• Protein supplementation of stocker cattle in the Northern Great Plains

      Grings, E. E.; Adams, D. C.; Short, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1994-07-01)
      A comparison of the response of varying classes of growing beef cattle to protein supplementation was conducted on Northern Great Plains rangeland during the summer and early fall. Response was evaluated in 2 experiments, conducted in 1988 and 1989, by measuring organic matter intake and body weight gain in 13-month-old (spring-born steers) and 7-month-old steers (fall-born steers), which received either a 26% crude protein supplement or no supplement. Weight gain was also monitored in 7-month old heifers (fall-born heifers). In experiment 1, spring-born steers were fed 1.28 kg and fall-born steers and heifers 1.64 kg of protein supplement every other day. During experiment 2, spring-born steers were fed supplement at a rate of 1 kg and fall-born steers and heifers at 1.8 kg every other day. Intake of forage organic matter for steers was not affected (P > 0.10) by supplementation in either experiment. In experiment 1, total organic matter intake tended to be increased by protein supplementation in June but not in August (date X supplementation level interaction, P = 0.08). Forage organic matter digestibility was greater (P < 0.01) in June than in August during experiment 1 and in August than September in experiment 2. In experiment 1, this difference was greater for fall-born steers than spring-born steers. In experiment 1, supplementation increased (P < 0.01 average daily gain of cattle from 0.63 to 0.78 kg/day. In experiment 2, daily pin of cattle was increased (P < 0.01) from 0.62 0.82 kg/day with protein supplementation. Also, in experiment 2, cattle receiving supplement were 18 kg heavier (P < 0.05) at the end of the grazing season than unsupplemented controls. Protein supplementation increased weight pins of growing cattle in the late summer in the Northern Great Plains. The advantage was most consistent for fall-born steers with higher relative protein requirements.
    • Range or meadow regrowth and weaning effects on 2-year-old cows

      Lamb, J. B.; Adams, D. C.; Klopfenstein, T. J.; Stroup, W. W.; Lardy, G. P. (Society for Range Management, 1997-01-01)
      Eighty 2-year-old spring calving primiparous cows were assigned to 2 weaning and 2 grazing treatments (20 cows/treatment) from 7 September to 7 November in 1991, 1992, and 1993. Grazing treatments were native sandhills range or subirrigated meadow regrowth. Weaning treatments were weaning on 7 September or 7 November. Calves weaned on 7 September grazed subirrigated meadow regrowth after weaning. Crude protein of diets from esophageally fistulated cows averaged 7.6% on range and 12.3% on subirrigated meadow on an organic matter (OM) basis. In vitro organic matter digestibility was 55.1% on range and 61.1% on subirrigated meadow. No year X grazing treatment or weaning X grazing treatment interactions were detected (P > 0.10) for any traits measured. Forage organic matter consumed by cows differed between years: 7.7 kg day-1 in 1991 and 105 kg day-1 in 1992; but was similar (P>0.10) for all grazing and weaning treatments. Cows grazing meadow gained more body weight and body condition than cows grazing range. Dry cows gained more weight and body condition (P<0.01) than lactating cows. Lactating cows grazing meadow maintained body weight and body condition, while lactating cows grazing range lost body weight and body condition. Calves nursing cows on meadow gained 28.8 kg more (P<0.01) than calves nursing cows on range and 34.4 kg more than weaned calves grazing meadow. Body weight gains of weaned calves grazing meadow and calves nursing cows on range were similar (P>0.10). We concluded that dry cows and cows that grazed subirrigated meadow regrowth during September and October increased body condition score over lactating cows and cows grazing range, respectively. Calf body weight gains were greatest for nursing calves on subirrigated meadow, but grazing weaned calves on subirrigated meadow was an effective alternative for calf growth to calves nursing cows on range.
    • Supplement and forage effects on fecal output estimates from an intra-ruminal marker device

