• Effects on Associated Species of Burning, Rotobeating, Spraying, and Railing Sagebrush

      Mueggler, W. F.; Blaisdell, J. P. (Society for Range Management, 1958-03-01)
    • Efficacy and costs of controlling eastern redcedar

      Ortmann, J.; Stubbendieck, J.; Masters, R. A.; Pfeiffer, G. H.; Bragg, T. B. (Society for Range Management, 1998-03-01)
      Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is reducing grassland productivity across much of the Great Plains. Control methods include broadcast prescribed fire, herbicides, cutting, and individual tree ignition. All methods have disadvantages when used alone. Fire can be ineffective against larger trees. Intensive methods can be too expensive for low-productivity grasslands. The objectives of this research were to determine the effects of broadcast prescribed fire alone as measured at 3 weeks after fire; to compare the effects of picloram herbicide application with or without fire, sawing with or without fire, and individual tree ignition with fire; and to compare all treatment costs. Treatments were applied at a central Nebraska rangeland site in 1993 and 1994. Fire mortality was 77% in 1993 and 67% in 1994. Either picloram or cutting after fire provided nearly 100% control of trees < 3 m tall, but cutting was more effective for trees > 3 m tall. Total mortality due to treatment combinations generally was higher in 1993, when burning conditions were more favorable. Burning, at an estimated cost of 4.96 ha-1, before picloram application or cutting reduced total costs by nearly half. Picloram application costs were reduced from 90.10 ha-1 to 47.95 ha-1, and cutting costs from 62.92 ha-1 to 39.26 ha-1. Burning first also reduced cutting time from 362 min ha-1 to 184 min ha-1, but did not significantly decrease picloram application time. Prescribed fire should precede intensive treatment applications if possible, both to reduce costs and improve total effectiveness. Because the costs and effectiveness of burning followed by either picloram or cutting are similar, managers should choose the method most suitable to individual circumstances.
    • Efficacy of Copper Supplementation in the Prevention of Molybdenosis in Cattle

      Majak, Walter; Steinke, Daniel; Lysyk, Tim; Ogilvie, Keith; McGillivray, Jason (Society for Range Management, 2006-05-01)
      Revegetation and sustainable cattle grazing are major objectives in the reclamation of mine tailings at the Highland Valley Copper mine in British Columbia, Canada. A total of 150 cows with their calves grazed forage extremely high in molybdenum (Mo) for 5-6 weeks in the summer and fall for 3 consecutive years (2002-2004). The average stocking rate was 0.89 ha per animal unit month. The animals’ diet consisted primarily of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) containing 100-400 ppm Mo. Each year, the herd was divided into 2 groups of approximately 25 cow-calf pairs. One group was supplemented with 2.5% copper sulphate (CuSO4 5H2O) in loose salt, and the other group was only given loose salt. Clinical signs of Mo toxicity, including lameness, diarrhea, and a faded hair coat, were significantly reduced in the supplement cows compared to control cows, which demonstrated the efficacy of the copper supplement treatment. Cattle also developed a tolerance to grazing high-Mo forage, as lameness and diarrhea were reduced in cows that had previous exposure to the site. However, lameness, the primary sign, and diarrhea were resolved in all cows by the end of each trial without treatment and hair coats returned to normal by the following spring. Only 4 calves showed signs of lameness or diarrhea in the 3-year study. Cattle grazing is a viable option for the end land use plan for Highland Valley Copper, provided a CuSO4 5H2O supplement is available to counteract the toxic effects of the high-Mo forage. As well, animals with previous exposure to the site should be utilized, as they appear to develop a tolerance to the Mo in the forage.  
    • Efficacy of fenbendazole against gastrointestinal nematodes in whitetailed deer

