• Effects of Soil Disturbance on Plant Succession and Levels of Mycorrhizal Fungi in a Sagebrush-Grassland Community

      Doerr, T. B.; Redente, E. F.; Reeves, F. B. (Society for Range Management, 1984-03-01)
      A 5-year study was conducted to determine the effects of soil disturbance on plant succession and the relationship between plant succession and mycorrhizal inoculum potential (MIP) in a big sagebrush-grassland vegetation type. Disturbed plots, consisting of 4 levels of soil disturbance, were established in 1976, 1977, and 1979 to evaluate environmental fluctuations. Perennial grass canopy cover and aboveground biomass production were positively correlated with MIP and negatively correlated with disturbance treatments. Annual forb canopy cover (primarily nonmycorrhizal species) and aboveground biomass were negatively correlated with MIP and positively correlated with level of soil disturbance. Weather fluctuations had a greater effect on annual plants than perennial plants after the perennial species were established. MIP values appeared to be a general indicator of the type and rate of plant succession that will evolve following soil disturbance.
    • Effects of Soil Moisture on Burned and Clipped Idaho Fescue

      Britton, C. M.; Clark, R. G.; Sneva, F. A. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis) plants were burned and clipped under 2 soil water regimes. Treatments were applied to plants in late August and mid-October located in eastern Oregon. Results indicated that watering plants either before or after burning produced no beneficial effects as measured by changes in basal area or yield. Regardless of treatment, plant damage was greater with late August as contrasted to mid-October treatment dates. These data do not support the opinion that high soil moisture is necessary prior to fall burning of sagebrush-bunchgrass communities.
    • Effects of Soil-Surface Morphology on Emergence and Survival of Seedlings in Big Sagebrush Communities

      Eckert, R. E.; Peterson, F. F.; Meurisse, M. S.; Stephens, J. L. (Society for Range Management, 1986-09-01)
      Various kinds of soil-surface microsites occur on loess-mantled Aridisols in central and northern Nevada. This study evaluates the potential of trampled and untrampled microsites to influence natural revegetation and either secondary succession or retrogression. Microsites present on different soil surfaces included the litter- and moss-covered Type I surface that occurs under the shrub canopy; the trench-like cracks and pinnacled polygons of the Type II surface that occur adjacent to the Type I surface; and the narrow cracks and smooth polygons with crusted, vesicular structure of the Type III surface that occurs in the interspaces between shrubs. Emergence and survival of Wyoming big sagebrush generally were greatest on the Type I and III surfaces, in the untrampled crack microsite of the Type III surface, and on the heavily trampled polygon microsite of the Type III surface. Emergence and survival of perennial grasses generally were greatest on the untrampled Type I surface, in the untrampled trench microsite of the Type II surface, and on moderately trampled trench and pinnacle microsites of the Type II surface. Emergence of annual and perennial forbs generally was greatest on untrampled trench and crack microsites of the Type II and III soil surfaces. Heavy trampling of trench and crack microsites reduced the emergence of perennial grasses, and both moderate and heavy trampling reduced the emergence of annual and perennial forbs. The potential for secondary succession would appear to be greatest where Types I and II surfaces and associated microsites predominate on a site and when trampling is moderate or absent. The potential for retrogression would appear to be greatest where the Type III surface and associated microsites predominate and when trampling is heavy.
    • Effects of Soils on Forage Utilization in the Desert Grassland

      Vandermark, J. L.; Schmutz, E. M.; Ogden, P. R. (Society for Range Management, 1971-11-01)
      This study was made in southeastern Arizona to determine some of the factors affecting utilization by cattle of two key species on three desert grassland soils. Results showed that macronutrient content of the soil and the plants, and corresponding utilization of blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) and curlymesquite (Hilaria belangeri), were always significantly greater on the Pima bottomland soil than on the two upland soils, but they were not always significantly different between the two upland soils. No consistent relationships were found between forage utilization and micronutrient, sugar or starch content in the plants./El estudio se llevó a cabo en una zona desértica en el Estado de Arizona, E.U.A. Hubo una correlación significativa entre el consumo de forraje y los contenidos de nitrógeno, fósforo y potasio. No hubo una correlación entre el consumo y los contenidos de azúcar, almidón, micronutrientes ni humedad. El consumo fué mucho más significativo en cuanto al forraje en los valles con suelos profundos que en los suelos de las dos mesetas.
    • Effects of spotted knapweed on a cervid winter-spring range in Idaho

