• Factors to Consider in the Evaluation of Vegetation Condition

      Costello, D. F. (Society for Range Management, 1956-03-01)
    • Facts About Fire

      Spiker, L. (Society for Range Management, 2002-04-01)
    • Failures in the Assumptions of the Condition and Trend Concept for Management of Natural Ecosystems

      Svejcar, Tony; Brown, Joel R. (Society for Range Management, 1991-08-01)
    • Fair Grazing Fees on Public Lands

      Collins, Alan R.; Constantino, George (Society for Range Management, 1990-10-01)
    • Fairy Rings and Wildlife

      Stelfox, J. G.; Stelfox, D. (Society for Range Management, 1979-11-01)
      Fairy rings 25×30 m in diam were observed on southwest-facing grasslands of the Rock Creek drainage of Montana at the 1,450-m elevation on May 20, 1970. Within the stimulated growth portion of the rings there was 5 to 9 times as much new grass growth in proportion to old standing litter than outside the rings. Protein, calcium, and phosphorus values were 3.7, 1.6, and 3.9 times higher, respectively, for the new forage on the rings than for the old forage elsewhere. Deer use of the ring area was more than twice as great as that away from the rings, according to fecal group counts.
    • Fall and Winter Burning of South Texas Brush Ranges

      Box, T. W.; White, R. S. (Society for Range Management, 1969-11-01)
      Plots with no pretreatment and pretreated by shredding, chopping, scalping, root plowing, and root plowing and raking were subjected to a fall fire, a winter fire, and a fall fire with a winter reburn the following year. All burning treatments reduced brush cover when compared to the unburned control. Burns on pretreated areas were more effective in reducing brush than were fires in vegetation with no pretreatment. Two burns were more effective in reducing brush than was a single fire. Standing crops of herbage on all burned plots were greater than on the control. Fall burned plots had the largest amounts of grass; winter burned areas contained the most forbs.
    • Fall and Winter Diets of Feral Pigs in South Texas

      Everitt, J. H.; Alaniz, M. A. (Society for Range Management, 1980-03-01)
      During late fall and winter of 1975-76 and 1976-77, contents of 41 stomachs were analyzed to determine foods of feral pigs in extreme southern Texas. Thirty-six food items were identified, including 32 plant taxa and four types of animal matter. Average volume for food classes were 55.8% forbs, 17.3% grasses, 9.8% sedges, 7.6% woody plants, 4.7% unknown plants, and 4.8% animal matter. Mossrose, an annual forb, was the most important item in the diet, comprising 21.8% of the total volume. Important differences occurred in the diet between years among forbs, grasses, and sedges. The 1975-76 diet was comprised of 41.1% forbs, 24.7% grasses, and 15.4% sedges, as compared to 73.0% forbs, 8.2% grasses, and 3.3% sedges in the 1976-77 diet. Our results indicated that feral pig diets could be competitive with those of livestock and wildlife. The pigs' extensive rooting may result in at least partial removal of many plant species from the range; however, these disturbed areas cause a shift in plant succession which is beneficial to some wildlife.
    • Fall and Winter Habitat Use by Scaled Quail in Southeastern Arizona

      Bristow, Kirby D.; Ockenfels, Richard A. (Society for Range Management, 2006-05-01)
      Scaled quail (Callipepla squamata pallida Vigors) are closely associated with semidesert grasslands of the southwestern United States, and populations have declined by as much as 50% since 1960. Livestock grazing, shrub encroachment, and exotic grass invasion are considered important factors reducing scaled quail distribution and density in Arizona. We investigated habitat use by scaled quail across their range in southeastern Arizona to determine the habitat conditions important for survival and reproduction. Pointing dogs located quail during autumn and winter of 2002-2003 and 2003-2004, and we measured habitat characteristics at 52 flush sites and 54 nonuse plots, where scaled quail were not found. We recorded information on landform, substrate, vegetation, and cover. Scaled quail used areas with grass canopy cover 26%, tree canopy cover 10%, and higher grass species richness than randomly available. Short (50 cm tall) visual obstruction (i.e., cover), usually associated with low shrubs, cacti, and bunchgrass, was greater at use sites than at nonuse plots. A logistic-regression equation, including visual obstruction and tree canopy variables, correctly predicted 91% of quail use sites. Greater amounts of visual obstruction and lower percentages of tree canopy cover best-predicted scaled quail sites. Land management practices that reduce grass species richness and cover and increase tree cover may reduce scaled quail habitat quality and availability in southeastern Arizona. Based on habitat use patterns of scaled quail, we recommend that semidesert grassland habitats contain a maximum tree canopy of < 6% and . 25% grass canopy cover at the 20-cm height to provide optimum cover availability.  
    • Fall Application of Herbicides for Common Broomweed Control

      Beck, D. L.; Sosebee, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1975-07-01)
      Common broomweed periodically infests large acreages of Texas rangeland. Spring applications of 1 lb of 2,4-D per acre is currently recommended for control. Fall (1972) applications of either 2,4,5-T low volatile ester, 2,4,5-T amine, or Tordon 225 Mixture applied to individual stumps of shredded honey mesquite trees concomitantly controlled common broomweed infestations during 1973.
    • Fall Application of Herbicides Improves Macartney Rose-infested Coastal Prairie Rangelands

