• Crude Protein, Crude Fiber, Tannin, and Oxalate Concentrations of 33 Astragalus Species

      Davis, A. M. (Society for Range Management, 1982-01-01)
      Plant introduction collections grown at the Western Regional Plant Introduction Station for preliminary evaluation and seed increase were evaluated for crude protein, crude fiber, tannin, oxalates, and readily detectable alkaloids. Sixty-eight Astragalus accessions representing 33 species and 1 unidentified accession had a range of 8.2 to 24.2% crude protein, 11.3 to 28.6% crude fiber, 4.2 to 10.0 mg/g tannin, and 0.15 to 1.10% oxalates. Species with more than 18% crude protein and less than 28% crude fiber (i.e., comparable to good quality alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hay) and acceptable levels of tannin and oxalate were A. canadensis, P.I. 19978 and A. siliquosus, P.I. 330696. None of the accessions tested gave a positive Dragendorff reagent color test for alkaloids. Some of the species reported are known to be selenium accumulators and/or contain toxic nitro-compounds that may be damaging to grazing animals. A. siliquosus is a species that contains nitro-compounds and will accumulate selenium.
    • Crude Terpenoid Influence on In Vitro Digestibility of Sagebrush

      Striby, K. D.; Wambolt, C. L.; Kelsey, R. G.; Havstad, K. M. (Society for Range Management, 1987-05-01)
      The influence of crude terpenoid content on in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) was determined for basin big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. tridentata), Wyoming big sagebrush (A.t. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle and Young), mountain big sagebrush (A.t. ssp. vaseyana [Rydb.] Beetle), and black sagebrush (A. nova Nels.). IVOMD was determined using mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), sheep (Ovis ammon aries), and steer (Bos taurus) rumen inocula with current year's growth collected from the 4 taxa at a common site on 1 Jan., 15 Feb., and 1 Apr. 1981. All inocula had similar digestive efficiency. Extracting crude terpenoids from foliage increased IVOMD by an average of 12.3% overall. Few differences in IVOMD among taxa and dates were evident in foliage after crude terpenoids had been extracted. Order of increasing digestibility among taxa without crude terpenoids extracted was black sagebrush, mountain, Wyoming, and basin big sagebrushes, respectively. IVOMD generally increased from January to April as crude terpenoids decreased. Crude terpenoid concentrations were lowest in mountain big sagebrush, intermediate in black sagebrush and Wyoming big sagebrush, and greatest in basin big sagebrush.
    • Crude Terpenoid Influence on Mule Deer Preference for Sagebrush

      Personius, T. L.; Wambolt, C. L.; Stephens, J. R.; Kelsey, R. G. (Society for Range Management, 1987-01-01)
      Samples of current year's growth of leaves and stems were collected in February 1983 from basin big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. tridentata), Wyoming big sagebrush (A.t. wyomingensis Beetle and Young), mountain big sagebrush (A.t. vaseyana [Rydb.] Beetle), and black sagebrush (A. nova Nels.) on a mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) winter range near Gardiner, Montana. Samples were from both lightly and heavily used plants (form classes) within each taxon. Crude terpenoids were separated into 3 groups: headspace vapors, volatile, and nonvolatile crude terpenoids. Compounds in each group are thought to stimulate the sensory organs of mule deer. Individual compounds were identified and quantified for comparison with preference ranks among taxa and between utilization form classes. Seven compounds were selected by discriminant analysis as indicators among the 4 taxa, with methacrolein + ethanol, ρ-cymene, and the sesquiterpene lactones the most probable preference determinants. Seven other compounds were found useful for separating plants within taxa into form classes. Chemical differences between the 2 form classes, however, were less distinguishable than were those among the 4 taxa.
    • Cryptogamic Soil Crusts in Arid Ecosystems

      Dunne, Jim (Society for Range Management, 1989-08-01)
    • Cryptosporidium parvum transport from cattle fecal deposits on California rangelands

