• Control of Three Major Brush Species on Grazing Lands in the United States, Cuba, and Brazil

      Fisher, C. E.; Quinn, L. (Society for Range Management, 1959-09-01)
    • Control of woody plants in grazing lands on the Pacific Coast of Mexico

      Garcia-Holquin, M.; Bovey, R. W.; Schuster, J. L. (Society for Range Management, 1991-09-01)
      Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to evaluate herbicides for control of Palma de llano (Sabal rosei Mart.), jarretaders (Acacia hindsii Benth), huinol (Acacia cymbispina Sprague & Riley), and guazima (Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.), woody species encroaching in grazing lands on the Pacific Coast of Mexico. In the greenhouse, picloram at 0.14 and 0.28 kg ae/ha killed all jarretadera, huinol, and guazima plants. Mixtures of picloram + clopyralid, dicamba, or triclopyr at 0.07 + 0.07 and 0.14 + 0.14 kg/ha also killed most plants. Trielopyr killed all huinol at 0.14 and 0.28 kg/ha but not all jarretadera or guazima. Clopyralid was effective on jarretadera and huinol but not as effective as picloram. Dicamba was ineffective on jurretadera and killed 88 to 100% of the huinol and gunzima plants at 0.28 kg/ha. The palm could not be grown in the greenhouse. In the field, foliar sprays of triclopyr or picloram st 0.4 and 0.3 g ae/L water, respectively, killed 70% or more of the jarretadera, huinol and gunzima but 77% or less of the palm. No herbicide successfully controlled jarretadera in 1988. Hexazinone applied to the soil killed 82% or more of the palm plants at 0.5 g ai/2.5 cm of stem diameter. Soil-applied tebuthiuron pellets were not effective on jarretaders or palm, but the briquettes (Brush Bullets) at 2 and 4 g/ 2.5 cm of stem diameter killed 50, 60, and 83% or more of the huinol, palm, and guazima plants, respectively.
    • Control of Yucca By Aerial Application of Herbicides

      Bovey, R. W. (Society for Range Management, 1964-07-01)
    • Controlled Grazing: It's An Attitude

      Johnson, Glenn D. (Society for Range Management, 1998-06-01)
    • Controlled release chromic oxide and alkaline peroxide lignin marker methods

      Momont, P. A.; Pruitt, R. J.; Emerick, R. J.; Pritchard, R. H. (Society for Range Management, 1994-11-01)
      Two digestion trials, using 20 ram lambs (Experiment 1) and 8 cows (Experiment 2) provided ad libitum access to mature prairie grass hay, were conducted to evaluate controlled release intraruminal chromic oxide boluses and alkaline hydrogen peroxide lignin as markers for estimating forage intake by the fecal output/indigestibility ratio. A soybean meal and 3 urea based supplements were fed to lambs in Experiment 1. For both experiments, daily fecal output was weighed and sampled for 6 days (Experiment 1) and 5 days (Experiment 2) beginning 7 days after oral administration of controlled release boluses. Rectal fecal grab samples were also collected at 1000 daily and at 4-hour intervals on day 4 of collections for Experiment 2. For both experiments Cr2O3 excretion rates based on total collections were used to evaluate Cr2O3 controlled release boluses and alkaline hydrogen peroxide lignin predictive value in place of manufacturer's stated release rate. In experiment 1, fecal Cr2O3 output was 224 mg/day +/- 3.9 compared to the manufacturer's stated release rate of 201 mg Cr2O3/day. Fecal alkaline hydrogen peroxide lignin recovery was 97.8% +/- 1.9. Samples composited over the 6-day collection period predicted fecal output, apparent dry matter digestibility, and dry matter intake similar (P = .44, .15 and .55; respectively) to actual values. Supplemental treatment and dry matter intake had no effect (P > .38) on daily fecal Cr2O3 output or alkaline hydrogen peroxide lignin recovery. In Experiment 2, fecal Cr2O3 was 1,662 mg/day +/- 63 compared to the manufacturer's stated release rate of 1,505 mg Cr2O3/day. Fecal alkaline hydrogen peroxide lignin recovery was 95.9% +/- 7. Using 5-day composited samples, predicted fecal output, dry matter digestibility, and dry matter intake were similar (P = .49, .21 and .49; respectively) to actual values. Increasing the number of daily grab samples increased R2 values between actual and predicted fecal output and dry matter digestibility. Fecal grab samples and total fecal collection samples provided a similar relationship (R2=.71) between actual and predicted dry matter intake when each were composited over 5 days. Time of day did not affect fecal Cr2O3 or alkaline hydrogen peroxide lignin concentrations. These results suggest that grab samples collected once daily on 5 consecutive days can be used to predict fecal output when Cr2O3 controlled release boluses are used. Although recoveries of fecal alkaline hydrogen peroxide lignin were near 100% in these experiments, digestibility estimates using this internal marker were variable and adversely influenced predictions of dry matter intake.
    • Controlling Annual Bromes

