of dicamba at 0.28 kg/ha with 2,4,-D or 2,4,5-T improved results compared to applications of phenoxy herbicides alone. Picloram was more effective than phenoxy herbicides or phenoxy/dicamba mixtures for common goldenweed control. Equal ratio combinations of picloram and 2,4,5-T were also effective and would be preferred where common goldenweed occurs with certain problem woody species. Within 1 year of treatment, 4.6 to 10.4 kg/ha of oven-dry forage was produced for each percentage unit of common goldenweed foliar cover removed by broadcast sprays. Successful treatments were effective for at least 3 years.
    • Control of Dalmatian Toadflax

      Robocker, W. C. (Society for Range Management, 1968-03-01)
      Trials of several chemicals over a 6-year period showed that phenoxypropionic herbicides were superior to phenoxyacetic herbicides in controlling Dalmatian toadflax. Satisfactory control was obtained with silvex at a minimum rate of 3 lb/acre. Rates of silvex required to significantly reduce or control the plant did no significant injury to perennial grasses. Picloram applied in granular form to the soil in the fall was more effective than a foliar application at the same rate in the spring. A combination of silvex plus picloram, 2 plus 0.5 or 2 plus 0.25 lb/acre, respectively, also controlled Dalmatian toadflax. Cultural and managerial, as well as chemical control methods may be necessary for economic and effective control of the plant.
    • Control of Downy Brome on Nebraska Rangeland

      Morrow, L. A.; Fenster, C. R.; McCarty, M. K. (Society for Range Management, 1977-07-01)
      Experiments to study the control of downy brome were conducted at three locations on Nebraska rangeland. Soils ranged from a silty clay loam to a loamy sand. Herbicide treatments included atrazine, cyanazine, metribuzin, and simazine at 0.5 and 1.0 lb/acre; glyphosate and terbacil at 0.25 and 0.5 lb/acre; secbumeton at 1.0 and 2.0 lb/acre; and paraquat at 0.25 lb/acre applied in the spring. All treatments, with the exceptions of glyphosate and paraquat, were also applied in the fall. Metribuzin at 0.33 lb/acre was also applied in the fall. Atrazine, metribuzin, and simazine effectively controlled downy brome. Downy brome control and forage production were greater when these herbicides were applied in the spring. Forage production was not significantly increased when herbicides were applied in the fall, but the trend was toward increased production. Injury to perennial cool-season forage grasses was greater from spring-applied herbicides than from fall applications. Control of downy brome was greater on fine-textured soils than on coarse-textured soils.
    • Control of Gambel Oak Sprouts by Goats

      Davis, G. G.; Bartel, L. E.; Cook, C. W. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      A high degree of Gambel oak control can be attained with a combination of mechanical treatment followed by a system of goat grazing. This type of control program can result in significant increases in the amount of forage available for livestock production. Mechanical treatment of the oak is necessary to attain maximum benefit from goats. High stocking rates and the proper time of browsing are important management considerations.
    • Control of Gambel Oak with Three Herbicides

      Van Epps, G. A. (Society for Range Management, 1974-07-01)
      Fenuron, picloram, and 3 phenoxy compounds were applied to Gambel oak (Quercus gambellii Nutt.) to attain a complete kill of the plant. Spring treatments of fenuron applied to the soil at rates of 8 lb ae/acre or higher were effective as were fall applications. Picloram as a soil treatment was not effective. Foliar spraying with picloram and the phenoxy compounds at the higher rates killed oak crowns but not the plants. The herbicides varied in their injury to under-story vegetation.
    • Control of Grasshoppers on Rangeland in the United States—A Perspective

