• A Collaborative Program to Provide Native Plant Materials for the Great Basin

      Shaw, Nancy; Pellant, Mike; Fisk, Matthew; Denney, Erin (Society for Range Management, 2012-08-01)
      The Great Basin as defined on a floristic basis includes the hydrographic Great Basin plus the Owyhee Uplands and Snake River Plain of southern Idaho (Fig. 1). The region encompasses about 60 million ha, of which more than two-thirds are publicly owned. Vegetation ranges from salt desert and sagebrush shrublands in the basins to conifer forests in the more than 200 mountain ranges. Historic land management opened the environment to invasion by exotic annual grasses, primarily cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum). Resulting changes in fire regimes and more recent human disturbances such as energy development, mining, and recreation have combined to increase the spread of annual and perennial exotics, deplete native seed banks, simplify community structure and species associations, and reduce landscape patchiness. Ecosystem resilience declines with disruption of ecological functions such as snow or water catchment, reduction of wind velocity, and nutrient cycling. West and Young described in detail the plant communities and management issues in the Great Basin and suggested that development of more effective and economical revegetation techniques should be a research priority, especially for the more arid regions. 
    • A Common-Garden Study of Resource-Island Effects on a Native and an Exotic, Annual Grass After Fire

      Hoover, Amber N.; Germino, Matthew J. (Society for Range Management, 2012-03-01)
      Plant-soil variation related to perennial-plant resource islands (coppices) interspersed with relatively bare interspaces is a major source of heterogeneity in desert rangelands. Our objective was to determine how native and exotic grasses vary on coppice mounds and interspaces (microsites) in unburned and burned sites and underlying factors that contribute to the variation in sagebrush-steppe rangelands of the Idaho National Lab, where interspaces typically have abiotic crusts.We asked how the exotic cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) and native bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata [Pursh] A. Lo¨ ve) were distributed among the microsites and measured their abundances in three replicate wildfires and nearby unburned areas. We conducted a common-garden study in which soil cores from each burned microsite type were planted with seed of either species to determine microsite effects on establishment and growth of native and exotic grasses. We assessed soil physical properties in the common-garden study to determine the intrinsic properties of each microsite surface and the retention of microsite soil differences following transfer of soils to the garden, to plant growth, and to wetting/drying cycles. In the field study, only bluebunch wheatgrass density was greater on coppice mounds than interspaces, in both unburned and burned areas. In the common-garden experiment, there were microsite differences in soil physical properties, particularly in crust hardness and its relationship to moisture, but soil properties were unaffected by plant growth. Also in the experiment, both species had equal densities yet greater dry mass production on coppice-mound soils compared to interspace soils, suggesting microsite differences in growth but not establishment (likely related to crust weakening resulting from watering). Coppice interspace patterning and specifically native-herb recovery on coppices is likely important for postfire resistance of this rangeland to cheatgrass./La variación suelo-planta en relación con la isla de recursos de las plantas perennes y los montículos intercalados con la presencia de inter-espacios relativamente desnudos es la mayor fuente de heterogeneidad en pastizales áridos. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar cómo pastos nativos y exóticos varían con montículos y espacios intermedios (micro-sitios) en aéreas quemadas y no quemadas, y los factores principales que contribuyen a tal variación en los pastizales de Artemisia de Idaho National Lab. Donde los inter-espacios típicamente tienen capas abióticas. Nos preguntamos cómo el pasto exótico cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) y el pasto nativo bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata [Pursh] A. Löve) se distribuyeron entre los micro-sitios, y medimos su abundancia en tres replicas de incendios forestales y áreas adyacentes no incendiadas. Se condujo un estudio común de jardín en el cual muestras de suelo de cada micro-sitio incendiado se sembró con semillas de cada especie para determinar el efecto de los micro-sitios en el establecimiento y crecimiento de los pastos nativos y exóticos. Las propiedades físicas del suelo se midieron como en un estudio típico de jardín para determinar las propiedades intrínsecas de la superficie de cada micro-sitio, y las diferencias en la retención de suelo en cada micro-sitio después de la transferencia de los suelos al jardín, para el desarrollo de las plantas, y para los ciclos de humectación/secado. En el primer estudio, sólo la densidad de bluebunch wheatgrass fue mayor en los montículos que en los inter-espacios en ambas áreas incendiadas y no incendiadas. En el experimento común de jardín, se presentaron diferencias en los micro-sitios relativos a las propiedades físicas del suelo, particularmente en la dureza de la corteza y su relación con la humedad, pero las propiedades del suelo no se afectaron por el crecimiento de las plantas. De igual manera en el experimento, ambas especies tuvieron iguales densidades pero mayor producción de materia seca en los suelos de los montículos comparado con los suelos de los inter-espacios, sugiriendo diferencias entre los micro-sitios en crecimiento pero no en establecimiento (probamente relacionado con el debilitamiento de la corteza como resultado del riego). Los patrones de los montículos e inter-espacios y específicamente la recuperación de herbáceas nativas en los montículos es probablemente importante para la resistencia de este pastizal a la invasión cheatgrass después de la presencia de incendios forestales.
    • A Comparative Study of Soils of Selected Creosotebush Sites in Southern New Mexico