      Wright, A. L.; Kelsey, R. G. (Society for Range Management, 1997-09-01)
      Spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam.), an exotic member of the Compositae, infests large areas of rangeland in the northwestern United States. We assessed the impacts of infestation on a wilderness winter-spring range for elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni Bailey), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus Raf.), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginanus Raf.) along the Selway River in Idaho and found no evidence of a large reduction in carrying capacity. We estimated cervid densities in open areas by scan sampling known area blocks. Densities in knapweed vegetation were greater than or equal to densities in areas of native bunchgrasses and sedges. Direct observation of animals and laboratory analyses of fecal and rumen samples showed spotted knapweed seedheads and rosette leaves were being eaten by all cervid species. Deer ate large amounts of rosette leaves at times in contrast to elk, which consumed them frequently, but in small amounts. Seedhead consumption was greatest during periods of snow cover. We collected composite samples of knapweed times and determined energy and protein content wtth standard laboratory techniques. Energy and protein content of rosettes was near that of preferred native food plants. Seedheads, while less nutritious than rosettes, remained easily obtainable above the snow. The amount of energy and protein available on sample plots decreased modestly at most after infestation. In composite samples of spotted knapweed the content of cnicin, a sesquiterpene lactone in aerial tissues, was determined by high performance liquid chromotography. Changes in cnicin levels did not appear to be responsible for seasonal changes in the amount of knapweed in cervid diets. When estimating or predicting carrying capacity of a cervid range, spotted knapweed should be considered a potential food.
    • Effects of Spring Burning on a Mountain Range

      Nimir, M. B.; Payne, G. F. (Society for Range Management, 1978-07-01)
      The physical, biological, and chemical consequences of burning mountain range were monitored the year of a spring burn on the Gallatin National Forest, Montana. Two sites within the burn were intensively studied. Burning did not cause any major changes in soil chemical or physical properties. Significant soil chemical changes occurred regardless of the fire influence. Burning resulted in early reduction of basal cover of vegetation. This effect was decreased as the season advanced. A listing of species damaged by burning and favored by burning is provided.
    • Effects of Spring Burning on Yields of Brush Prairie Savanna

      Vogl, R. J. (Society for Range Management, 1965-07-01)
      Herbage production the first season after burning was 2,110 lbs. per acre, as compared to 772 lbs. on unburned areas. Burned areas maintained high productivity of grasses and forbs the second year. Dead material comprised about 90% of the total herbage for stands unburned for 25 years, but only 19% on burned stands.
    • Effects of spring headfires and backfires on tall grass prairie

      Bidwell, T. G.; Engle, D. M.; Claypool, P. L. (Society for Range Management, 1990-05-01)
      We compared responses of tallgrass prairie vegetation to late spring herdfires and backfires on a moderately stocked 2.4 AUM ha-1) shallow prairie range site 15 km southwest of Stillwater, Oklahoma. We replicated treatments 4 times in a randomized complete block design on 10 X 20-m plots oriented with the prevailing wind direction. Treatment factors included burning treatments (headfire, backfire, and unburned check) and treatment years (1986 and 1987). Herbage standing crop was clipped to ground level in tive 0.25-m2 quadrats per plot in June and August and separated into vegetation categories. Standing crop of tallgrasses in August was 21% (400 kg ha-1) greater on headfired than backfired plots. Forb standing crop in August was 26% (98 kg ha-1) greater on backfired plots than headfired plots. On tallgrass prairie managed for livestock, the area headfired should be maximized within the constraints of the bum prescription. Backfiring in late spring can be used to increase wildlife habitat on small areas.
    • Effects of Stocking Rate and Heather Supplementation on Gastrointestinal Nematode Infections and Host Performance in Naturally-Infected Cashmere Goats