      Scifres, C. J. (Society for Range Management, 1975-11-01)
      Picloram combined with 2,4,5-T (1:1) at 0.56 or 1.12 kg/ha was the most effective of several herbicides and herbicide combinations applied in the fall for control of Macartney rose. Aerial application of the 2,4,5-T/picloram combination at 1.12 kg/ha reduced Macartney rose canopies on Texas Coastal Prairie rangeland by 70 to 80% after a year. The same rate of 2,4-D, the standard treatment, reduced the canopies by 40 to 50%. The herbicide combination was equally effective whether applied in water containing 0.5% (v/v) of commercial surfactant or in a diesel oil:water (1:4) emulsion. Herbicides more effectively controlled undisturbed Macartney rose than plants that previously had been shredded or sprayed. Increasing the volume of carrier from 47 to 94 liters/ha did not adequately increase Macartney rose control to justify extra application costs associated with the higher spray volume.
    • Fall Diet of Red and Fallow Deer, Black Buck, and Mouflon Sheep on Argentina's Patagonian Steppe

      Frisina, Michael R.; Frisina, R. Margaret (Society for Range Management, 1997-08-01)
    • Fall Fertilization of Intermediate Wheatgrass in the Southwestern Ponderosa Pine Zone

      Lavin, F. (Society for Range Management, 1967-01-01)
      The effects of one fall broadcast application of N and P fertilizers on mature intermediate wheatgrass in the Southwestern ponderosa pine zone was investigated. Nitrogen increased herbage production for four growing seasons. It also affected P content and increased crude protein and moisture content of the herbage; increased green growth, plant height, weed growth, and soil nitrates. P and N-P interaction had little or no significant effects.
    • Fall Gains of Steers Fed Cottonseed Cake on Shortgrass Range

      Bement, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1970-05-01)
      Cottonseed cake, fed to steers in the fall, increased the efficiency of forage utilization but did not produce sufficient additional gain on shortgrass range to be economically feasible.
    • Fall grazing affects big game forage on rough fescue grasslands

      Short, J. J.; Knight, J. E. (Society for Range Management, 2003-05-01)
      Prescribed cattle grazing is often used to purposely enhance wildlife habitat. This study investigated the effects of fall cattle (Bos taurus) grazing intensity on elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus spp.) forage in the following spring and summer. These effects were examined on rough fescue (Festuca scabrella Torr.) range on the Blackfoot Clearwater Wildlife Management Area in west central Montana. Cattle were grazed in enclosures during the fall of 1997 and 1998. A randomized complete block design with 5 replications of enclosures per year was used. Grazing levels were 0% removal (control), 50% removal, 70% removal, and 90% removal of herbaceous standing crop. To evaluate elk and deer forage, measurements were obtained in spring and summer on green grass standing crop, green forb standing crop, percent green vegetation, species richness, and plant species composition. There were no differences among grazing levels for plant species composition based on canopy coverage, species richness, and green forb standing crop variables (P > 0.10). The 50% and 90% treatments reduced green standing crop in spring (P = 0.07) but not in summer (P > 0.10). Grazing treatments increased percent green vegetation (P < 0.01). Fall cattle grazing can be used as a wildlife habitat improvement tool to reduce unpalatable standing dead material. The 70% removal treatment was the most favorable for habitat improvement without degrading the range.
    • Fall Seeding of Crested Wheatgrass Is Best on Dry Ranges

      McLean, Alastair; Wikeem, Sandra (Society for Range Management, 1984-12-01)
    • Fall-Prescribed Burn and Spring-Applied Herbicide Effects on Canada Thistle Control and Soil Seedbank in a Northern Mixed-Grass Prairie

      Travnicek, Andrea J.; Lym, Rodney G.; Prosser, Chad (Society for Range Management, 2005-07-01)
      Prescribed burning in Theodore Roosevelt National Park has played an important role in maintaining a natural ecosystem. However, changes in plant community dynamics caused by burning may have led to an invasion of weedy species such as Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense L.). The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effect of a fall burn before spring herbicide application on Canada thistle control and to evaluate the soil seedbank within Canada thistle infestations. Canada thistle stem densities initially were higher in the burned compared with the nonburned areas because plants were slower to emerge in the nonburned treatments. However, the effect was short-lived, and Canada thistle densities were similar in the burned and nonburned treatments by the second season following the prescribed burn. Canada thistle control averaged 78% 60 days after treatment with clopyralid, clopyralid plus triclopyr, or picloram when spring applied whether or not application was preceded by a prescribed burn. Control declined to less than 60% by 363 days after application. Grass cover increased from an average of 5% before treatment to 37% and 46% 60 and 425 days after herbicide application, respectively, regardless of burn treatment. Forb cover increased following a prescribed burn but was unaffected by herbicide treatment. Overall the number and variety of species in the soil seedbank was not affected by a prescribed burn. A total of 74 species (56 forbs, 13 grasses, and 5 other mesic species) were found in the soil seedbank. However, the majority of the soil seedbank consisted of nondesirable low seral and invasive species including Canada thistle and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), which accounted for over 80% of the total germinated seed. Although a prescribed burn caused an initial increase in Canada thistle density and cover, the greater long-term concern may be the lack of desirable species present in the seedbank to replace Canada thistle once the weed is controlled.  
    • Famous People and Events in Reno-Tahoe History

      Busselman, Doug (Society for Range Management, 2006-08-01)
    • Farming Range Pastures

      Campbell, J. B. (Society for Range Management, 1952-07-01)
    • Fast Filter for In Vitro Studies

      Dietz, D. R.; Messner, H. E. (Society for Range Management, 1976-07-01)
      A crucible for filtering plant material is made by modifying an aluminum 35-mm film canister to hold the filter, composed of glass wool fiber and nylon curtain mesh. Cleaning and preparation of the conister for a new test is simplified by disposing of the used filter and inserting a new one. Comparison with sintered glass crucibles showed no significant differences in in vitro digestible dry matter values.