      Schultz, S. R.; Barry, R. X.; Forbes, W. A.; Johnson, M. K. (Society for Range Management, 1993-05-01)
      We provided fenbendazole to captive (N = 77) and free-ranging (3 study areas) white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Louisiana to determine effects on gastrointestinal nematode burdens. Fenbendazole reduced gastrointestinal nematode burdens of captive and free-ranging white-tailed deer. Mean eggs per gram of feces from captive deer decreased (P < 0.01 and P < 0 .01, respectively) 89% and 84% after provision of fenbendazole in doses approximating 0.47 and 0.62 g/deer, respectively. Doses approximating 0.42-0.46 g/deer did not affect (P = 0.61) eggs per gram of feces collected from free-ranging deer. Mean eggs per gram of feces collected from free-ranging deer was affected by fenbendazole treatment (P = 0.04) and decreased an average of 86% (SE = 1.9) on the 3 study areas after provision of fenbendazole in doses approximating 1.67-1.82 g/deer. Eggs per gram of feces collected from the distal colon and abomasal parasite counts from abomasa of free-ranging deer harvested on the study areas were associated positively (r = 0.706, P < 0 .001), were affected by fenbendazole treatment (P < 0.01 and P < 0 .01, respectively), and decreased 66% (SE = 5.1) and 52% (SE = 7.4), respectively, after provision of fenbendazole in doses approximating 1.67-1.82 g/deer. A reduction in the crosstransmission of gastrointestinal parasites common to deer and livestock might be possible through fenbendazole treatment of deer.
    • Efficacy of Flea Beetle Control of Leafy Spurge in Montana and South Dakota

      Butler, Jack L.; Parker, Matthew S.; Murphy, John T. (Society for Range Management, 2006-09-01)
      Black (Aphthona lacertosa and Aphthona czwalinae) and brown (Aphthona nigriscutis) flea beetles are among the more successful biological control agents used in the control and management of leafy spurge on a relatively large scale in the Northern Great Plains. The objectives of this study were to document leafy spurge population dynamics in response to control by black and brown flea beetles, determine the role of selected site characteristics on establishment and persistence of the beetles, and evaluate the general response of the resident vegetation to control of leafy spurge. In late June 1998, about 3 000 insects of each species were released into permanently marked plots in northwestern South Dakota and southeastern Montana. Beetle abundance, density and foliar cover of leafy spurge, and foliar cover of the resident vegetation were evaluated each year from 1998 through 2004. Black beetles increased rapidly and peaked at 65% of their measurable potential abundance within 2 years (P < 0.05) following release and dominated all release plots throughout the study. Although population growth characteristics of black flea beetles were highly variable, the successful patterns in reducing the dominance of leafy spurge were fairly consistent. By 2004, foliar cover of leafy spurge on both release and nonrelease plots was significantly reduced compared to prerelease values. Foliar cover of grass and grasslike plants increased concomitantly with the reduction in leafy spurge dominance while cover of forbs on release and nonrelease plots remained consistently below noninfested values. 
    • Efficacy of Zinc Phosphide and Strychnine for Black-Tailed Prairie Dog Control

      Uresk, D. W.; King, R. M.; Apa, A. D.; Linder, R. L. (Society for Range Management, 1986-07-01)
      Three rodenticide treatments, zinc phosphide (prebaited) and strychnine (both with and without prebait), were evaluated immediately following treatment for efficacy of controlling black-tailed prairie dogs in western South Dakota. Active prairie dog burrows were reduced 95% with zinc phosphide, 83% with strychnine (prebaited), and 45% with strychnine without prebait. Zinc phosphide was the most effective in reducing active burrows of prairie dogs.
    • Efficacy of Zinc Phosphide Broadcast Baiting for Controlling Richardson's Ground Squirrels on Rangeland

      Matschke, G. H.; Marsh, M. P.; Otis, D. L. (Society for Range Management, 1983-07-01)
      Zinc phosphide, a potential replacement rodenticide for strychnine or 1080, was field tested on 3 populations of Richardson's ground squirrel. Populations were estimated pretreatment and posttreatment by mark-recapture sampling techniques. We broadcasted a 2% zinc phosphide grain bait at 5.1 kg per swath ha. Swath widths measured 6.1 m, 16.0 m of untreated areas remaining between swaths. Treated populations decreased an average of 85.1 +/- SE 6.4%. Differences in pretreatment and posttreatment population decline between treated and control populations were significant (P = 0.096). No mortality was detected among nontarget animals. The 85.1% efficacy achieved by broadcast baiting exceeded the minimum standard of 70.0% established by the Environmental Protection Agency for the registration of a rodenticide. Registration, however, will require nontarget hazard testing and further efficacy testing in other geographical locations.
    • Efficiency Level Rises with Yeast

