• Deer and Cattle Diets on Summer Range in British Columbia

      Willms, W.; McLean, A.; Tucker, R.; Ritcey, R. (Society for Range Management, 1980-01-01)
      A study was made on the forage selection of mule deer and cattle on summer range in the Douglasfir zone. Both ungulates showed a high preference for clover, willow, and fireweed. When the availability of these forages was not limiting, the percent of diet overlap was high. As their availability declined, diet overlap decreased as both deer and cattle were forced into their individual food niche. For cattle the niche was grass, while for deer it was shrubs. The effect of declining availability of preferred forages on the dietary composition was less for deer than for cattle. Presumably the greater ability of deer to be selective permitted them to utilize those forages despite reduced availability.
    • Deer and Elk Use on Foothill Rangelands in Northeastern Oregon

      Miller, R. F.; Krueger, W. C.; Vavra, M. (Society for Range Management, 1981-05-01)
      Forested foothills of the Wallowa Mountains in northeastern Oregon provide spring and early summer range for deer and elk. Deer and elk use varied both between plant communities and seasonally within plant communities. Plant species composition of big game diets also varied with season. Bunchgrass and logged communities collectively occupying 57% of the land area studied, provided 90% of the big game diet during spring and early summer. Grasses made up 52% of the diet, forbs 38%, and browse 10%. Timothy and western goatsbeard were the two most important species consumed by big game. Pellet groups did not reliably estimate the value of various communities to deer and elk for forage use.
    • Deer Browsing and Browse Production of Fertilized American Elm Sprouts

      George, J. F.; Powell, J. (Society for Range Management, 1977-09-01)
      Small blocks of land producing dense stands of American elm trees along streamcourses in north-central Oklahoma were fertilized after clearcutting in late summer, late winter, and spring. Twig tips of first-year elm sprouts were readily browsed by deer after succulent cool season, herbaceous plants had matured in May. Browsing and browse production were greater on fertilized sprouts if trees were cut and fertilized in the previous late summer or current late spring seasons. Fertilization and lateral branching after browsing increased total twigs per sprout which, in turn, increased browse production and use as the season progressed. These results indicate browse production from unproductive stands of elm trees can be increased greatly by different habitat management practices.
    • Deer damage to alfalfa and mixtures with timothy or orchardgrass

      Hall, M. H.; Stout, R. C. (Society for Range Management, 1999-09-01)
      White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus L.) feed heavily on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) throughout Pennsylvania. Attempts to reduce deer feeding on forage crops have proven too costly or ineffective. The objective of this research was to determine the loss in yield and economic returns caused by deer feeding on pure and mixed stands of perennial forage crops. At 2 locations in central Pennsylvania, plots of pure alfalfa, timothy, and orchardgrass, and alfalfa-grass mixtures of 25, 50, and 75% alfalfa were established within areas protected (with fencing) or unprotected from deer. Forage was harvested and dry matter yields, percentage of alfalfa and grass, forage quality, and net economic returns were deter-mined. Deer reduced forage dry matter (DM) yield by 1,451 kg ha-1 yr-1. Deer feeding also reduced annual yield of pure alfalfa by an average of 54%, while yields of pure orchardgrass were reduced by only 7%, resulting in average economic losses of 198 and 59 ha-1 for pure alfalfa and pure orchardgrass, respectively. Deer fed more on plots containing timothy than those containing orchardgrass. Forage quality was unaffected by deer feeding but declined as the proportion of alfalfa to grass in the mixture declined. In unprotected areas, mixtures seeded at 50% timothy or 25 to 75% orchardgrass produced greater economic returns than pure alfalfa.
    • Deer Forage and Overstory Dynamics in a Loblolly Pine Plantation

      Blair, R. M.; Enghardt, H. G. (Society for Range Management, 1976-03-01)
      In a loblolly pine plantation in central Louisiana, forage growth was basically governed by the development of pine crowns and the corresponding reduction of light in the understory. In young stands ready for initial thinning at age 20 years, growth of herbaceous and woody vegetation was virtually precluded by the dense pine canopy. Hardwood trees, shrubs, and woody vines increased as stands were thinned every 5 years. By plantation age 30 years, a multilayered midstory was developing as hardwoods and some shrubs grew beyond the deer feeding zone. Midstory density increased directly with the intensity of pine removal, and by stand age 35 it was the principal deterrent to growth of deer forage. Herbage was not abundant.
    • Deer Management on the Bonnie Hills Ranch