      Tate, K. W.; Atwill, E. R.; George, M. R.; McDougald, N. K.; Larsen, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 2000-05-01)
      Cryptosporidium parvumis a fecal borne protozoan parasite that can be carried by and cause gastrointestinal illness in humans, cattle, and wildlife. The illness, cryptosporidiosis, can be fatal to persons with compromised immune systems. At question is the potential for C. parvumin cattle fecal deposits on rangeland watersheds to contaminate surface water. First, C. parvum oocysts must be released from fecal deposits during rainfall, becoming available for transport. In 1996, we examined the transport of C. parvum oocysts in overland flow from fecal deposits under natural rainfall and rangeland conditions at the San Joaquin Experimental Range in Madera County, Calif. Our null hypothesis was that C. parvum oocysts are not released from fecal pats and transported 1 m downslope as overland flow with rainfall. Paired plots were located on 10, 20, and 30% slope sites.Each plot was loaded with four, 200 g fecal pats dosed with 10^5 oocysts g-1. Pats were placed 1.0 m above the base of each plot. Composite runoff samples from each plot were analyzed foroocyst concentration following each of 4 storm events. Oocysts were transported during each storm. Slope was a significant factor in oocyst transport, with oocyst transport increasing with slope. Although not significant, there was an apparent flushing effect of oocysts across storms, with the majority transported in the first 2 storms. A pilot rainfall simulation experiment also revealed a flushing phenomenon from pats during individual rainfall events. C. parvum oocysts in fecal pats on rangeland can be transported from fecal deposits during rainfall events, becoming available for transport to water-bodies. Future studies need to examine surface and subsurface transport of oocysts on rangeland hillslopes for distances greater than 1 m.
    • Cubed Alfalfa Hay or Cottonseed Meal-Barley as Supplements for Beef Cows Grazing Fall-Winter Range

      Cochran, R. C.; Adams, D. C.; Currie, P. O.; Knapp, B. W. (Society for Range Management, 1986-07-01)
      A 2-year study evaluated the efficacy of supplements for beef cows grazing mixed grass prairie during the fall and winter. Cows were allotted to 3 treatments: (1) range forage only, (2) range forage plus 1.2-1.3 kg alfalfa cubes hd-1 d-1, and (3) range forage plus .9 kg cottonseed meal-barley cake hd-1 d-1. Supplements were fed daily to provide approximately 50% of crude protein requirements. Treatment effects did not depend (P<0.10) on year for independent variables evaluated. Although weather conditions differed among years, observed changes in weight and condition score were similar (P<0.10) for both years. Supplemented cows gained weight; but supplement type did not influence weight gains. In contrast, unsupplemented cows displayed significant weight loss. Supplemented cows either maintained or slightly increased in body condition during the fall-winter period. However, body condition of unsupplemented cows decreased (P<.05) compared with condition of supplemented cows. Supplementation with alfalfa cubes resulted in similar performance compared with supplementation with cottonseed meal-barley cake. Supplementing diets of wintering range cows with feeds high in protein improved performance compared with no supplementation.
    • Cues cattle use to avoid stepping on crested wheatgrass tussocks

      Balph, D. F.; Balph, M. H.; Malechek, J. C. (Society for Range Management, 1989-09-01)
      This paper tests 2 hypotheses regarding the cues cattle use to avoid stepping on crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertner) tussocks. The first hypothesis is that cattle are attentive to shade and avoid tussocks by stepping on light areas (soil interstices) and avoiding dark areas (tussocks). In an experiment with 90 Angus heifers placed in a short-duration grazing paddock of 8.5 ha, the animals stepped with equal relative frequency on 28 patches of bare ground, 37 disks painted the shade and color of bare ground, and 37 disks painted to match vegetation over a 24-h period. We therefore reject the shade-cue hypothesis. The second hypothesis is that cattle are attentive to the vegetation itself in their avoidance behavior, and that as they crop the vegetation the frequency of trampling increases. In experiments similar to the first, cattle stepped on 85 intact tussocks 9 times, on 85 clipped (3 to 4 cm above litter) tussocks 28 times, on 85 vegetation-free tussock mounds 107 times and on 35 patches of bare ground 130 times. These differences are statistically significant. The data are consistent with the vegetation-cue hypothesis, except that the cattle also were attentive to the elevated substrate upon which the tussock grew. We conclude that, under the test conditions, hoof action does not have an important impact on crested wheatgrass pastures used for short-duration grazing. The impact could approach importance, however, if the pasture was grazed more heavily and if the vegetation was dry and dusty.
    • Cull cow management and its implications for cow-calf profitability