      Hollingsworth, K. J.; Adams, D. C.; Klopfenstein, T. J.; Lamb, J. B.; Villalobos, G. (Society for Range Management, 1995-03-01)
      Three experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of supplemental protein and forage on marker estimated fecal output using an intraruminal continuous release marker device in grazing steers. In experiment 1, twelve steers were assigned to 3 treatments and fecal collections were made during a 6-day period in December 1990 and again in February 1991. Treatments were: 1) range forage only, 2) range forage + 0.32 kg protein/day from a 70% soybean meal - 30% wheat pellet, and 3) range forage + 0.32 kg crude protein/day from 15.1% meadow hay. Fecal output estimates derived from the marker device were similar (P > 0.10) for all treatments and both periods. Fecal estimates derived from the marker device were greater (P < 0.01) than fecal output from total fecal collection (3.5 kg/day vs 2.7 kg/day); the correlation between estimates from fecal collection and the marker device was 0.85. In experiment 2, ten steers were assigned to treatments 1 and 2 of experiment 1 during December 1991. Fecal output derived from the marker device was similar (P > 0.10) for the 2 supplement treatments. Fecal output estimates were greater (P < 0.10) for the marker device than fecal collection (1.80 kg/day vs 11.63 kg/day); the correlation between estimates from the marker device and total collection was 0.94. In experiment 3, fecal output was derived from the marker device during three 5 day collection periods. Steers grazed upland range in July (green immature forage) and September (cured mature forage) and grazed subirrigated meadow (immature regrowth) in October. Fecal output estimates from the marker device were different (P < 0.05) between collection periods, (e.g., forage sources). When compared to total fecal collection, the marker device underestimated fecal output on range in July (P < 0.01, 2.1 kg/day vs 2.5 kg/day) and on meadow in October (P < 0.01, 2.6 kg/day vs 3.5 kg/day). Correlations between the marker device and fecal collection were 0.93 in July and 0.99 in October, respectively. Estimates from the marker device and total fecal collection were similar (P > 0.10; r = 0.93) on range in September. Protein supplements had no effect on fecal estimates derived from chromic oxide released from a marker device, but the marker estimates were affected by forage source. Correlation between fecal collection and the marker method is high; however, total fecal collection should be used to correct fecal output derived by the marker device for each forage source.
    • Supplementation and monensin effects on digesta kinetics. I. Cattle grazing summer range

      Ward, M. G.; Adams, D. C.; Wallace, J. D.; Galyean, M. L.; Knapp, B. W. (Society for Range Management, 1990-09-01)
      Sixteen ruminally cannulated beef steers grazing native summer range in the Northern Great PIains were assigned to 4 treatments in a 2 X 2 factorial arrangement. Main effects were barley grain and monensin. Rolled barley (RB) containing 7.5% molasses was fed at 0 and 1.36 kg head-1 day-1. Steers received no monensin (M) or M released at 101 mg/d via a ruminal delivery device. Forage intake and digestibiIity, ruminal fermentation, and ruminal passage rate were measured during trials in: (1) June, (2) July, and (3) August. Diet samples were collected from esophogeally fistuIated steers during each trial. Dietary crude protein was greater (P<0.05) during trials 1 (15.2%)and 3 (14.3%) than in trial 2 (10.2%). In vivo organic matter (OM) digestibiiity, ruminal fluid passage rate, and fermentation variables varied by trial (P<0.01). Forage OM intake was reduced (P<0.10) by RB, but was not influenced (P>0.10) by M or the M and RB combination. In vivo OM digestibility was increased (P<0.05) by M, while RB had no effect. Particulate passage was not affected by M or RB but gastrointestinal tract fill was reduced by monensin (P<0.05). Ruminal fluid passage rate was affected by the RB X M X Trial interaction (P<0.05). Within June and July, fluid passage rate was similar among treatments and ranged from 14.0 to 11.3 %/h, respectively. During trial 3, a RB X M interaction (P<0.05) increased fluid passage rate. Ruminal ammonia-N concentration was similar among treatments. Barleey lowered (P<0.05) ruminal pH and increased (P<0.10) total volatile fatty acids. A RB X M X Trial interaction (P<0.05) was noted for molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and butyrate. Within trials, RB, M, and their combination affected (P<0.01 to P<0.10) acetate, propionate, and butyrate. We conclude that barley, monensin, and forage quality infiuence ruminal fermentation, passage rate, and intake traits of steers grazing summer range.
    • Supplementation and monensin effects on digesta kinetics. II. Cattle grazing winter range

