• Early summer grazing effects on defoliation and tiller demography of prairie sandreed

      Cullan, A. P.; Reece, P. E.; Schacht, W. H. (Society for Range Management, 1999-09-01)
      Grazing strategies should be designed to maintain vigorous populations of plant species critical for livestock production, wildlife habitat, and/or ecosystem functions. Treatments consisting of 5- to 7-day, mid-month grazing periods in June or July at 16, 32, or 48 animal unit days (AUD) per ha, were replicated 3 times and applied to the same pastures in 1995 and 1996 to quantify cattle use and tiller recruitment and mortality of prairie sandreed [Calamovilfa longifolia (Hook) Scribn.], a rhizomatous species characterized by dispersed populations of tillers. Cumulative grazing pressure (AUD Mg-1) was used to quantify treatments because of differences in phytomass among pastures and dates. Grazing pressure ranged from 10 to 90 AUD Mg-1 and accounted for 69, 61, and 77% of the variation in percentage of tillers grazed, mean defoliation of grazed tillers, and use of prairie sandreed, respectively. As grazing pressure increased from 10 AUD Mg-1, percentage of tillers grazed increased from 48 to 90%; defoliation of grazed tillers increased from 54 to 74%; and utilization of prairies and reed increased from 27 to 67% at plateaus beginning at 50 to 60 AUD Mg-1. When spring precipitation was above average, 45 to 55% use in June or July increased tiller densities, however, these increases were not sustained or repeated in the following year with average precipitation. Utilization was 50% at 28 AUD Mg-1 and 60% at 40 AUD Mg-1. Relatively large increases in utilization per-unit-change of grazing pressure below 20 AUD Mg-1 indicated that yearling cattle selectively grazed prairie sandreed. The high degree of correlation between percentage of prairie sandreed tillers grazed and use of prairie sandreed (R2= 0.91 in June and 0.90 in July) suggests that percentage of grazed tillers can be used to monitor early-summer use of this species in the Nebraska Sandhills.
    • Early Use of Soaptree Yucca as Emergency Feed

      Wood, M. Karl; Mayeux, Herman S.; Garcia, Eddie L. (Society for Range Management, 1990-08-01)
    • Early weaning and length of supplementation effects on beef calves

      Pordomingo, A. J. (Society for Range Management, 2002-07-01)
      Early weaning of calves can improve reproduction of beef cows, and would be of no detriment to calf growth if the diet is adequate. Digestible energy intake could be limiting, however, when calves are weaned on forage. Performance of calves weaned at 70 days (early weaning) and 172 days (normally weaning) of age were compared. Calves from 2 locations in Argentina, Anguil, and Chacharramendi, were distributed in 14 groups and half were weaned. Early-weaned calves were pen fed a 50% concentrate-50% alfalfa hay diet for 12 days, followed by grazing on alfalfa for 150 days. During the first 90 days on pasture, early-weaned calves were group supplemented (1.2 % body weight (BW, DM basis). Calves from Anguil did not differ (P = 0.068) in average daily gain (ADG). In contrast, early-weaned calves from Chacharramendi gained faster than normally-weaned calves (P 0.01). In a second experiment, 108 calves were classified into 3 age groups on day 0 of trial (AGE1 = 109 +/- 2.2 days of age, AGE2 = 91 +/- 1.6 days of age and AGE3 = 75 +/- 3.8 days of age). Two thirds of the calves were weaned (early-weaned calves) the same day and the remaining third was returned to their dams (normally-weaned calves). Two feeding treatments were imposed on the early-weaned calves: S15 = supplement during the first 15 days on pasture (1% body weight, DM basis), and S45 = supplement during the first 45 days. Early-weaned calves grazed on an alfalfa pasture for 136 days. Calves from the normally-weaned group remained with their mothers until weaning onto pasture on day 87 of the study. Normally-weaned calves were the heaviest (P < 0.05) at the end of trial. Differences in body weight between early weaning ages increased as the supplementation period decreased. Calves that were weaned at 75 days of age and fed supplement for only 15 days had the lowest (P < 0.05) overall ADG and final body weight. Overall results suggested that early weaning favors reproduction of thin cows, and early-weaned calves can be placed on good-quality pasture with no detriment of growth if energy supplement is provided.
    • Early Weaning and Part-Year Confinement of Cattle on Arid Rangelands of the Southwest

      Herbel, C. H.; Wallace, J. D.; Finkner, M. D.; Yarbrough, C. C. (Society for Range Management, 1984-03-01)
      This study compared part-year confinement of cows with yearlong placement on rangeland and weaning calves in late May with regular weaning in mid-October. Weaning rates tended to be higher with part-year confinement than with yearlong placement on rangeland (86% vs. 72%) and with early weaning in May than with regular weaning in October (86% vs. 72%). There were significant year effects in weaning weights with the lowest weights in drought years. The production per cow exposed tended to be higher with part-year confinement than with yearlong placement on rangeland (134 kg vs. 110 kg), and with regular weaning than with early weaning of calves (156 kg vs. 88 kg). Part-year confinement of cows and early weaning of calves are useful tools for the range manager in droughty years.
    • Earthen Windbreaks, a new Management Device for Salt Marsh Rangelands