      Osoro, Koldo; Celaya, Rafael; Moreno-Gonzalo, Javier; Ferreira, Luis M. M.; García, Urcesino; Frutos, Pilar; Ortega-Mora, Luis M.; Ferre, Ignacio (Society for Range Management, 2009-03-01)
      The aim of this study, performed on 62 adult dry cashmere goats grazing upland perennial ryegrass-white clover pastures and naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, was to investigate the effects of stocking rate (SR: 24 vs. 38 goats ha-1) and tannin-containing heather supplementation (H: Calluna vulgaris [L.] Hull, Erica spp.) vs. nonsupplementation on parasite burden, fecal egg counts (FEC), and live weight (LW) changes. Goats were randomly assigned to four treatments in a 2 X 2 factorial arrangement and grazed continuously from May to October. Six goats per treatment were slaughtered at the end of the grazing period, and adult worms in the abomasum and small and large intestines of each animal were recovered, counted, and identified. FEC was affected by SR (P < 0.01) but not by H. However, the SR 3 H interaction was significant (P < 0.05). FEC increased (P < 0.001) along the grazing season in all treatments, and the SR 3 time interaction was significant (P < 0.001). In general, mean total worm counts in abomasum and small intestine tended to be higher under high SR, although the differences were only significant (P<0.01) in Trichostrongylus spp. counts. In goats managed under the high SR, the mean of total Teladorsagia circumcincta counts was lower (P<0.01) in supplemented animals, but no differences were recorded for Trichostrongylus spp., Chabertia ovina, Oesophagostomum columbianum, and Trichuris ovis. The goats gained more LW (P<0.001) under low SR and when they were heather-supplemented. No significant SR X H interaction was found for LW change. In conclusion, high stocking rate increases the infectivity risk of pasture and the supplementation of grazing goats with heather contributing to improve animals’ performance. Notwithstanding, the effect of heather availability on nematode FEC reduction could be highly dependent on the climatic conditions. 
    • Effects of Stocking Rate on a Rough Fescue Grassland Vegetation

      Willms, W. D.; Smoliak, S.; Dormaar, J. F. (Society for Range Management, 1985-05-01)
      A study was conducted to examine the effects of 4 stocking rates on the vegetation in a Rough Fescue Grassland vegetation in southwestern Alberta. Stocking at a light rate (1.2 AUM/ha) for 32 years did not affect range condition. However, a modest increase in stocking rate (1.6 AUM/ha) led to a marked decline in range condition. This was associated with a change in the composition of rough fescue from 38 to 21% of basal area. Rough fescue (Festuca scabrella) was nearly eliminated with a stocking rate of 2.4 AUM/ha. Rough fescue was replaced by Parry oat grass (Danthonia parryi) which increased from 24% at 1.2 AUM/ha to 48% at 2.4 AUM/ha. However, stocking at 4.8 AUM/ha resulted in severe deterioration of the grassland. This required annual adjustment of the stocking rate to avoid animal losses. The recommended stocking rate for good condition range in the area is 1.6 AUM/ha. Recovery of the vegetation within the exclosures, from the time of their construction, to a stable range condition, took from 14 years in the lightly grazed field to more than the length of the study in the very heavily grazed field. The duration required for recovery was related to the original range condition of the exclosures.
    • Effects of stocking rate on quantity and quality of available forage in a southern mixed grass prairie