      Ward, M. G.; Adams, D. C.; Wallace, J. D.; Galyean, M. L.; Volesky, J. D. (Society for Range Management, 1990-09-01)
      Sixteen ruminally cannulated steers grazing Northern Great Plains native winter range were assigned to 4 treatments in a 2 X 2 factorial arrangement. Main effects were protein and monensin. A soybean meal-barley pellet (P; 26% crude protein) was fed at 0 and .8 kg head-1 d-1. Steers either received no monensin (M) or M was released at 101 ml/day via a ruminal delivery device. Forage intake, rmninal fermentation, in vivo organic matter (OM) digestibility, and ruminal fluid passage and particulate digesta kinetics were measured during trials in November and January. Esophageally fistulated steers were used to collect diet samples during each trial. Dietary crude protein was greater (P<0.01) in November (8.3%) than January (4.9%). Forage OM intake was not (P>0.10) influenced by either P or M. In vivo OM digestibility was increased (P<0.05) by P (60.6 vs 57.4%) and not affected (P>0.10) by M. Particulate passage rate increased (P<0.05) when P was combined with M. Ruminal fluid flow characteristics, fluid volume and pH were not affected (P>0.10) by either P or M. Ruminal ammonia-N was increased (P<0.01) by P (2.9 vs .6 mg/100 ml) and not affected (P>0.10) by M. Total ruminal volatile fatty acid concentrations, along with molar proportions of ruminal propionate and butyrate, were not affected (P>0.10) by P or M. Ruminal acetate was decreased (P<0.10) by P and not influenced (P>0.10) by M. We conclude that supplemental protein, through ruminal modifications, has beneficial effects on OM digestibility, and can thereby provide cattle grazing winter range with additional energy at a time when it is most crucial.
    • Technical Note: Surgical establishment of esophageal fistulae in suckling calves

      Adams, D. C.; Short, R. E.; Pfister, J. A.; Peterson, K. R.; Hudson, D. B. (Society for Range Management, 1991-11-01)
      Esophageal fistulae were established in five 34-day-old suckling calves by a modified surgical procedure used previously for sheep and goats. After skin incision, the esophagus was exposed by separating the brachiocephalicus and sternocephalicus muscles. A cannula was inserted into the esophagus after a longitudinal incision was made into the lumen of the esophagus. Sutures were not used in the esophagus. The calves recovered quickly with moderate post-operative swelling. We concluded that the surgical procedure was satisfactory and that diets were collected readily and without fistulae shrinkage.
    • Technical Notes: Evaluation of dietary preference with a multiple latin square design

      Borman, M. M.; Adams, D. C.; Knapp, B. W.; Haferkamp, M. R. (Society for Range Management, 1991-05-01)
      A sequential multiple latin square experimental design was evaluated as a tool for establishing dietary preference rankings. Dietary preference of 4 grasses was determined by a series of four 4 X 4 latin squares where rows were 4 days within a pen, columns were 4 locations of a grass within a pen, and treatments were 4 grasses. Each square (i.e., pen) utilized 1 lamb. Following the completion of trial 1, the most preferred grass was withdrawn and the 3 remaining grasses were further studied with a series of four 3 X 3 latin squares. This procedure was found to be a resource efficient and effective tool for preference ranking.
    • Windrow grazing and baled-hay feeding strategies for wintering calves