      Valentine, K. A.; Norris, J. J. (Society for Range Management, 1964-01-01)
    • A Comparison of Average Variable Costs of Private vs. Public Land Ranches in Southeastern Montana

      Lacey, J. R.; Workman, J. P. (Society for Range Management, 1986-07-01)
      A study was conducted in southeastern Montana to determine the effects of federal range grazing on cattle ranch average variable operating costs per animal unit. Data were obtained through personal interviews in 1980 with 68 ranches in six southeastern Montana counties. T-tests were used to determine if the average variable costs per animal unit were less on ranches that rely on federal ranges than on ranches that do not. Annual variable costs per animal unit averaged $158 and $144, respectively, for ranches obtaining 0-4% and 5-51% of total forage from federal lands. However, this difference was not statistically significant. Regression analysis did indicate that variable costs per animal unit were significantly affected by the percentage of total ranch income from crop sales.
    • A comparison of bromus tectorum growth and mycorrhizal colonization in salt desert vs. Sagebrush Habitats

      Haubensak, K. A.; D'Antonio, C. M.; Embry, S.; Blank, R. (Society for Range Management, 2014-05)
      Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) has recently invaded marginal low-elevation salt desert habitats across the Great Basin. We tested the hypothesis that cheatgrass seed produced in populations from the more stressful salt desert vs. upland sagebrush habitats should grow differently in salt desert soils compared to adjacent upland sagebrush soil, and vice versa. We evaluated growth, incidence of flowering, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization of plants grown in the soils from which their seeds were collected vs. in the reciprocal soils from the nearest sagebrush or salt desert site in three large basins in northern Nevada. Simultaneously we measured nutrient cations, available nitrogen and phosphorus, percent carbon and nitrogen, texture, and dry-down characteristics in all soils. We found that salt desert soils were generally more nutrient poor and more saline than their upland (sagebrush) counterparts; salt desert soils also generally had a higher percentage of sand compared to their upland counterparts and were consistently drier. The most dramatic plant responses to soil and seed source were 1) lower aboveground biomass of mature plants in most salt desert soils compared to sagebrush soils, or lower biomass in plants grown from salt desert seed; 2) lower root:shoot ratios in plants grown in salt desert soil across two of three basins, irrespective of seed source; 3) a higher percentage of flowering individuals from salt desert seed sources at harvest, irrespective of soil source; 4) depressed AMF colonization of plants in salt desert soils; and 5) strong influence exerted by seed source on AMF, whereby sagebrush-originating plants grown in sagebrush soils had greater AMF colonization compared to salt desert soils but salt desert-originating seedlings had very low AMF colonization rates irrespective of soil source. These results suggest that both population level and soil-based controls are important as this widespread weed moves into marginal habitat. © 2014 The Society for Range Management.
    • A Comparison of Continuous and Rotational Grazing

      Walton, P. D.; Martinez, R.; Bailey, A. W. (Society for Range Management, 1981-01-01)
      Continuous and rotational grazing of a brome-alfalfa-creeping red fescue pasture was compared at the University of Alberta Ranch in 1975, 1976, 1977, and 1978. Productivity, in terms of animal weight gain and dry-matter consumption, was studied together with changes in the sward composition. In 1977 and 1978 the weight gains from the rotationally grazed areas were nearly double those obtained from continuous grazing (218 vs 119 kg/ha). The percentage by weight of alfalfa in the sward increased under rotational grazing from 23 to 47%. The herbage in the rotationally grazed field was more digestible and contained more calcium, magnesium, copper, and crude protein than did that in the continuously grazed area. Animals in the continuously grazed fields spent 2.4 hours longer per day grazing than did the animals which were rotationally grazed.
    • A Comparison of Crested Wheatgrass and Native Grass Mixtures Seeded on Rangeland in Eastern Montana

      McWilliams, J. L.; Van Cleave, P. E. (Society for Range Management, 1960-03-01)
    • A comparison of drills for direct seeding alfalfa into established grasslands