      Little, R. D.; Williams, A. R.; Lacy, R. C.; Forrest, C. S. (Society for Range Management, 2002-03-01)
      Selling culled breeding livestock is often viewed as "just another chore." Most cull sales are made in the fall, after calves are weaned and cows are pregnancy checked and open. Since cull cow sales comprise from 15 to 30% of a cow-calf enterprise's gross revenue, perhaps they should be viewed as a potential profit center. This paper uses enterprise budgets and sensitivity analyses to illustrate cull cow management strategies that overcome certain physical and economic factors that limit the profitability of fall cow sales. The key limiting physical factor is often poor body condition, which results from the combined effect of lactation and deteriorating forage quality. The key economic factor is a seasonal price low, generated by a large beef supply in the fall. The results suggest potential, with adequate, low-cost feedstuffs, to increase net returns by properly managing cull breeding stock. In only 1 year during the 10-year period, 1990-1999, was selling cull cows in the fall the more profitable option. Over that time period, the net present value of spring cull sales averaged about 30 per cow more than selling cull cows in the fall.
    • Cultivated and native browse legumes as calf supplements in Ethiopia

      Coppock, D. L.; Reed, J. D. (Society for Range Management, 1992-05-01)
      Efficient use of roughages is important for calf management in the Boran pastoral system. Using local legumes as protein supplements may improve fiber utilization and thus be an appropriate intervention. Fruits (pods and seeds) of Acacia tortilis (Forsk.) Hayne subsp. spirocarpa (Hochst. ex A. Rich) Brenan, leaves of A. brevispica (Harms), and cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] hay were compared with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay as protein supplements for calves using 2 approaches. Sheep fed native grass hay under confinement were used for a controlled evaluation in growth and metabolism trials. Calves grazing dry-season forage under simulated pastoral management provided in evaluation under field conditions. All supplements increased (P<0.05) nitrogen (N) intake, growth rate, and conversion of dry-matter intake into liveweight for sheep compared to unsupplemented animais. Calf growth and water intake were increased (P<0.05) relative to the control by ail supplements except cowpea hay. When statistically adjusted to a common level of N intake, N retention was similar (P>0.05) among all groups of supplemented sheep. Compared to alfalfa and cowpea diets, tanuinfferous Acacia diets had a negative effect (P<0.05) on true-N digestibility, but this was offset by their positive effect (P<0.05) on reducing loss of urinary N. The A. tortilis diet had a lower (P<0.05) true-N digestibflity than the A. brevispica diet, which was probably influenced by soluble phenolics in pods and seeds. On a nutritional basis these Acacia and cowpea materials art suitable for inclusion in improved feeding systems for Boran calves
    • Cultural Conflicts with the Cattle Business in Zambia, Africa

      Larson, F. D. (Society for Range Management, 1966-11-01)
      African cattle production and marketing in Zambia is far below its favorable potential. Stubborn cultural impediments are slowly being overcome. The process involves two basic steps: (1) stimulating the economic wants of the cattle-owning people to the point where these wants become compelling; (2) improving production and marketing practices to the point that sales prices of cattle prove satisfying to the potential seller.
    • Cultural Energy Expended in Range Meat and Fiber Production

      Cook, C. W. (Society for Range Management, 1976-07-01)
      Range livestock production requires more cultural energy than commonly believed. However the cultural energy expended for range meat and fiber is considerably less than that required in confined fattening procedures. Complementing rangelands with dryland forages offers great promise in decreasing the cost of fossil fuel to produce a pound of red meat for human consumption, compared to feedlot fattening.
    • Cultural Methods and Their Relation to Establishment of Native and Exotic Grasses in Range Seedlings

      Douglas, D. S.; Hafenrichter, A. L.; Klages, K. H. (Society for Range Management, 1960-03-01)
    • Cultural methods for establishing Wyoming big sagebrush on mined lands

      Schuman, G. E.; Booth, D. T.; Cockrell, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1998-03-01)
      Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis Beetle &Young) is one of the most widely distributed shrub species in Wyoming and the Rocky Mountain and Northern Plains region. Its reestablishment on mined lands has generally proven difficult however, because of low seedling vigor, an inability to compete with herbaceous species, poor seed quality, and altered edaphic conditions. Field research evaluating the effect of topsoil management, mulching practice, and plant competition have shown that all of these factors significantly influence initial sagebrush establishment. Greater sagebrush establishment occurred on fresh topsoil compared to 5-year-old stockpiled topsoil. Stubble, surface-applied mulch, and elimination of herbaceous competition also significantly increased establishment in the first growing season. A cool, wet second-year growing season (April-September) resulted in large increases in sagebrush seedling density across all treatments; however, soil management and competition treatment effects were still apparent in the second year. Mulch type had limited effects on sagebrush seedling density by the third year of the study. This research indicates that big sagebrush seed viability in the soil is longer than previously thought and that seed dormancy, safe site development, and climactic conditions play important roles in germination, establishment, and seedling survival of this species.
    • Cultural Practices for Establishing Fourwing Saltbush within Perennial Grass Stands