      Volesky, J. D.; Adams, D. C.; Clark, R. T. (Society for Range Management, 2002-01-01)
      Management practices that lower livestock production costs are of interest to ranch enterprises. Windrow or swath grazing is a strategy where livestock directly graze windrow-stored forage, generally during a time when packaged hay or some other feed is provided. The objectives of this study were: 1) to quantify calf performance and forage intake and waste under windrow grazing (windrow) and bale-fed (bale) management strategies; 2) to quantify hay quality changes as affected by storage method and time; 3) to determine the effects of windrow coverage on subsequent meadow herbage yield and composition; and 4) to compare costs and returns associated with windrow and bale strategies. The forage source was wet meadow dominated by cool-season perennial species with alternating windrows baled and the remaining windrows left in place for direct grazing. Weaned steer calves were fed baled hay or grazed windrows during a November-January period each of 2 years. Windrow grazing calf gains were greater (P < 0.05) than bale-fed during the first year of the study but gains were similar during the second year. Greater weight gain for windrow calves during the first year was likely due to the presence of high quality regrowth that occurred after hay harvest. Diet samples collected from fistulated windrow animals in December contained 14.6% crude protein (CP) compared to 10.4% for hand-collected samples of windrows (P < 0.05). Crude protein content of windrow- and baled-stored forage was similar (10.6%, P > 0.05) during all sampling months (September-February). Crude protein content of standing (stockpiled) forage declined to 5.7% by February. Acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) were similar between windrow and standing storage treatments during all months and higher than bales from November through February. Herbage yield was 20% less in the area directly covered by windrows the previous fall and winter compared to the control (P < 0.05). However, only about 9% of the total area of a pasture is affected by windrow-coverage when 1-m wide windrows are created 11 m apart, resulting in an overall herbage yield reduction of 1.5%. Total forage production costs for the bale-fed strategy were about 63 ha(-1) (37%) higher than windrow grazing due to baling and bale moving costs. Feed costs averaged 0.16 head(-1) day(-1) for windrow and 0.30 head(-1) day(-1) for the bale strategy. When production data were applied to market prices for the previous 7 years, the mean net return ha(-1) for windrow exceeded the net return for the bale strategy by about 93 and the net return for a strategy that directly sold the hay by 174.
    • Yield and quality of RS-2, a quackgrass X bluebunch wheatgrass hybrid

      Haferkamp, M. R.; Adams, D. C.; Borman, M. M.; Grings, E. E.; Currie, P. O. (Society for Range Management, 1995-07-01)
      Understanding the effect of defoliation frequency and N fertilization on plant growth, forage yield, and quality of RS-2, a quackgrass [Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski.] x bluebunch wheat grass [Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh.) Love] hybrid, will help promote efficient use of this hybrid in livestock production systems. Plants were fertilized with 0, 112, or 224 kg N ha-1 in spring 1988 and 1989, or with a 112 + 112 kg N ha-1 split in spring and summer. One set of plants was unmowed or mowed to a 5cm stubble height once in July or August in 1988 and another set was mowed initially in May, June, July, August, September, or October 1989 and monthly thereafter through October. Peak standing crop of unmowed plants was 3,470 kg ha-1 in 1988 and 5,850 kg ha-1 in 1989. In 1989 yields of fertilized plants exceeded those of unfertilized plants by 1,000 kg ha-1. In 1988, crude protein exceeded 12% in unmowed forage and in 1989 varied from 20% in May to 8% in August. After fertilization, crude protein was increased by 2 to 4 percentage units in 1988 and by 2 percentage units in 1989, but fertilization had no effect on in vitro digestible organic matter. Regrowth contained more crude protein (15-22%) and digestible organic matter (29-40%) than unmowed forage. Sequential harvesting enhanced quality of regrowth, but standing crops did not exceed 350 kg ha-1; except in June 1989. Sixty percent of the accumulated yield was harvested with the first mowing during May through August. Plots harvested initially in September and October were only harvested once. Our findings indicate an increase in forage yield potential and forage quality of RS-2 after harvesting and fertilizing the RS-2 hybrid.