• From the Range to the Forest to the City: A Case Study Collecting Experts’ Perspectives on the Status of Landscape Connectivity in the Pikes Peak Region

      Heitner, Max J. (Society for Range Management, 2012-10-01)
      In order to examine the subject of landscape connectivity, I chose to focus on a specific region where I could seek out local experts to discern their opinions on the matter. My primary objective was to consolide multiple qualified assessments in one place, where they could be analyzed for areas of agreement and disparity. The Pikes Peak Region was an ideal location for this case study because of the combination of its significant human development and the abundance and variety of wildlife. Landscape connectivity is a management consideration for how to best balance wildlife viability with continued human activity.
    • From Truck to Well Puller

      Coupland, Jack W.; Yarbrough, Clyde C.; Garcia, Eddie L. (Society for Range Management, 1980-04-01)
    • Frontal Grazing: Forage Harvesting of the Future?

      Volesky, Jerry D. (Society for Range Management, 1990-06-01)
    • Frost Heaving of Grass and Brush Seedlings on Burned Chamise Brushlands in California

      Biswell, H. H.; Schultz, A. M.; Hedrick, D. W.; Mallory, J. I. (Society for Range Management, 1953-05-01)
    • Fuel Loading, Fuel Moisture Are Important Components of Prescribed Fire

      Stevens, Russell (Society for Range Management, 2005-10-01)
    • Fuel Reduction, Seeding, and Vegetation in a Juniper Woodland

      Kerns, B. K.; Day, M. A. (Society for Range Management, 2014-11)
      Western juniper has increased in density and distribution in the interior Pacific Northwest since the late 1800s. Management goals for many juniper woodlands are now focused on reducing tree densities and promoting biodiversity, prompting the use of fuel reduction treatments. Fuel reduction often involves mechanical cutting and disturbances such as slash pile burning and skid trail formation. While these activities may reduce tree densities, the extent to which they will restore native biodiversity and community composition, particularly in woodlands invaded by exotic annual grasses, is unclear. We evaluated the effects of juniper cutting in two experiments of disturbance type (slash piles and skid trails) followed by three native seeding treatments (cultivar, locally sourced, and no seed) on vegetation in central Oregon. Prior to cutting, native perennial grass cover and richness were positively associated and exotic grass cover was negatively associated with juniper basal area. After cutting and 2 yr after seeding, species composition was altered for both disturbance types. Some seeded areas had higher total species richness, higher native species richness, higher cover of seeded species, and higher overall cover compared to areas that were not seeded. But seeding effectiveness in mitigating exotic species spread varied based on exotic species functional group, pretreatment propagule pressure, and experiment disturbance type. Neither seed mix lowered exotic grass cover. There was limited evidence that the cultivar mix outperformed the locally sourced native seed mix. In the short term, fuel reduction activities may have facilitated further conversion of this woodland to an exotic grassland, but longer-term evaluation is needed. In juniper woodlands that have been invaded by exotic species, fuel reduction activities may facilitate further invasion, and exotic species control may be needed to limit invasion and promote native vegetation. © 2014 Society for Range Management
    • Fuel-Load Reductions Resulting from Prescribed Burning in Grazed and Ungrazed Douglas-fir Stands

      Zimmerman, G. T.; Neuenschwander, L. F. (Society for Range Management, 1983-05-01)
      Prescribed understory burning was carried out in both grazed and ungrazed Douglas-fir stands on the University of Idaho Experimental Forest. Burning conditions were moderately cool with 10-hr time-lag fuel moisture varying from 11 to 19%. Preburn and postburn fuel loadings were determined by use of the planar intersect method. Preburn data indicated greater fuel accumulations in grazed stands, 55,460 kg/ha, as compared to ungrazed stands, 44,710 kg/ha. Difficulty in achieving a satisfactory rate-of-spread and fire intensity was encountered due to the combined effects of a very dry summer followed by a wet fall. Moist conditions on the study site, lack of fine fuels, and accumulation of heavy fuels in the grazed portion produced a burn of patchy nature. Fire rate of spread varied from 0 to 183 cm/minute with flame height up to 91 cm. Result was a fuel reduction of 60.2% in the grazed stand and 35.2% in the ungrazed stand. Prolonged grazing in this area had created a dense, overstocked stand with insufficient fine fuels to carry a fire, which severely limited the effectiveness of prescribed burning.
    • Fuels Management at the Landscape Scale