      Patterson, Cuatro (Society for Range Management, 1985-12-01)
    • Deer Mouse Consumption of Bitterbrush Seed Treated with Four Repellents

      Everett, R. L.; Stevens, R. (Society for Range Management, 1981-09-01)
      Bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata) seeds were treated with one of four repellents-Mestranol, R55, Red Squill, or Alphanaphthylthiourea (ANTU)-and offered to caged deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). ANTU reduced deer mouse consumption of bitterbrush seed the most (up to 90%) and was not toxic to germinating seed. Deer mice consumed even less ANTU treated seed when seed was first soaked in a 3% thiourea solution to hasten germination. Although ANTU did not reduce seed consumption of treated bitterbrush seed (mean was roughly 55 seed consumed/mouse/night) as much as 0.5% or 1% Endrin (mean was roughly 35-29 seed consumed/mice/night), this may not be relevant as Endrin is banned in Canada and subject to severe use restrictions on federal lands in the United States.
    • Deer Mouse Preference for Seed of Commonly Planted Species, Indigenous Weed Seed, and Sacrifice Foods

      Everett, R. L.; Meeuwig, R. O.; Stevens, R. (Society for Range Management, 1978-01-01)
      Captive deer mice from pinyon-juniper, sagebrush-bitterbrush, and Jeffrey pine-ceanothus plant associations were fed a variety of shrub, grass, forb, and tree seeds. Mice ate or destroyed an amount of seed equal to approximately one-third their body weight daily. Seed of bitterbrush, singleleaf pinyon, balsamroot, and small burnet were the most preferred food items tested while seed of Utah juniper, smooth brome, fourwing saltbush, and big saltbush were least preferred. Planting valuable forage species whose seeds are not preferred by deer mice would appear to improve seeding success on sites where seed predation by deer mice is a problem.
    • Deer, Brush Control, and Livestock on the Texas Rolling Plains

      Darr, G. W.; Klebenow, D. A. (Society for Range Management, 1975-03-01)
      White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were observed by spotlight in the Rolling Plains of Texas to determine deer use of habitats and how deer were influenced by brush control practices and grazing by livestock. Deer densities were greatest in the bottomland habitat. The sand shinnery oak habitat, the mesquite-juniper redland habitat, and the sandyland ecotone habitat supported moderate densities of deer. Influence of deer use from brush control practices varied in each habitat. Chaining bottomland habitat was detrimental to deer: the larger the area chained, the lower density of deer it contained. Herbicides had little detrimental effect and in some situations may have been beneficial. Grazing by sheep was negatively related to deer densities except in the bottomland habitat. In mesquite-juniper redlands and mimosa-erioneuron uplands, replacing sheep with cattle should increase deer populations.
    • Deer-Livestock Forage Studies on the Interstate Winter Deer Range In California

      Dasmann, W. P. (Society for Range Management, 1949-10-01)
    • Defensive Strategy for Poisonous Introduced Plants

      Williams, M. Coburn (Society for Range Management, 1979-02-01)
    • Deferred-rotation Grazing with Steers in the Kansas Flint Hills

      Owensby, C. E.; Smith, K. L.; Anderson, K. L. (Society for Range Management, 1973-11-01)
      Deferred-rotation grazing of Kansas Flint Hills' range grazed by steers May 1 to October 1 was compared to season-long stocking from 1950 through 1966. Deferred-rotation pastures had higher forage production and range condition than season-long stocked pastures. Steer gains were higher on season-long than deferred-rotation pastures. Increased stocking rates were more feasible on deferred-rotation pastures than on season-long pastures.
    • Deficiencies in the Briske et al. Rebuttal of the Savory Method

      Teague, Richard (Society for Range Management, 2014-02-01)
    • Defining and refining value for riparian systems

      Schmidt, Robert H. (Society for Range Management, 1991-04-01)
    • Defoliation and cold-hardiness of northern wheatgrass

