• Electric Fence for Distribution of Cattle on a Range Grazed by Sheep and Cattle

      Miles, A. D. (Society for Range Management, 1951-07-01)
    • Electric fences for reducing sheep losses to predators

      Nass, R. D.; Theade, J. (Society for Range Management, 1988-05-01)
      The use of anti-predator electric fences for reducing predation on sheep was investigated by interviewing 101 sheep producers in the Pacific Northwest. Significant reductions in sheep losses to predators were reported after installation of electric fences compared to pre-fence losses. Low sheep losses to predation were also reported by those producers that acquired sheep after installation of electric fences. The expenses of construction and maintenance were important considerations in management plans; however, most producers were satisfied with electric fences for sheep containment and predator exclusion.
    • Electric Fencing

      Steger, Robert E. (Society for Range Management, 1987-08-01)
    • Electric fencing reduces coyote predation on pastured sheep in North Dakota, Kansas

      Linhart, S. B.; Roberts, J. D.; Dasch, G. J. (Society for Range Management, 1982-05-01)
      Field tests to evaluate electric fencing for protecting pastured sheep from coyote predation were conducted in North Dakota and Kansas in 1977 and 1978. In 1979, 37 western sheep producers using electric fences to exclude coyotes were interviewed and relevant data were recorded and analyzed. An all-electric 12-wire, 168-cm-high fence with alternately charged and grounded wires spaced 13 and 15 cm apart stopped ongoing coyote predation on the two North Dakota test sites. Four or five strands of electrified wire, offset 13 cm from existing woven and barbed wire sheep fences, effectively prevented further coyote predation at two Kansas sites. Sheep producers interviewed expressed a high to moderate degree of satisfaction with the use of electric fencing as a coyote management technique. However, sheep management practices on two-thirds of the ranches remained unchanged after electric fence installation and nearly all producers continued to use other control methods. Sixty percent of the producers stated that they experienced some type of maintenance problems but many of these problems may have been due to poor construction techniques or a failure to check their fences periodically. Cost-benefit factors associated with the use of electric fencing, study limitations, and further research needs are discussed.
    • Electric Shears for Plot Harvesting

      Daigger, L. A. (Society for Range Management, 1972-09-01)
      Battery powered electric shears can reduce hand labor required to harvest small forage plots. Extra rechargeable batteries extend capacity to operate shears for several hours. Such shears will clip alfalfa and native range grasses more uniformly than when harvested with conventional hand sickle.
    • Element concentrations in globemallow herbage

      Rumbaugh, M. D.; Mayland, H. F.; Pendery, B. M.; Shewmaker, G. E. (Society for Range Management, 1993-03-01)
      Globemallows (Sphaeralcea spp.) are native, drought-resistant forbs of interest for inclusion in seed mixtures for semiarid rangeland renovation. Little is known of their nutritional value for ungulates. We measured element concentrations in representative globemallow species and evaluated their adequacy for livestock nutrition. We also correlated forage selection by sheep (Ovis aries) with element concentrations. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), crested wheatgrass [Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. X A. desertorum (Fisch.) Schult.], and 13 accessions of globemallows [S. coccinea (Pursh) Rydb., S. grossulariifolia (H. & A.) Rydb., S. munroana (Dougl) Spach., and S. parvifolia A. Nels.] were transplanted into replicated grazing trials in southern Idaho. Herbage was sampled and the pastures were grazed by sheep in the fall of 2 years and in the spring of the following 2 years. Concentrations of Ca and Mg in crested wheatgrass were lower than in forbs. Differences between seasons were greater than the differences among globemallow species. Forage selection ratios were positively associated with the N concentration of globemallow leaves and with the Ca:P ratio of globemallow stems but were negatively associated with stem Zn concentrations. Herbage from pastures containing crested wheatgrass with globemallows and/or alfalfa would meet the dietary element requirements of beef cattle (Bos taurus) and sheep.
    • Element Content of Crested Wheatgrass Grown on Reclaimed Coal Spoils and on Soils Nearby

      Erdman, J. A.; Ebens, R. J. (Society for Range Management, 1979-03-01)
      Fairway crested wheatgrass [Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.] was analyzed to determine the possible effects of coal spoils at the Dave Johnston Mine, Wyoming, on the chemical composition of this widely used reclamation species. Concentrations of 8 of the 26 elements tested by analysis of variance showed significant differences between the samples growing in 10-15 cm of topsoil covering the spoils and samples from soils nearby. Samples from the mined areas showed about 50% higher concentrations. Concentrations of manganese and uranium, however, were about 150 and 200% higher, respectively. Concentrations of the trace elements cobalt, manganese, and zinc-essential in animal nutrition-ranged from deficient levels in "control" samples to adequate or marginal levels in samples from reclaimed spoils. The phosphorus content of grasses that grew on spoil material was two-thirds that of the control grasses, to the point where the former may be nutritionally deficient as a cattle forage.
    • Elemental Concentrations in Native Range Grasses from the Northern Great Plains of Montana