      Miller, Derek (Society for Range Management, 2006-04-01)
      Using rangeland "greenstrips" to create natural fire breaks.
    • Controlling Big Sagebrush with 2,4-D and Other Chemicals

      Hull, A. C.; Vaughn, W. T. (Society for Range Management, 1951-05-01)
    • Controlling Big Sagebrush with Growth Regulators

      Hyder, D. N. (Society for Range Management, 1953-03-01)
    • Controlling Bitterweed with Fall and Winter Applications of 2,4-D Amine

      Bunting, S. C.; Wright, H. A. (Society for Range Management, 1974-09-01)
      Bitterweed can be effectively controlled in central Texas with 2,4-D (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) amine between November 1 and January 15. To minimize damage to associated annual forbs, 2,4-D should be applied in late December or January. A rate of 1/2 to 1 lb a.e./acre of 2,4-D will give excellent control of bitterweed. However, spraying with 2,4-D has no long-term benefits under a good range management program. Its primary value is to kill bitterweed during wet winters when it is abundant. This minimizes death losses of sheep and increases the vigor of perennial grasses for 1 or 2 years.
    • Controlling Blowouts for Forage Production

      Everson, A. C.; Dahl, B. E.; Denham, A. H. (Society for Range Management, 1966-05-01)
      Blowouts on sandy soils in the Great Plains can be controlled by leveling hummocks and shaping sharp banks, developing sorghum stubble and seeding warm-season grasses into the stubble. This practice will provide grazeable forage and reduce damage to adjacent areas by wind-blown soil.
    • Controlling Eastern Redcedar on Rangelands and Pastures

      Wilson, Jon; Schmidt, Thomas (Society for Range Management, 1990-06-01)
    • Controlling Individual Junipers and Oaks with Pelleted Picloram

      Johnsen, T. N.; Dalen, R. S. (Society for Range Management, 1984-07-01)
      Applications of pelleted picloram to individual plants of alligator juniper, one-seed juniper, Utah juniper, gambel oak, and shrub live oak in north central Arizona showed that a high rate application, 3.6 g acid equivalent (a.e.) picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid) per meter of juniper height or meter2 of oak clump crown cover, controlled each of the species. However, only Utah and alligator junipers were consistently controlled by lower rates, 1.8 g a.e. or less per unit of plant height. Regression formulas were developed to determine estimates of the amount of herbicide needed for effective control. Large scale pilot trials were done to expand application of results.
    • Controlling Juniper: Fire and Goats, A Combination?

      Alexander, Holly (Society for Range Management, 1993-12-01)
    • Controlling Mature Ash Juniper in Texas with Crown Fires

      Bryant, F. C.; Launchbaugh, G. K.; Koerth, B. H. (Society for Range Management, 1983-03-01)
      Dozed plots and windrow plots were evaluated during 1979 and 1980 with respect to their effectiveness in igniting a crown fire in an adjacent live juniper stand. Dozed plots were ineffective in igniting a crown fire. However, if herbaceous fuel is less than 500 kg/ha, windspeed is less than 10 km/hr, humidity is above 45% and air temperature is less than 30 degrees C, recently chained or dozed juniper (<100 days since treatment) can be burned with minimal risks. Windrowed plots produced the best results for igniting the adjacent crowns. Correlation coefficients and coefficients of determination indicated that air temperature, maximum windspeed, and leaf moisture would best predict the area the fire would burn per 6 m of windrow length. Crown fires usually stopped where distance between trees exceeded 7 to 10 m. For optimum results, average windspeed should exceed 16 km/hr, canopy cover should exceed 35%, relative humidity should be between 20 and 40%, air temperature should be between 2 and 32 degrees C, and leaf moisture should be below 60%. Although potential for broad application is limited, this technique could reduce the total cost of juniper control or could be used in wildlife habitat management.
    • Controlling Prairie Threeawn (Aristida oligantha Michx.) in Central and Eastern Kansas with Fall Burning