      Waddington, J. (Society for Range Management, 1992-09-01)
      Information is presented on the suitability of various drills for direct seeding into permanent pastures and rangelands in Saskatchewan. Strips of sod 30 to 100-cm wide were killed during the growing season by glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl] glycine) in grazing lands at several sites in Saskatchewan. Six drills: 1 with a powered disk furrow opener, 2 with hoe openers, and 3 with rolling disk openers were used to seed measured amounts of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed in the killed strips in late fall of the same year or early the subsequent spring. Drill performance was assessed during the seeding operation, and emerged seedlings were counted early the following growing season. Seedling emergence ranged from near 0 to 48% of seed sown. Soil moisture conditions in early spring, which in turn were a function of winter precipitation, were a major limitation on seed germination. All of the furrow-opening mechanisms were capable of placing seed at a suitable depth for successful establishment in some situations. The best seedling emergence was obtained with drills having each opener suspended independently with sufficient weight to penetrate dead thatch and hard ground, and with mechanisms to control seeding depth and pack the soil around the seeds.
    • A Comparison of Esophageal Fistula and Fecal Material to Determine Steer Diets

      Vavra, M.; Rice, R. W.; Hansen, R. M. (Society for Range Management, 1978-01-01)
      Cattle diets were determined by esophageal fistula and fecal material collection procedures from yearling cattle grazing shortgrass range in northeastern Colorado. Diets were quantified by microhistological procedures from samples collected in June, July, August, and December of 1969; and June, July, and August of 1970. Total grasses occurred significantly less in esophageal samples, while total forbs were significantly lower in fecal samples. Individual grass species did not appear to follow a set pattern of variation from esophageal to fecal sampling; some were greater in fecal samples while others were greater in fistula samples. Forbs occurred at greater percentages in fistula samples, with the exception of burning bush (Kochia scoparia) in 1969. Correlation and regression analysis revealed little relationship in botanical composition determined on fecal and esophageal samples. However, an importance value ranking revealed esophageal and fecal samples were similar when individual species were ranked from the most common to the least common in the diet.
    • A Comparison of Factors that Affect Ranching Profits

      Bredemeier, L. F. (Society for Range Management, 1970-09-01)
      To evaluate the impact of income and expense factors for beef cow-calf operations, 39 factors were identified. Using these, eight were evaluated independently for impact. A $10.00 difference in net return per cow resulted from the following changes: 57.2 pounds selling weight per calf; 3.6 cents per pound of calf weight sold; 10.3 percent calf crop; $4.02 per ton for hay; 12.2 months of pasture versus hay with hay at $14.00 per ton or 4.1 months with hay at $18.00 per ton; .2 animal unit months per acre in stocking rate; $25.30 per acre grazing land value; and $9.04 tax per animal unit. The input required to produce these changes and others related thereto must be assessed for each individual case before making resource use decisions for increasing income.
    • A Comparison of Four Distance Sampling Techniques in South Texas Live Oak Mottes

      Beasom, S. L.; Haucke, H. H. (Society for Range Management, 1975-03-01)
      Four distance sampling techniques; point-center-quarter (PCQ), random pairs (RP), nearest neighbor (NN), and closest individual (CI) were compared to total counts to determine accuracy of density and relative frequency approximations in a live oak (Quercus virginiana) motte vegetative type in South Texas. The PCQ method was the most accurate for estimating density, followed in decreasing order by RP, CI, and NN. Only the NN approximation was significantly different from the actual density. The PCQ method also provided the most accurate relative frequency approximations, followed in decreasing order by RP, NN, and CI.
    • A Comparison of Four Methods Used to Determine the Diets of Large Herbivores

      McInnis, M. L.; Vavra, M.; Krueger, W. C. (Society for Range Management, 1983-05-01)
      Esophageal fistulation, stomach content analysis, fecal analysis, and forage utilization were compared as techniques for determining food habits of large herbivores. Each technique was evaluated based upon information collected using bi-fistulated (esophageal and rumen) sheep during 2 study phases. In the first study phase, microscope slide mounts were made of plant fragments collected from the esophagus, rumen, and feces of 10 confined sheep fed a hand-composited mixture of forage. Dietary composition as determined by each technique was compared to the original feed. Stomach content analysis and fecal analysis produced dietary estimates higher in grasses and lower in forbs than the known feed values. Esophageal fistulation results were not significantly different from the known feed values. In the second study phase, esophageal, rumen, and fecal collections were gathered from 16 sheep grazing a common plant community. Ocular estimates of forage utilization were made concurrently. All data were converted to percent composition on a dry weight basis for comparisons. Significant differences in percent diet composition among techniques occurred for 18 of the 31 plant species consumed. Diets determined by stomach content analysis and fecal analysis were significantly higher in grasses and lower in forbs than those determined by esophageal fistulation and ocular estimates of utilization.
    • A comparison of frontal, continuous, and rotation grazing systems