      Munshower, F. F.; Neuman, D. R. (Society for Range Management, 1978-03-01)
      A study of elemental concentrations in five range grasses from the Northern Great Plains of Montana indicated levels of calcium, magnesium, iron, and manganese adequate for optimum performance of range cattle. Concentrations of copper and zinc were below established nutrient requirement levels. Concentrations of these two elements were usually highest in spring samples and decreased throughout the summer and fall. Year-to-year variation was small in spring grass collections for both elements, but summer and fall collections revealed wide fluctuations in elemental levels. For maximum performance of range cattle in the study area, copper and zinc supplements appear to be necessary during summer, fall, and winter grazing seasons.
    • Elementary Morphology of Grass Growth and How it Affects Utilization

      Rechenthin, C. A. (Society for Range Management, 1956-07-01)
    • Elevated Atmospheric CO2 Magnifies Intra-specific Variation in Seedling Growth of Honey Mesquite: An Assessment of Relative Growth Rates

      Polley, Wayne H.; Tischler, Charles R.; Johnson, Hyrum B. (Society for Range Management, 2006-03-01)
      The shrub honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa Torr.) readily encroaches into rangelands in the southwestern United States that vary in annual rainfall by almost a factor of 5 (200 to 1 000 mm). This occurs partly because mesquite seedlings grow rapidly and become uncoupled from competition with established herbaceous vegetation. Species that occupy such a wide precipitation gradient frequently include plants that differ genetically in seedling growth rate. Whether atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment affects seedling biomass uniformly across mesquite genotypes or magnifies the expression of genetic variation in seedling growth remains unresolved. We measured the effects of CO2 enrichment on growth of seedlings derived from 14 adult plants (open-pollinated families), 7 plants each from rangelands located near extremes of the rainfall gradient occupied by the shrub (arid southeastern New Mexico vs. mesic central Texas). Growth was measured over days 10 to 30 following emergence on well-watered seedlings in glasshouses at ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations (391 and 706 lmol mol-1, respectively). Proportional responses of biomass (day 30) to CO2 enrichment varied from 1.03 to 1.74 among families. CO2 enrichment did not consistently favor the largest or fastest-growing families at ambient CO2. Rather, proportional responses of biomass to elevated CO2 were highly correlated across families with the stimulation of relative growth rate (RGR) at elevated CO2. Biomass at ambient CO2 was 19% greater, on average, in families from mesic rangeland than from arid rangeland, but families from extremes of the precipitation gradient did not diverge by seedling size or response to CO2. Selection for greater RGR could augment the mean growth response of mesquite seedlings to CO2. Even in the absence of selection, CO2 enrichment could increase mesquite establishment by enhancing seedling growth and thereby exacerbate the management challenge of minimizing woody encroachment. 
    • Eleventh in a Series: Insight From SRM's Charter Members

      Bedell, Tom (Society for Range Management, 2006-02-01)
    • Elk and Bison Management on the Oglala Sioux Game Range

      Cole, R. S. (Society for Range Management, 1974-11-01)
      The Oglala Sioux Indians have recently instituted a range management program involving the production of native game animals for fee hunting. The unique combination of natural habitat, native game animals, and American Indian guides has attracted hunters and resulted in returns that compare favorably with domestic livestock operation.
    • Elk and cattle forage use under a specialized grazing system

      Halstead, L. E.; Howery, L. D.; Ruyle, G. B.; Krausman, P. R.; Steidl, R. J. (Society for Range Management, 2002-07-01)
      The Walker Basin Allotment grazing system in central Arizona is designed to allocate resource use under elk (Cervus elaphus L.) and cattle (Bos taurus L.) grazing. The grazing system was designed to promote biologically acceptable levels of forage use on the half of the allotment scheduled for cattle grazing and to rest the other half by attracting elk to pastures recently grazed by cattle. The objectives of our 2-year study were to determine whether the grazing system facilitated proper forage use as defined by recent forage use and residual stubble height guidelines (i.e., 30 to 40% use and an 8- to 10-cm stubble height) and whether the system rested one half of the allotment from elk and cattle grazing. Mean (+/- SEM) total elk and cattle forage use for western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii Rydb.), the key forage species, was 32 and 61% +/- 7 in 1997 and 1998, respectively; corresponding mean (+/- SEM) stubble heights were 11 and 10 cm +/- 0.6. Mean total cattle and elk forage use in 1998 (61%) exceeded the 30 to 40% use guidelines. However, mean end-of-year stubble height was never below 10 cm. The grazing system did not provide half the allotment with complete rest; elk used all study pastures. Elk use was higher in pastures with heavier tree cover and steeper terrain in both years, regardless of where cattle grazing occurred. Elk grazing patterns were apparently more dependent on tree cover and topography than any changes in forage caused by the grazing system.
    • Elk and Cattle Grazing Can Be Complementary: Elk Response to a 19-Year Exclusion of Cattle Grazing