      Heitschmidt, Rodney K.; Dowhower, Steven L.; Pinchak, William E.; Canon, Stephen K. (Society for Range Management, 1989-11-01)
      The objective of this study was to quantify the long-term (25 years) effects of heavy (HC) and moderate (MC) rates of stocking on quantity and quality of forage available. Study design required frequent harvest of standing crop on 5 range sites in twice replicated, 244 ha treatment pastures. Results from the 20-month study showed aboveground standing crop dynamics were similar in both treatments, quantity of available forage was greater in the MC than HC treatment, quality of available forage was greater generally in the HC than MC treatment, and that heavy stocking favored a dominance of warm-season shortgrasses as opposed to a dominance of warm-season midgrasses. Averaged across dates and adjusted for differences among pastures in range site composition, aboveground herbaceous standing crop averaged 1,341 kg/ha in the HC pastures as compared to 1,816 kg/ha in the MC treatment pastures. Crude protein and organic matter digestibility averaged 8.6% and 49.3%, respectively, in the HC pastures and 7.7% and 46.7%, respectively, in the MC pastures. It is concluded that the greater variation among years in cow/calf production in the HC than in the MC treatment is primarily because forage availability in the HC treatment is less than in the MC treatment.
    • Effects of Subsoil Draining on Heather Moors in Scotland

      Phillips, J.; Moss, R. (Society for Range Management, 1977-01-01)
      Subsoil draining improved the growth and nutrient content of heather on Scottish moors covered by shallow peat, where drainage is impeded by an iron pan underneath. On such moors, subsoiling has significant advantages over conventional open drains.
    • Effects of Sulfur Fertilization on Productivity and Botanical Composition of California Annual Grassland

      Caldwell, R. M.; Menke, J. W.; Duncan, D. A. (Society for Range Management, 1985-03-01)
      Changes in botanical composition and productivity of total herbage and 14 categories of annual range plants caused by elemental sulfur fertilization, range site, and precipitation were studied. Total herbage production on the wetter and more fertile swale sites was not affected by sulfur fertilization, but production on adjacent open upland and rocky, brushy upland sites usually increased with added S. Herbage production increased 28% or 1,400 kg/ha on fertilized open upland sites and 51% or 1,800 kg/ha on fertilized rocky, brushy upland sites during the wettest year sampled. Over the 3 years sampled, the most desirable grass, soft chess, averaged 68, 22, and 66% higher production (438, 287, and 388 kg/ha increases, respectively) on fertilized versus control range units for swale, open upland, and rocky, brushy upland range sites, respectively. Likewise, the less desirable but important early-forage species, ripgut brome, increased 164% or 544 kg/ha on swales and 205% or 437 kg/ha on rocky, brushy uplands with fertilization; only a 16% increase or 98 kg/ha occurred on open upland sites. Grass responses were offset by decreased forb production, while the proportion of legumes remained nearly the same. Upland sites benefited from sulfur fertilization by exhibiting both increased clover and other legume production in the wettest year. Filaree was unaffected by sulfur fertilization.
    • Effects of Summer Weather Modification (Irrigation) in Festuca idahoensis-Agropyron spicatum Grasslands

      Collins, D.; Weaver, T. (Society for Range Management, 1978-07-01)
      A simulated summer cloud seeding program was conducted for 4 years on a Festuca idahoensis-Agropyron spicatum grassland. Production and phenologic responses were essentially nil when plots were given 1.1, 1.2, 1.4 times natural rainfall on a per storm basis by sprinkler irrigation. Watering at the rate of 5 cm/week extended the flowering period in only one species, Tragopogon dubius; extended the green leaf season in most species; and increased the production of only three species, Festuca idahoensis, Balsamorhiza sagittata, and Tragopogon dubius. The increased production occurred only in the year following irrigation and may have been due to increased plant reserves and vigor. It appears that summer cloud seeding programs will have little or no positive effect on production in this vegetation type.
    • Effects of Supplementation on Juniper Intake by Goats