      Kowalenko, B. L.; Romo, J. T. (Society for Range Management, 1998-01-01)
      Freezing temperatures in winter were hypothesized to be a major cause of mortality of tillers following defoliation of northern wheatgrass (Agropyron dasystachyum [Hook.] Scribn., syn. Elymus lanceolatus [Scribn. & Smith] Gould). Cold-hardiness of northern wheatgrass tillers was determined following a single mowing to a 5-cm stubble height in late May, June, July, or August in 1992 or 1993 in southwestern Saskatchewan. An unmowed control was also included. Cold-hardiness was determined in early and late winter immediately following mowing by: 1) exposing tillers to controlled temperatures ranging from -3 to -36 degrees C, or; 2) exposing them to -15 degrees C for 0 to 15 days. The LT50 (temperature at which 50% of tillers died) of northern wheatgrass tillers in early winter ranged from -29.5 to < -36.0 degrees C in 1992-93, and averaged -24.0 degrees C in 1993-94. In late winter LT50 ranged from -18.1 to -22.6 degrees C in 1992-1993, and it averaged -22.0 degrees C in 1993-1994. The LDur50 (duration at which 50% of tillers died) of tillers exposed to -15 degrees C for 0 to 15 days ranged from 8.0 to 13.1 days in early winter, and 2.7 to 4.7 days in late winter. Unexpectedly mowed tillers were generally more cold-hardy than those from control. In early winter LT50 was 1.5 to 10 degrees C lower for mowed than control tillers. The hypothesis that defoliation reduces cold-hardiness of northern wheatgrass was rejected. The degree or duration of cold stress in the field is generally insufficient to reduce tiller survival in northern wheatgrass. Late winter through early spring is a critical period for tiller survival of northern wheatgrass because cold-hardiness declines this time of the year. Maintaining insulating cover can moderate soil temperatures and reduce damage to plants from freezing temperatures.
    • Defoliation Effects on Bromus tectorum Seed Production: Implications for Grazing

      Hempy-Mayer, Kara; Pyke, David A. (Society for Range Management, 2008-01-01)
      Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is an invasive annual grass that creates near-homogenous stands in areas throughout the Intermountain sagebrush steppe and challenges successful native plant restoration in these areas. A clipping experiment carried out at two cheatgrass-dominated sites in eastern Oregon (Lincoln Bench and Succor Creek) evaluated defoliation as a potential control method for cheatgrass and a seeding preparation method for native plant reseeding projects. Treatments involved clipping plants at two heights (tall=7.6cm, and short=2.5cm), two phenological stages (boot and purple), and two frequencies (once and twice), although purple-stage treatments were clipped only once. Treatments at each site were replicated in a randomized complete block design that included a control with no defoliation. End-of-season seed density (seeds m-2) was estimated by sampling viable seeds from plants, litter, and soil of each treatment. Unclipped control plants produced an average of approximately 13 000 and 20 000 seeds m-2 at Lincoln Bench and Succor Creek, respectively. Plants clipped short at the boot stage and again 2 wk later had among the lowest mean seed densities at both sites, and were considered the most successful treatments (Lincoln Bench: F6, 45 = 47.07, P < 0.0001; Succor Creek: F6, 40 = 19.60, P < 0.0001). The 95% confidence intervals for seed densities were 123–324 seeds m-2 from the Lincoln Bench treatment, and 769–2 256 seeds m-2 from the Succor Creek treatment. Literature suggests a maximum acceptable cheatgrass seed density of approximately 330 seeds m-2 for successful native plant restoration through reseeding. Thus, although this study helped pinpoint optimal defoliation parameters for cheatgrass control, it also called into question the potential for livestock grazing to be an effective seed-bed preparation technique in native plant reseeding projects in cheatgrass-dominated areas. 
    • Defoliation Effects on Carbohydrate Reserves of Desert Species

      Trilica, M. J.; Cook, C. W. (Society for Range Management, 1971-11-01)
      Representative plants of eight desert species were defoliated at four phenological stages. These species used varying amounts of carbohydrate for regrowth; however, carbohydrate use and storage varied widely among phenological stages within species. There was a direct relationship between average total carbohydrate levels in the autumn and the amount of regrowth after defoliation. The carbohydrate reserve level in the autumn appears to be a good indicator of defoliation effects during the preceding growing season./El manejo de pastizales requiere mas conocimientos sobre las respuestas fisiológicas de las plantas después del pastoreo. El estudio se llevó a cabo para determinar la influencia de la defoliación sobre las reservas de carbohidratos en las yemas basales y las raíces.
    • Defoliation Effects on Herbage Production and Root Growth of Wet Meadow Forage Species