      Petersen, J. L.; Ueckert, D. N.; Potter, R. L. (Society for Range Management, 1986-09-01)
      Establishment of fourwing saltbush [Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt.] on rangelands in western Texas could improve forage production and quality. Three experiments were conducted to evaluate establishment and growth of fourwing saltbush in grass stands as affected by width of tilled seedbed, fertilization, and competition from various grasses. Four-month-old seedlings were transplanted on 1.8-m centers and seeds were planted in 10-cm-wide, ripped areas and in 46- or 91-cm-wide, tilled strips within a dense stand of sideoats grama [Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.]. Transplanted seedlings were fertilized with nitrogen (N) (50 kg/ha), phosphorus (P) (50 kg/ha), or N+P (50+50 kg/ha). Survival and size of transplanted seedlings were significantly (P is less than or equal to 0.01) greater after 17 months in tilled than in ripped strips. Standing crops of competing vegetation were about 50% greater in ripped than in tilled areas. Fertilizer did not affect survival of fourwing saltbush seedlings or standing crops of competing vegetation. However, P increased (P is less than or equal to 0.05) mean canopy height and diameter of 17-month-old fourwing saltbush seedlings 50 and 67%, respectively, compared to those of plants receiving no fertilizer or N. Very few seedlings established following direct seeding. Survival and growth of transplanted fourwing saltbush seedlings were significantly (P≤0.05) greater in competition-free plots than in interspaces between rows of various species or short-, mid-, and tall grasses, and survival decreased as height of grasses increased.
    • Cultural, Seasonal, and Site Effects on Pinyon-Juniper Rangeland Plantings

      Lavin, F.; Gomm, F. B.; Johnsen, T. N. (Society for Range Management, 1973-07-01)
      Planting season and cultural treatment effects on emergence and survival of three range species were determined for two cold, dry pinyon-juniper sites in north central Arizona. Plowing was the most effective seedbed preparation for controlling plant competition. Furrow drilling also eliminated a large amount of competition. Emergence and survival (E & S) of Luna pubescent and Nordan crested wheatgrass averaged highest with fall planting, but summer planting was best for E & S of fourwing saltbush. E & S averaged highest on plowed seedbeds and decreased progressively on undercut, undercut-strip, presprayed, sprayed, and control seedbeds. Surface drilling on tilled seedbeds increased E & S over furrow drilling for fourwing saltbush and usually for Nordan crested wheatgrass. Drilling in wide, shallow furrows increased Luna pubescent wheatgrass E & S. Furrow drilling increased E & S for all species on nontilled seedbeds. There were some significant interactions among treatment combinations. Practical application of results is discussed.
    • Culture and Mechanical Seed Harvest of Fourwing Saltbush Grown Under Irrigation

      Stroh, James R.; Thornburg, Ashley A. (Society for Range Management, 1969-01-01)
      The culture, management, and mechanical seed harvest of fourwing saltbush grown under irrigated farm crop conditions has been developed. The phenology and internal moisture regime of this plant bears directly on seed harvest operations and timing. Manipulation of plant growth habit from a branching shrub type to single upright stems is essential for adaptation to mechanical harvest. This is accomplished by cutting the plant to a two-inch stubble height and leaving decumbent branches intact on the plant, from which the erect branches arise the following year.
    • Cumulative Effects of Clipping on Yield of Bluebunch Wheatgrass

      Wilson, A. M.; Harris, G. A.; Gates, D. H. (Society for Range Management, 1966-03-01)
      Bluebunch wheatgrass is particularly susceptible to defoliation injury during the boot stage. At this stage, grazing at ground-level for three or more consecutive years many result in almost complete disappearance of bluebunch wheatgrass from rangeland.
    • Curing Standing Range Forage with Herbicides

      Kay, B. L.; Torell, T. (Society for Range Management, 1970-01-01)
      Paraquat applied to standing annual range forage at anthesis of the grasses resulted in standing hay 57 to 77% higher in protein. Crude fiber was decreased and phosphorus increased. Forage production was generally lower with treatment, because the growing season was shorter. Palatability of dry forage was improved. Lambs on treated forage gained more rapidly. No physiological or pathological changes were found in the lambs. Spraying resulted in less grass and more clover in the year following spraying.
    • Curlew National Grassland

      Beitia, Frank; Gunnell, Frank (Society for Range Management, 1986-10-01)
    • Curlleaf Cercocarpus Seed Dormancy Yields to Acid and Thiourea

      Liacos, LG.; Nord, E. C. (Society for Range Management, 1961-11-01)