      Owensby, C. E.; Launchbaugh, J. L. (Society for Range Management, 1977-09-01)
      Prairie threeawn, an annual, weedy grass of little or no grazing value, was controlled effectively by fall burning. Burning on dates later than early December gave no control. Mowing and raking gave some control, so mulch removal appeared to be the primary causal factor in control. Seeding native grasses on abandoned fields infested with prairie threeawn after fall burning gave excellent stands, but subsequent winter heaving reduced the stands.
    • Controlling Red Threeawn on Abandoned Cropland with Ammonium Nitrate

      Hyder, D. N.; Bement, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1972-11-01)
      In our experience, red threeawn is more sensitive to N fertilizer than any other species. This sensitivity is fortunate because a low rate (20 lb./acre) of N fertilization controlled red threeawn, improved botanical composition, and increased herbage yield on an abandoned plowed field on the Central Great Plains. This work suggests the need for additional research to determine whether 20 lb. N/acre may cause succession to bypass the static Aristida stage and change botanical composition more quickly to desirable forage species.
    • Controlling Shrubs in the Arid Southwest with Tebuthiuron

      Herbel, C. H.; Morton, H. L.; Gibbens, R. P. (Society for Range Management, 1985-09-01)
      Various rates of tebuthiuron pellets were aerially applied on rangelands in the Southwest to determine effects on noxious shrubs. Creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) and tarbush (Flourensia cernua) shrubs were controlled with 0.4 and 0.3 kg active ingredient (a.i.)/ha, respectively, of tebuthiuron pellets. About 1.1 kg a.i./ha of tebuthiuron pellets controlled honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) growing on loamy sands or sandy loams. About 0.6 and 0.5 kg a.i./ha of tebuthiuron pellets controlled whitethorn acacia (Acacia constricta) and desert zinnia (Zinnia pumila), respectively. Higher rates of tebuthiuron are needed to control those shrubs on deep, fine textured soils than on shallow, coarse textured soils.
    • Controlling Sixweeks Fescue on Shortgrass Range

      Houston, W. R.; Hyder, D. N. (Society for Range Management, 1976-03-01)
      Sixweeks fescue is an unpalatable annual grass that, when abundant, may seriously reduce grazing on associated species, limiting livestock gains and causing spot overgrazing. In this study, abundance was affected more by seasonal precipitation patterns than grazing or nitrogen fertilization. Either atrazine and simazine herbicides, applied at 1.1 kg/ha in either fall or spring, effectively controlled sixweeks fescue.
    • Controlling Tall Larkspur on Snowdrift Areas in the Subalpine Zone

      Cronin, E. H.; Nielsen, D. B. (Society for Range Management, 1972-05-01)
      Repeated annual applications of 2,4,5-T [(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy) acetic acid] or silvex [2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy) propionic acid] reduced the density of tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi (Huth) Huth) below a level that is potentially dangerous to grazing cattle. Killing tall larkspur and other forbs resulted in a plant community dominated by grasses. The dominant species of grass depended on whether the treated plot was grazed by cattle. Letterman needlegrass (Stipa lettermanii Vasey) dominated on grazed plots and mountain brome (Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn.) dominated when plots were protected from grazing cattle. Reinvasion of treated areas by tall larkspur and the unpalatable weedy species occurred more rapidly on grazed plots than on ungrazed plots.
    • Controls on Willow Cutting Survival in a Montane Riparian Area

      Gage, Edward A.; Cooper, David J. (Society for Range Management, 2004-11-01)
      To provide information to guide restoration of montane riparian willow communities, we investigated factors influencing the survival of prerooted and unrooted mountain willow (Salix monticola Bebb) cuttings in 2 degraded montane riparian areas in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. We planted cuttings across a gradient of water table depths and soil textures and evaluated their survival using logistic regression analysis. Our results indicate that depth to groundwater was a critical factor influencing survival of both rooted and unrooted cuttings. We found that few cuttings (7.8% rooted, 3.9% unrooted) survived where summer water table depths exceeded approximately 90 cm. Soil texture was not a significant factor in our logistic models, potentially because of low silt and clay fractions in our plots. Rooted cuttings survived at a higher rate than unrooted cuttings after 1 (55.8% vs. 36.5%, P < 0.001) and 2 (44.5% vs. 26.1%, P < 0.001) years of growth. We conclude that, when combined with appropriate hydrologic data, the use of rooted cuttings represents an effective technique to restore and revegetate degraded montane riparian ecosystems.