      Streeter, Charles L.; McClung, Jack E. (Society for Range Management, 1979-02-01)
    • Efficiency of Combining Improvement Practices that Increase Steer Gains

      Shoop, M. C.; McIlvain, E. H. (Society for Range Management, 1971-03-01)
      Contrary to general expectations, four improvement practices used in combination increased yearlong gain per steer as much as the sum of the practices used alone. The improvement practices studied were moderate grazing, additional winter cake, late-summer cake, and stilbestrol. The basic practice was heavy grazing. The 100% efficiency of gain obtained with the combined practices indicates that an improvement practice should produce about the same increase in gain regardless of the number of other improvement practices used on a ranch or in an experiment./Cuatro diferentes estudios anteriores en la estación experimental de Planicias de Sur, Woodward, Oklahoma, E.U.A., mostraron cuatro diferentes prácticas que aumentan las ganancias de novillos en pastoreo. Estas son: 1) Pastoreo con carga de 8 acres por novilla contra 6 acres por novilla. 2) Suplementación durante el invierno con harinolina (42% proteína) dando 3 libras por novillo diario en comparación con 1.5 libras por novillo diario. 3) Suplementación de harinolina durante el verano cuando los zacates están secos, cantidad 1 libra por novillo diario. 4) Implantación de 12 mgs. de estilbestrol durante los meses de Noviembre y Mayo. Se encontró en este estudio que las prácticas son aditivas. La aplicación de las cuatro prácticas combinadas aumentaron las ganancis de peso de 92 libras por res que fué igual a la suma de los aumentos por las prácticas aplicadas por separado.
    • Efficiency of Converting Nutrients and Cultural Energy in Various Feeding and Grazing Systems

      Cook, C. W.; Denham, A. H.; Bartlett, E. T.; Child, R. D. (Society for Range Management, 1976-05-01)
      Yearlong total confinement and partial confinement feeding were compared to conventional range grazing to determine the cultural and digestible energy expended to produce a kilocalorie of dressed-carcass meat from weaner calves and the protein consumed to produce a pound of red-meat protein. The range groups required the least amount of cultural energy to produce a kilocalorie of meat and the total confined groups required the most. The total confined system on a low level of nutrition, where calves were weaned early, converted digestible energy most efficiently but converted digestible protein least efficiently, whereas range groups converted digestible energy least efficiently and digestible protein most efficiently.
    • Efficiency of different quadrat sizes and shapes for sampling standing crop

      Brummer, J. E.; Nichols, J. T.; Engel, R. K.; Eskridge, K. M. (Society for Range Management, 1994-01-01)
      Efficient sampling of standing crop is necessary to avoid unreasonable lays of time in the field. The objective of this study was to determine efficiency of different size and shape quadrats for sampling standing crop of total herbage and individual species. Three blocks 1.2 X 12 m were divided into 160 basic units using 30 X 30-cm quadrats. Basic units were combined into 18 size/shape combinations of quadrats. Current year standing crop was clipped in each basic unit into categories of sand bluestem (Andropogon hallii Hack.), prairie sandreed [Calamovilfa longifolia (Hook.) Scribn.], hairy grama (Bouteloua hirsuta Lag.), little bluestem [Schizachyrium scoparium Michx.) Nash], and other herbage. Variance was used to determine sample number necessary to accurately and precisely estimate standing crop. Sample number was then used in conjunction with movement time between quadrats and clipping time to determine total field time as a measure of overall efficiency. Increasing quadrat size accounted for 68% or more of the observed decrease in variance. Long, narrow rectangles were more efficient for reducing variances of prairie sandreed and hairy grama, but shape had little effect on variances of sand bluestem, little bluestem, and total herbage. Groups of quadrats were similar in total field time with no "best" quadrat identified for any of the vegetation categories. Larger quadrats than those reported in the literature were found to be more efficient as a result of including movement time in the optimization procedures. Large amounts of total field time were required to efficiently estimate standing crop of little bluestem, which may require that alternative sampling methods be devised or used to estimate standing crop of this species and others with similar distribution patterns.
    • Efficiency of Forage Harvest by Grazing Cattle