      Campbell, Erika S.; Taylor, Charles A.; Walker, John W.; Lupton, Christopher J.; Waldron, Dan F.; Landau, S. Y. (Society for Range Management, 2007-11-01)
      The potential for winter supplementation to increase juniper intake by goats on rangelands in the Edwards Plateau region of Texas was assessed in two experiments. The first experiment evaluated the effect on juniper intake of either no supplementation (negative control) or supplementation with corn, alfalfa, or cottonseed meal fed at an isonitrogenous protein level of 1.5 g kg body weight-1 for 12 days. Redberry juniper (Juniperus pinchotii Sudw.) consumption by individually penned Spanish, Boer 3 Spanish, Spanish 3 Angora, and Angora goats was measured on days 11 and 12. Each goat received each supplement in a complete 4 X 4 Latin square design. Juniper intake increased for goats supplemented with alfalfa and cottonseed meal (P = 0.001), but not for those supplemented with corn (P = 0.944). Boer 3 Spanish goats did not differ in levels of consumption (P = 0.085) from the other breeds. A second study investigated the effect of either no supplementation or soybean meal supplementation on juniper consumption by free grazing Angora and Boer 3 Spanish goats. Forty goats were assigned to four pasture groups by breed and previous juniper intake, and randomly allocated to either the treatment (supplementation) or control (no supplementation) regime in a complete block design. After 4 days of grazing and supplementation, fecal samples were collected to estimate percent of juniper in the diet using near-infrared spectroscopy. Goats were then rotated to another pasture. Juniper intake was highest for goats supplemented with soybean meal (P = 0.034). Breed of goat did not affect intake (P = 0.240). Goats previously categorized as high juniper consumers based upon prior measurements of juniper intake ate more juniper (P = 0.003) than those classified as low consumers. This research indicates that the effectiveness of goats for biological control of juniper can be improved with a high protein, low starch supplement. 
    • Effects of Surface Mining On the Vesper Sparrow in the Northern Great Plains

      Schaid, T. A.; Uresk, D. W.; Tucker, W. L.; Linder, R. L. (Society for Range Management, 1983-07-01)
      A 2-year study was conducted to compare density of vesper sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus) during the breeding season on various aged bentonite clay mine spoils and unmined areas in the Northern Great Plains. The vesper sparrow was one of the most common breeding species with highest densities in grass-sagebrush habitat. Reclaimed and unreclaimed mined spoils had lower sparrow densities which were related to loss of sagebrush habitat. Reserving areas with shrubs between mine spoils, around equipment storage areas, and along haul roads may be necessary during mining and reclamation to attract vesper sparrows in regions where natural regeneration or transplanting of shrubs is difficult.
    • Effects of Tebuthiuron on Western Juniper

      Britton, C. M.; Sneva, F. A. (Society for Range Management, 1981-01-01)
      A sagebrush-bunchgrass community supporting western juniper was treated with aerial applications of 2 or 4 kg/ha (active ingredient) of tebuthiuron pellets. The treatments did not effectively control western juniper and caused appreciable damage to herbaceous vegetation. Individual tree applications of tebuthiuron at rates of 20 or 40 g a.i./tree killed most of the western juniper less than 2 m tall.
    • Effects of Temperature and Daylength on Axillary Bud and Tiller Development in Blue Grama

      Stubbendieck, J.; Burzlaff, D. F. (Society for Range Management, 1970-01-01)
      A study was conducted to determine the nature of tiller development and the influence of light and temperature on growth and development of the axillary buds and tillers of blue grama. An axillary bud, enclosed in a prophyllum was found at each node of the culm. The development of the axillary bud into a tiller is a function of temperature. Controlled increase of temperatures in early spring increased the rate of axillary bud and tiller development in blue grama. The data also indicate that controlled reduction in length of photoperiod decreased the growth of axillary buds and development of tillers.
    • Effects of Temperature and Moisture on Phenology and Productivity of Indian Ricegrass

      Pearson, L. C. (Society for Range Management, 1979-03-01)
      Growth in Indian ricegrass commenced in the spring when soil temperatures stayed at 4 degrees C for at least 3 or 4 days. Maximum plant size was attained when (1) soils warmed up early in the spring, (2) soil temperatures were relatively low later in the spring, and (3) additional water was supplied during the spring growth period. Higher soil temperature late in the vegetative phase of growth delayed anthesis approximately 3 days for each degree Celsius above 10 degrees C. Additional moisture early in the season also delayed anthesis. Relatively reliable estimates of foliage biomass and seed biomass were made from measurements of average and/or maximum plant height, average length of longest leaf on each culm, maximum seed stalk height, clump diameter, and number of culms per plant. Measurements of biomass of needleandthread grass indicate that the generalized formulas presented here should be applicable to other cool-season bunch-grasses.