      Hewitt, G. B.; Onsager, J. A. (Society for Range Management, 1983-03-01)
      The periodical ravages of locusts and grasshoppers have been sufficiently documented through history that it is easy to appreciate the seriousness of such outbreaks. We believe, however, that most people grossly underestimate the forage resources that are destroyed annually by typical "noneconomical" populations of grasshoppers. The western range comprises about 262 million ha, most of which is suitable habitat for grasshoppers. The grasshoppers annually destroy at least 21-23% of available range vegetation. That would represent a loss of about $393 million/year if that vegetation could otherwise be utilized by livestock. Current control measures are not economical on about 80 million ha because treatment cost far exceeds the value of forage that is produced. Most control programs are likely to be executed on about 160 million ha that produce forage worth about $2.50 - $7.50/ha. Significant forage destruction begins during the 3rd nymphal instar. This occurs just before maturation of many important species of grass. Thus, grasshoppers do not generally inhibit forage production; rather, they hasten decomposition of the standing crop of forage. When control measures become necessary, they should be initiated as soon as possible after the majority of grasshoppers become 3rd instars. Later treatments cannot recover forage that has already been destroyed; they simply prevent further destruction.
    • Control of Halogeton in Nevada by Range Seedings and Herbicides

      Miller, R. K. (Society for Range Management, 1956-09-01)
    • Control of Honey Mesquite by Shredding and Spraying

      Beck, D. L.; Sosebee, R. E.; Herndon, E. B. (Society for Range Management, 1975-11-01)
      Simultaneous shredding and spraying of honey mesquite were studied in the Rolling Plains of Texas. Mature trees were shredded and sprayed monthly, May, 1972, through October, 1972 (September was omitted). Herbicide treatments consisted of 2,4,5-T amine, 2,4,5-T ester, and Tordon 225 Mixture applied alone and in combination with naphthalene acetic acid (1, 5, 10, 50, and 10,000 ppm). Very high percentage root mortality was obtained when the trees were shredded and sprayed in May, with somewhat lower percentages obtained from treatments applied in June and October. Root mortality obtained from treatments applied in July and August was generally lower than that obtained from treatments applied during any other month. However, results from treatments applied any month of the study exceeded the results one could expect from either shredding or spraying applied alone during a comparable period. Tordon 225 Mixture was consistently most effective in controlling shredded mesquite. Therefore, shredding accompanied by a simultaneous herbicide application has potential in control programs.
    • Control of honey mesquite with clopyralid, triclopyr, or clopyralid:triclopyr mixtures

      Bovey, R. W.; Whisenant, S. G. (Society for Range Management, 1991-01-01)
      Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to evaluate clopyralid formulations and triclopyr ester alone and in mixtures with clopyralid for control of honey mesquite. In the greenhouse, mixtures of the butoxyethyl ester of triclopyr enhanced the activity of the 2-ethylhexyl ester, the monoethanolamine salt and the free acid of clopyralid when applied in 1:1, 1:2 or 1:4 clopyralid:triclopyr mixtures at total rates of 0.07, 0.14, and 0.28 kg se/ha. The activity of triclopyr was not enhanced by addition of clopyralid. In the field, mixtures of the 1-decyl ester of clopyralid + the butoxyethyl ester of triclopyr were usually more effective than either herbicide applied alone. Addition of 0.14 kg/ha of triclopyr to clopyralid applied at 0.28 kg/ha markedly increased canopy reduction and mortality by at least 47% compared to either herbicide applied alone. Basal pours of diesel oil alone at 0.9 L/tree were usually as effective as diesel oil fortified with esters of clopyralid, 2,4,5-T or triclopyr at 4.8 or 9.6 g/L. Basal sprays of diesel oil + esters of clopyralid, 2,4,5-T or triclopyr in concentrations of 4.8 or 9.6 g/L applied at 0.5 L/tree caused high mortality of honey mesquite trees similar to basal pours. Triclopyr or clopyralid at 4.8 g/L were less effective in diesel oil:water carrier (1:4 or 1:3), respectively, than in diesel oil carrier.
    • Control of honey mesquite with herbicides: influence of plant height

      Jacoby, P. W.; Meadors, C. H.; Ansley, R. J. (Society for Range Management, 1990-01-01)
      Stands of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa) were treated with aerially applied herbicides at 16 locations in western and northwestern Texas over an 8-year period to determine influence of plant height on herbicide efficacy. Plant height was not found to significantly (P<0.05) influence effectiveness of a particular herbicide, but taller plants were found consistently to be more resistant. No basis was found for delaying control of honey mesquite with herbicides until plants reach a particular height.