      Allison, C. D.; Kothmann, M. M.; Rittenhouse, L. R. (Society for Range Management, 1982-05-01)
      Three grazing trials of 14 days each were conducted in April, July, and September, 1977, to examine the effects of grazing pressure on forage disappearance, organic matter intake, and the relationship between intake and forage disappearance. Levels of grazing pressure studied were 10, 20, 40, and 50 kg of forage allowed per animal-unit per day (kg/au/da). Standing crop was measured before, during the middle, and immediately after each trial. Organic matter intake was estimated at the beginning and end of each trial by the fecal excretion:indigestibility ratio technique. Total standing crop declined steadily during the grazing trials, with forage availability being significantly less at the end than at the beginning or middle of the trials. Averaged over the three trials, total forage disappearance during a 14-da grazing period was 236, 334, 355, and 457 kg per pasture and forage losses per au per day were 8.5, 12.0, 12.7, and 16.3 kg for the 10, 20, 40, and 50 kg/au/da grazing pressures, respectively. However, daily intake averaged across all treatments, periods, and trials was approximately 9 kg/au/da. At the grazing pressure level of 10 kg/au/da, forage disappearance approximated the average daily intake, whereas, grazing pressures of 20, 40, and 50 kg/au/da had forage disappearances that exceeded intake by 28, 48, and 90%, respectively. These data indicate a possibility for a two-fold increase in the efficiency of forage harvest by grazing cattle as grazing pressure is increased.
    • Efficiency of Water Use and Associated Characteristics of Lehmann Lovegrass

      Wright, L. N.; Dobrenz, A. K. (Society for Range Management, 1973-05-01)
      Efficiency of water use of five lines and the cultivar 'A-68' of Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostic lehmanniana Nees) was related to seedling drought tolerance and to physiological and morphological plant characteristics. Components of efficiency of water use (transpired water and dry matter produced) and the values of water-use efficiency (measured as the number of units of transpired water per unit of dry matter produced) varied among lines. Line L-38 was most efficient in water use (water-use efficiency value of 135), had the highest percentage of survival, 32.4%, (seedling drouth tolerance) and produced the most dry matter (8.31g). The ratios of maximum recorder deflection of petroleum ether extract and the total area of optical deflection of petroleum ether extract to dry weight of leaves were variable among lines and significantly associated with efficiency of water use and seedling drouth tolerance. High deflection values were associated with high efficiency of water use and high percentage of survival. Stomate density was different among lines and was higher on the upper surface than on the lower surface of the leaf blade. Stomate density was not significantly associated with efficiency of water or seedling drouth tolerance.
    • Eight Principles of Range Management

      Banister, Ray (Society for Range Management, 1991-04-01)
    • Eight Years of Juniper Control by Burning

      Hyatt, S. Wesley (Society for Range Management, 1987-02-01)
    • Eight-year Comparisons of Continuous and Rotational Grazing on the Southern Plains Experimental Range

      McIlvain, E. H.; Savage, D. A. (Society for Range Management, 1951-01-01)
    • Eighth in a Series: Insight From SRM's Charter Members

      Bedell, Tom (Society for Range Management, 2005-08-01)
    • Eighth In A Series: Issues Challenging Rangelands Down Under

      Ash, Andrew; Smith, Mark Stafford (Society for Range Management, 2002-02-01)
    • El Agua es La Vida or Water is Life

      Wood, Karl (Society for Range Management, 2008-10-01)
    • El Buffel y El Nelore: Legado de la India para las zonas áridas de Argentina

      Ayerza, Ricardo (Society for Range Management, 1982-08-01)