      Shiflet, Thomas N. (Society for Range Management, 1963-11-01)
    • Echoes of the Chisholm Trail: Texas: A Biological Crossroads

      Smeins, Fred E. (Society for Range Management, 2004-10-01)
      Texas: A Biological Crossroads
    • Ecological Characteristics and Control of Gambel Oak

      Engle, D. M.; Bonham, C. D.; Bartel, L. E. (Society for Range Management, 1983-05-01)
      Manipulation of Gambel oak for enhanced rangeland values must be in accord with ecological principles to ensure desired success. Failures in controlling Gambel oak have occurred because the growth patterns, morphological characteristics, and carbohydrate storage patterns of the species have not been taken into account. However, recurrent control will continue to be necessary since grass dominated systems should not be considered to be climax in Gambel oak dominated systems. Existing initial and maintenance control methods appear to offer only short-term solutions, which often result in more troublesome long-term management problems.
    • Ecological considerations for woody plant management

      Fuhlendorf, Samuel D. (Society for Range Management, 1999-01-01)
    • Ecological Effect of a Clay Soil's Structure on Some Native Grass Roots

      White, E. M.; Lewis, J. K. (Society for Range Management, 1969-11-01)
      Dense Clay Range soils have larger structure peds or groups of smaller peds in the upper part of the soil when moisture is at the wilting point than do Clayey Range soils of the same moisture and clay content. Large peds, which are bordered by cracks when dry, apparently constrict roots as they dry and hold the roots so that they are stretched across the bordering cracks. Blue grama and buffalograss grow on the Clayey Range soils and have a fine, spreading root system near the soil surface. However, these grasses do not grow on Dense Clay Range soils where presumably their fine roots are not strong enough to withstand the constricting and stretching forces. Western wheatgrass and green needlegrass have larger, more deeply placed roots which are more vertically oriented than the short grasses and are able to utilize subsoil moisture and grow on the Dense Clay soils.
    • Ecological Effects and Fate of N Following Massive N Fertilization of Mixed-Grass Plains

      Houston, W. R.; Hyder, D. N. (Society for Range Management, 1975-01-01)
      The response of range herbage and soils on mixed-grass range in southeastern Wyoming to single massive applications of N fertilizer was studied from 1969 to 1973. Herbage yields and N content of herbage were increased by fertilizer in all years of study. Peak responses occurred in 1970 and 1971. Most of the applied N was accounted for in 1970 in top growth and in mineral form. However, a substantial portion could not be accounted for in 1972-73. In early April, 1973, a significant part of the applied N was concentrated below the zone of main root activity in the soil and may be unavailable for future plant use. Several undesirable plants were increased by massive applications of N, and some desirable plants decreased. Massive applications of N on this rangeland produced both desirable and undesirable responses.
    • Ecological Health of Grasslands and Sagebrush Steppe on the Northern Yellowstone Range

      Hunter, H. E.; Husby, P. O.; Fidel, J.; Mosley, J. C. (Society for Range Management, 2018-12)
      Native plant abundances within the grasslands and sagebrush steppe of the Northern Range decreased substantially during the 20th century and the degradation has continued during the 21st century. Forage production has declined precipitously, and ecological processes (i.e., water cycle, energy flow, and nutrient cycle) are impaired and degrading further. The declining health of Northern Range grasslands and sagebrush steppe is primarily caused by heavy grazing and browsing by bison and elk, not climatic changes. Excessive grazing and browsing is caused by modern-day management decisions that allowed bison and elk populations to become much larger than primeval times. National Park Service policy requires human intervention (i.e., active management) when human actions have impaired natural ecological processes or altered natural abundances of native plants and animals.
    • Ecological Principles Underpinning Invasive Plant Management Tools and Strategies

      James, Jeremy J.; Sheley, Roger L.; Smith, Brenda S. (Society for Range Management, 2012-12-01)
    • Ecological Relationships between Pinyon-Juniper and True Mountain Mahogany Stands in the Uintah Basin, Utah

      Greenwood, L. R.; Brotherson, J. D. (Society for Range Management, 1978-05-01)
      Ecological relationships between true mountain mahogany and pinyon-juniper stands in the Uintah Basin, Utah, were measured to detect differences between the two community types. The mountain mahogany community is dominated by grasses and shrubs, while the pinyon-juniper vegetation consists primarily of trees and annual plants. Soil depth is greatest in the pinyon-juniper areas. Slickrock often covers as much as 80% of the mountain mahogany stands. Soil was sampled from beneath and between the mahogany shrubs and the pinyon and juniper trees. The pH of soil from beneath mahogany shrubs was significantly (P < 0.001) more alkaline than that from beneath pinyon and juniper trees. Soluble salt concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) less in soil from beneath mountain mahogany shrubs than in soil from between shrubs. A reverse situation occurred in the pinyon-juniper stands.
    • Ecological relationships between poisonous plants and rangeland condition: A Review