      Swanson, Sherman; Gilgert, Wendell (Society for Range Management, 2009-05-01)
    • Fuels Reduction in a Western Coniferous Forest: Effects on Quantity and Quality of Forage for Elk

      Long, Ryan A.; Rachlow, Janet L.; Kie, John G.; Vavra, Martin (Society for Range Management, 2008-05-01)
      Use of mechanical thinning and prescribed fire to reduce fuels in dry forest ecosystems has become increasingly common in western North America. Nevertheless, few studies have quantified effects of fuels reduction treatments on wildlife. We evaluated effects of fuels reduction on quantity and quality of forage available to elk (Cervus elaphus) in northeastern Oregon. From 2001 to 2003, 26 stands of true fir (Abies spp.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirbel] Franco) were thinned and burned, whereas 27 similar stands were left untreated to serve as experimental controls. We estimated percentage of cover, percentage of in vitro dry-matter digestibility (digestibility), and percentage of nitrogen (%N) of 16 important forage species and genera in treatment and control stands during spring (May-June) and summer (July-August) of 2005 and 2006. Quantity and quality of forage were lower in summer than spring in both stand types. In contrast, total cover of forage was higher in treatment than in control stands during spring, whereas the opposite was true during summer. For graminoids, %N was higher in control than in treatment stands whereas digestibility did not differ between stand types. For forbs, neither index of forage quality differed between stand types. When treatment stands were separated by years since burning, %N and digestibility of forbs and %N of graminoids increased from 2 to 5 yr following treatment, and by the fifth year after burning had exceeded maximum values observed in control stands in both seasons. As a result of the interacting effects of fuels reduction and season on forage characteristics, treated stands provided better foraging opportunities for elk during spring, whereas control stands provided better foraging opportunities during summer. Consequently, maintaining a mosaic of burned and unburned (late successional) habitat may be of greater benefit to elk than burning a large proportion of a landscape. 
    • Full-Text Online Access to Society for Range Management Journals

      Pfander, Jeanne L.; Han, Yan; Wyatt, Lindsay; Stowell Bracke, Marianne (Society for Range Management, 2006-02-01)
    • Fumidor for Herbarium Cases

      Grelen, Harold E. (Society for Range Management, 1964-05-01)
    • Functional Resource Heterogeneity Increases Livestock and Rangeland Productivity