      Volesky, Jerry D.; Schacht, Walter H.; Koehler, Ann E.; Blankenship, Erin; Reece, Patrick E. (Society for Range Management, 2011-09-01)
      Root growth is important to the competitive ability of plants, and understanding how herbage defoliation affects root growth has implications for development of management strategies. Objectives were to determine the effects of defoliation intensity and frequency on root characteristics and herbage production of slender wheatgrass (Elymus trachycaulus [Link.] Shinners), Nebraska sedge (Carex nebrascensis C. Dewey), and ‘‘Steadfast’’ birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). Plants of each species were transplanted into containers that had been placed in the ground at wet meadow field sites the prior year. There were eight replications of a control and five defoliation treatments, which were combinations of different frequencies (two or five times) and intensities (light or heavy) and haying. Treatments were applied for a single growing season, and aboveground biomass was collected. Containers were extracted in October, and plant crowns, rhizomes, and roots were separated from the soil. Defoliation treatment did not affect total root weight, length, and surface area of Nebraska sedge or birdsfoot trefoil (P > 0.10). Slender wheatgrass total root weight was less when defoliated five times (4.46 g container-1) than when defoliated twice (6.62 g container-1) during the growing season. More frequent defoliation of slender wheatgrass also reduced length (20%) and surface area (21%) compared to less frequent defoliation. However, defoliation frequency did not affect aboveground biomass. Defoliation intensity did not affect aboveground production or root characteristics of the three species. Abundant soil moisture in meadows likely buffers negative effects of defoliation. For all species, two defoliation events (e.g., haying followed by grazing) does not appear to negatively affect root growth and herbage production.
    • Defoliation effects on production and morphological development of little bluestem

      Mullahey, J. J.; Waller, S. S.; Moser, L. E. (Society for Range Management, 1990-11-01)
      Response of key warm-season grasses to time, frequency, and duration of defoliation is needed to develop grazing systems for the Nebraska Sandhills. A 3-year (1986 to 1988) study was conducted on a Valentine fine sand (mixed, mesic Typic Ustipsamments) at the Gudmundsen Sandhills Laboratory near Whitman, Nebraska, to determine the effect of defoliation on little bluestem [Schisachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash]. Treatments were: 1 defoliation (to 7 cm) on 10 June, 10 July, or 10 Aug.; 2 defoliations on 10 June and 10 Aug.; and 3 defoliations on 10 June, 10 July, and 10 Aug. Control plants were harvested only at the end of the growing season (October). All plots receiving summer defoliation were harvested in October to obtain aftermath yield. Treatments were initiated in 1986, 1987, and 1988 and the effects of 1, 2, and 3 years of defoliation on dry matter (DM) yield, bud and tiller numbers, and tiller weight were measured. Experimental design was a split block with 4 plants as replications. In the flrst year of treatment annual DM yield from control plants was 2 times greater than that from all defoliated plants, but bud and tiller numbers were similar. In the second year of treatment, all treatments reduced annual DM yield and morphological development below that of the control if precipitation was subnormal, but not if precipitation was above normal. In the third year of defoliation, with above-normal precipitation, single June or July defoliations produced DM yields and morphological development similar to that of the control, but single August or multiple defollations generally reduced yield and development. Little bluestem may not persist if exposed to multiple, close defoliatlons during the growing season.
    • Defoliation effects on reproductive biomass: importance of scale and timing

      Anderson, M. T.; Frank, D. A. (Society for Range Management, 2003-09-01)
      Community-level (per unit area) and individual tiller reproductive biomass inside and outside of long-term exclosures on the northern winter range of Yellowstone National Park, USA were compared. Grazed areas had twice the number of reproductive tillers m-2 (186 compared to 88 tillers m-2), and greater total reproductive biomass m-2 than ungrazed plots (13 compared to 7 g m-2). In contrast, seed number tiller-1 was greater for grasses in exclosures. Because of these offsetting responses, seed production (nom-2) was unaffected by herbivores. On an area basis, grazed grasses allocated proportionally more biomass to reproduction (reproductive biomass/aboveground biomass) than ungrazed grasses. We propose that altered plant demography and morphology following defoliation explain how grazers might increase the allocation of biomass to reproduction in Yellowstone grasslands. To understand these results in light of ecological and agronomic studies, we reviewed literature from 118 sources that reported the effects of defoliation on the production of reproductive biomass. The review suggested that the results of herbivory or defoliation on plant reproductive biomass depended on the scale of measurement (community vs. plant). In addition, timing of grazing or defoliation emerged as a key factor that determined whether sexual reproduction was inhibited. Like the early season grazing that is typical of Yellowstone's northern winter range, studies often showed that early season defoliation stimulated production of community-level reproductive biomass. Our results rectify disagreements in the literature that ultimately derive from differences in either timing of defoliation or measurement scale.