      Ralphs, M. H. (Society for Range Management, 2002-05-01)
      In the past, excessive numbers of livestock on western U.S. rangelands, reoccurring droughts, and lack of management resulted in retrogression of plant communities. Poisonous plants and other less palatable species increased with declining range condition and livestock were forced to eat these poisonous species because of a shortage of desirable forage, resulting in large, catastrophic losses. The level of management on most western rangelands has improved during the last 60 years, resulting in marked improvement in range condition; yet losses to poisonous plants still occur, though not as large and catastrophic as in the past. Some poisonous species are major components of the pristine, pre-European plant communities [tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi Huth), Veratrum californicum Durand, water hemlock (Cicuta douglasii (DC.)Coult. Rose), bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn), chokecherry (Prunus virginiana L.), Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson), and various oak species (Quercus spp.)]. Although populations of many poisonous seral increaser species have declined with better management, they are still components of plant communities and fluctuate with changing precipitation patterns [locoweed (Astragalus and Oxytropis spp.), lupine (Lupinus spp.), death camas (Zigadenus spp.), snakeweed (Gutierrezia spp.), threadleaf groundsel (Senecio longolobis Benth.), low larkspur (Delphinium nuttallianum Pritz.), timber milkvetch (Astragalus miser Dougl. ex Hook.), redstem peavine (A. emoryanus (Rydb.) Cory), western bitterweed (Hymenoxys odorata D.C.), orange sneezeweed (Helenium hoopesii Gray), twin leaf senna (Cassia roemeriana Schelle), and white snakeroot (Eupatorium rugosum Houtt)]. Many of the alien invader species are poisonous: [Halogeton glomeratus (Bieb.) C.A. Mey, St. Johnswort (Hypericum perforatum L.), poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.), tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea L.), hounds tongue (Cynoglossum officinale L.), leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.), yellow star thistle (Centaurea solstitialis L.) and other knapweeds (Centaurea spp.)]. Poisoning occurs when livestock consume these plants because they are either relatively more palatable than the associated forage, or from management mistakes of running short of desirable forage.
    • Ecological Restoration of Gullies and Stream Channels

      Murray, John (Society for Range Management, 2003-12-01)
    • Ecological Restoration Using EBIPM

      Mangold, Jane (Society for Range Management, 2012-12-01)
    • Ecological Scale of Bird Community Response to Piñon-Juniper Removal

      Knick, S. T.; Hanser, S. E.; Leu, M. (Society for Range Management, 2014-09)
      Piñon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) removal is a common management approach to restore sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) vegetation in areas experiencing woodland expansion. Because many management treatments are conducted to benefit sagebrush-obligate birds, we surveyed bird communities to assess treatment effectiveness in establishing sagebrush bird communities at study sites in Utah, Nevada, Idaho, and Oregon. Our analyses included data from 1 or 2 yr prior to prescribed fire or mechanical treatment and 3 to 5 yr posttreatment. We used detrended correspondence analysis to 1) identify primary patterns of bird communities surveyed from 2006 to 2011 at point transects, 2) estimate ecological scale of change needed to achieve treatment objectives from the relative dissimilarity of survey points to the ordination region delineating sagebrush bird communities, and 3) measure changes in pre- and posttreatment bird communities. Birds associated with sagebrush, woodlands, and ecotones were detected on our surveys; increased dissimilarity of survey points to the sagebrush bird community was characterized by a gradient of increased juniper and decreased sagebrush cover. Prescribed fires burned between 30% and 97% of our bird survey points. However, from 6% to 24% cover of piñon-juniper still remained posttreatment on the four treatment plots. We measured only slight changes in bird communities, which responded primarily to current vegetation rather than relative amount of change from pretreatment vegetation structure. Bird communities at survey points located at greater ecological scales from the sagebrush bird community changed least and will require more significant impact to achieve changes. Sagebrush bird communities were established at only two survey points, which were adjacent to a larger sagebrush landscape and following almost complete juniper removal by mechanical treatment. Our results indicate that management treatments that leave residual woodland cover and are not adjacent to extensive sagebrush stands are unlikely to establish sagebrush birds. © 2014 The Society for Range Management.
    • Ecological Site Descriptions: Consideration for Riparian Systems

      Stringham, Tamzen K.; Repp, Jeffery P. (Society for Range Management, 2010-12-01)
    • Ecological Site Development: A Gentle Introduction

      Moseley, Kendra; Shaver, Pat L.; Sanchez, Homer; Bestelmeyer, Brandon T. (Society for Range Management, 2010-12-01)