      Volesky, J. D.; O'Farrell, F. De Achaval; Ellis, W. C.; Kothmann, M. M.; Horn, F. P.; Phillips, W. A.; Coleman, S. W. (Society for Range Management, 1994-05-01)
      Two 2-year trials were conducted to evaluate and compare frontal, continuous, and 2-paddock rotation grazing systems on 'Plains' Old World bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng.). Frontal grazing allows livestock a continuous opportunity to graze fresh forage via a livestock-pushed, sliding fence which allocates and controls grazing within a pasture. Trial 1 treatments included frontal grazing at a very high stocking density of 13.3 head ha-1 and continuous grazing at 4 stocking densities described as low, moderate, high, and very high. The mechanical design and components of our frontal grazing system were quite adequate in terms of the system's operation and interaction with the livestock herd. Significant (P < 0.05) linear relationships were found for regressions of daily gain on stocking rate and grazing pressure index, and for gain ha-1 on stocking rate and grazing pressure index. Year effects were evident in all regressions. Trial 2 treatments included frontal, continuous, and rotation grazing systems initially stocked at 6.7 head ha-1. Mid-season reductions in stocking density were made in continuous and rotation grazing to ensure that these treatments would have adequate forage to continue until frontal grazing completed its second cycle and to achieve an end-of-season standing crop which was similar in all 3 treatments. Season-long daily gains under frontal grazing were not significantly different compared to continuous grazing (P > 0.05); however, they were less than those under rotation grazing (P < 0.05). Frontal grazing provided about 100 more steer-days per hectare of grazing than either continuous or rotation grazing. However, steer production was not significantly different among treatments and averaged 296 kg ha-1 (P > 0.05).
    • A Comparison of Grass Growth on Different Horizons of Three Grassland Soils

      Joy, C. R.; Helwig, L.; Reiger, T.; Supola, M. (Society for Range Management, 1954-09-01)
    • A Comparison of In Vitro and In Vivo Feed Digestibility by White-tailed Deer

      Ruggiero, L. F.; Whelan, J. B. (Society for Range Management, 1976-01-01)
      Two captive, rumen-fistulated, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were used to evaluate the two-stage in vitro microdigestion technique as an estimator of in vivo dry-matter digestibility. The technique provided digestibility percentages that departed only slightly from in vivo values for the artificial ration tested.
    • A Comparison of Line Intercepts and Random Point Frames for Sampling Desert Shrub Vegetation

      Brun, J. M.; Box, T. W. (Society for Range Management, 1963-01-01)
    • A Comparison of Methods of Estimating Plant Cover in an Arid Grassland Community

      Winkworth, R. E.; Perry, R. A.; Rossetti, C. O. (Society for Range Management, 1962-07-01)
    • A Comparison of Methods of Renovating Old Stands of Crested Wheatgrass

      Lorenz, R. J.; Rogler, G. A. (Society for Range Management, 1962-07-01)
    • A comparison of methods to determine plant successional stages

      Winslow, S. R.; Sowell, B. F. (Society for Range Management, 2000-03-01)
      Twenty-six, 0.04 ha macroplots were sampled on 9 range sites in southwestern Montana to compare successional scores and condition classifications of range condition analysis and United States Forest Service (USFS) Ecodata and Ecopac (Strata) analysis methods. Range condition scores (0-100%) and range condition classes (poor, fair, good, excellent) were derived from the traditional Soil Conservation Service range condition analysis method, with the exception that only major decreaser and increaser graminoids and shrubs were individually clipped and bagged. Ecological status scores (1-100%) and ecological condition classes (low, mid, high, very high) were determined with United States Forest Service Ecodata methods. Range condition score means were greater (p < 0.02) than ecological status score means (48% vs 41%). Standing crop biomass affected differences (p < 0.001) between range condition scores and ecological status scores. Lower producing sites had greater range condition scores than ecological status scores and higher producing sites had greater ecological status scores than range condition scores. Range condition classes and ecological condition classes were not independent (p < 0.02). Differences between the 2 methods were attributable to the use of species composition by weight for the range condition analysis and the use of percent canopy cover by Ecodata methods. Rangeland managers trying to determine successional status should realize that range condition analysis and Ecodata methods produce similar condition classes but different condition scores.