      Burritt, Beth; Banner, Roger (Society for Range Management, 2013-02-01)
      On the Ground • In 1990, cattle grazed private land in Utah’s Book Cliff Mountains until late July. Elk in the area ate about 50% of the forage regrowth on this land from late July to mid-September. • This private land mentioned was sold in 1990 and managed for elk. At the same time cattle were permanently removed from the area. • By 2009, repeat photography showed that vegetation in the area had changed and was dominated by dense stands of mature vegetation and weeds. In 2009 there were no signs of elk, whereas in 1990 many elk and signs of elk were observed in the area. • Based on this study and many others, carefully managed cattle grazing can be a lost-cost method to improve forage quality for elk.
    • Elk and Cattle: A Conflict in Land Use?

      Hogan, Zeb (Society for Range Management, 1990-10-01)
    • Elk and deer diets in a coastal prairie-scrub Mosaic, California

      Gogan, P. J. P.; Barrett, R. H. (Society for Range Management, 1995-07-01)
      We examined the diets of reintroduced tule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes Merriam) and resident Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus Richardson) inhabiting the coastal prairie-scrub mosaic of Tomales Point, the northernmost portion of the Point Reyes Peninsula, Calif., during 1979-81. The elk diet differed between years whereas the deer diet did not. The pattern of seasonal quality of elk and deer diets, as measured by fecal nitrogen (FN) was similar between species and years. This was achieved although botanical composition differed between herbivores in some seasons. Dietary overlap was lowest in the wet winter months when fecal nitrogen was highest and vegetative standing crop was lowest. Conversely, dietary overlap was highest in the dry summer months when fecal nitrogen was lowest and vegetative standing crop highest. Both herbivore species showed selection and avoidance of certain plant species in June of both years. These findings are compared to other cervid-habitat systems.
    • Elk and Livestock Competition

      Morris, Melvin S. (Society for Range Management, 1956-01-01)
    • Elk and Mule Deer Diets in North-Central New Mexico

      Sandoval, Leonard; Holechek, Jerry; Biggs, James; Valdez, Raul; VanLeeuwen, Dawn (Society for Range Management, 2005-07-01)
      Botanical composition of mule deer and elk diets in winter, spring, summer, and autumn was studied during 1998 and 1999 on woodland rangeland in north-central New Mexico using microhistological analysis of fecal samples. Our study area had no livestock grazing for 60 years but was moderately grazed by mule deer and elk. Elk and mule deer shared 3 of the top 5 key forage species when diets were pooled across seasons and years. These 3 species were oak (Quercus sp.), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl.), and mullein (Verbascum thapsus L.). When data were pooled across seasons and years, overall dietary overlap between mule deer and elk was 64%. Diet overlaps of 50% or more occurred between mule deer and elk in all 4 seasons in both years of study. Throughout both years, mule deer and elk diets were dominated by browse. Mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus montanus Raf.) was the most abundant browse plant in mule deer diets; ponderosa pine was most abundant in elk diets. Both animals selected forbs, which were in low supply during the study. Scarlet globemallow (Sphaeralcea coccinea Pursh), a nutritious forb, was common in both mule deer and elk diets. Our study and others from woodland rangelands in New Mexico show high potential for forage competition between mule deer and elk. Elk are more dietarily adaptable to changing forage availability than are mule deer. Our study indicates that diets of mule deer and elk are not complementary on woodland rangelands in New Mexico. Therefore, grazing capacity is not increased by common-use grazing of the 2 animals. Both mule deer and elk herds have been increasing on our study area. Therefore, if use of common forage species is kept at moderate levels on southwestern woodland rangelands, mule deer herds can be maintained or increased when elk are present.  
    • Elk forage utilization within rested units of rest-rotation grazing systems

      Werner, S. J.; Urness, P. J. (Society for Range Management, 1998-01-01)
      Elk (Cervus elaphus) have been repeatedly observed to prefer rested units within rest-rotation grazing systems. Given the logistical and financial investments associated with the maintenance of these systems, elk herbivory within rested units is a potential source of conflict. Elk forage utilization was determined during the summers of 1994 and 1995 at the forest-grassland ecotone of 3 rest-rotation grazing allotments in south-central Utah's Fishlake National Forest. Average phytomass within areas protected from and subjected to elk herbivory was not statistically different in June and August 1994. Average phytomass within caged areas was greater (P < 0.20) than that within areas subjected to elk use in 2 of 3 rested units in June-July 1995 (14.1 and 35.6% utilization) and August 1995 (34.7 and 42.0% utilization). June-to-August forage regrowth, however, was 31.3 and 33.0% greater in 1995 than in 1994 within caged and uncaged areas, respectively.
    • Elk Habitat Use within a Rest-Rotation Grazing System

      Frisina, Michael R. (Society for Range Management, 1992-04-01)