      Fynn, Richard W. S. (Society for Range Management, 2012-07-01)
      Most of the world’s rangelands are subject to large spatial and temporal variation in forage quantity and quality, which can have severe consequences for the stability and profitability of livestock production. Adaptive foraging movements between functional seasonal resources can help to ameliorate the destabilizing effects on herbivore body stores of spatial and temporal variability of forage quantity and quality. Functional dry-season habitats (key resources) provide sufficient nutrients and energy to minimize reliance on body stores and are critical for maintaining population stability by buffering the effects of drought. Functional wet-season habitats dominated by short, nutritious grasses facilitate optimal intake of nutrients and energy for lactating females, for optimal calf growth rates and for building body stores. Adaptive foraging responses to high-quality focal patches induced by rainfall and disturbance further facilitate intake of nutrients and energy. In addition, focused grazing impact in high-quality patches helps to prevent grassland maturing and losing quality. In this regard, the design of many rotational grazing systems is conceptually flawed because of their inflexible movement of livestock that does not allow adaptation to spatial and temporal variability in forage quantity and quality or sufficient duration of stay in paddocks for livestock to benefit from self facilitation of grazing. Similarly the fixed intraseasonal resting periods of most rotational grazing systems might not coincide with the key pulses of nitrogen mineralization and rainfall in the growing season, which can reduce their efficiency in providing a functional recovery period for grazed grasses. This might explain why complex rotational grazing systems on average have not outperformed continuous grazing systems. It follows, therefore, that ranchers need to adopt flexible grazing management practices that allow adaptation to spatial and temporal variability in forage quantity and quality, allow facilitation of grazing (season-long grazing), and allow more effective recovery periods (season-long resting)./La mayoría de los pastizales del mundo estásujeta a gran variación espacial y temporal en cantidad y calidad de forraje, lo cual puede tener severas consecuencias con la estabilidad y rentabilidad de la producción de ganado. El movimiento adaptativo del pastoreo entre la funcionalidad temporal de los recursos puede ayudar a reducir el efecto desestabilizador en la reserva corporal de los herbívoros de la variabilidad espacial y temporal de la cantidad y calidad del forraje. Hábitats funcionales de temporada seca (recursos clave) proveen de suficientes nutrientes y energía para minimizar la dependencia de reservas corporales y son criticas para mantener la estabilidad de la población y efecto amortiguador de la sequia. Hábitats funcionales de temporada húmeda dominados por pastos cortos nutritivos facilitan el consume óptimo de nutrientes y energía para hembras lactantes paralas tasas de crecimiento optimo del becerro por la construcción de reservas corporales. La respuesta adaptativa al pastoreo en áreas específicas de alta calidad inducidos por la lluvia y disturbio además facilita el consumo de nutrientes y energía. En suma, focalizando el impacto del pastoreo en parches de alta calidad ayuda a prevenir la maduración del pasto y pérdida de calidad. Eneste contexto, el diseño de varios sistemas de pastoreo tiene la falla conceptual en la nula flexibilidad del movimiento del ganadoque no permite la adaptación espacial y temporal en la variación en la calidad y cantidad del forraje o suficiente tiempo de estancia en el potrero por el ganado para beneficiarse de auto facilitación del pastoreo. De manera similar, los periodos de descanso fijos intratemporales de la mayoría de los sistemas de pastoreo no podrían coincidir con los pulsos claves de lamineralización del nitrógeno y lluvia en la época de crecimiento la cual podría reducir la eficiencia en proveer recuperación funcional del periodo de los pastos pastoreados. Esto podría explicar porque sistemas de pastoreo complejos tienen en promedio un bajo desempeño comparado con el pastoreo continuo. Se desprende por lo tanto, que los rancheros necesitan adopter prácticas de manejo de pastoreo flexible que permita adaptar la variabilidad espacial y temporal de la cantidad y calidad del forraje permitiendo facilitar el pastoreo (temporal-permanente pastoreo) y periodos de recuperación más efectivos (temporal-permanente descanso).
    • Fungi in the Diet of Domestic Sheep

      Warren, Jerry T.; Mysterud, Ivar (Society for Range Management, 1991-08-01)
    • Fur, Gold, and Settlement: The Building Blocks of Range Management in British Columbia

      Bawtree, Alfred; Zabek, Lisa (Society for Range Management, 2011-04-01)
    • Future Directions for Usable Rangeland Science: From Plant Communities to Landscapes

      Fuhlendorf, Samuel D.; Brown, Joel R. (Society for Range Management, 2016-12-01)
      On the Ground • The profession of rangeland ecology and management has been built, to a large extent, on vegetation ecology. • Community ecology has been the source of advances in scientific understanding of rangeland behavior and improving management. • An increased use of the principles of landscape and regional ecology could greatly improve the utility of rangeland science for researchers and managers.
    • Future Directions of Usable Science for Sustainable Rangelands: Water

      Dobrowolski, James P.; Engle, David M. (Society for Range Management, 2016-12-01)
      On the Ground • Usable science takes on a completely new meaning when you are looking to science to literally save your livelihood. • The challenge for rangeland professionals, including research scientists, is accurately predicting the consequences to water of land-use change, climate change, and increasing competition for water while also providing socially acceptable science-based solutions. • The good news for rangeland professionals and research scientists is that because water is indeed essential for life, our knowledge and skills will be essential for addressing these issues.
    • Future of Range Management: A Student's View

      Nyren, Paul (Society for Range Management, 1973-05-01)
    • Future of Rangelands in Canada

      Whelan, E. F. (Society for Range Management, 1974-07-01)
    • Future of Rangelands in the United States

      Long, R. W. (Society for Range Management, 1974-07-01)
    • Future Visions: A Sustainable and Healthy Local Food Production System

      Garrett, James J. (Society for Range Management, 2016-12-01)
      On the Ground • A collaborative effort to create an innovative food production system is underway on the Standing Rock Lakota Reservation. • Three land-grant universities and colleges, along with United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, are conducting research as a foundation to begin planning for on-the-ranch production of healthier meat. • This collaborative project uses the Lakota philosophy of natural resource management and in this paper I urge more. • I recommend additional research to develop investigations of relationships between cattle and the native food and medicine plants that also reside within the pasture.