• Is Altering Grazing Selectivity of Invasive Forage Species With Patch Burning More Effective Than Herbicide Treatments?

      Cummings, D. Chad; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D.; Engle, David M. (Society for Range Management, 2007-05-01)
      Invasion of rangeland by exotic forage species threatens ecosystem structure and function and can cause catastrophic economic losses. Herbicide treatments often are the focus of management efforts to control invasions. Management with the fire-grazing interaction (or patch burning) might suppress an invasive forage species that has grazing persistence mechanisms developed apart from the fire-grazing interaction. We studied tallgrass prairies invaded by sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata [Dum.- Cours.] G. Don) to compare rate of invasion between traditional management and management with patch burning, to evaluate the effect of burn season on sericea lespedeza invasion within pastures managed with patch burning, and to correlate canopy cover of sericea lespedeza to canopy cover of other functional groups with and without herbicides. Sericea lespedeza canopy cover increased from 1999 to 2005 in both traditional- and patch-burn pastures, but sericea lespedeza increased from 5% to 16% canopy cover in traditionally managed pastures compared to 3% to 5% in the patch-burn pastures. Rate of increase in canopy cover of sericea lespedeza was less in patches burned in summer (0.41% year-1) than in patches burned in spring (0.58% year-1) within patch-burn pastures. Most plant functional groups, including forbs, were weak-negatively correlated with canopy cover of sericea lespedeza. Although herbicide application reduced mass of sericea lespedeza, other components of the vegetation changed little. Herbicide treatments temporarily reduced sericea lespedeza but did not predictably increase other plant functional groups. Patch burning reduced the rate of invasion by sericea lespedeza by maintaining young, palatable sericea plants in the burn patch, and could play a vital role in an integrated weed management strategy on rangelands. 
    • Is Bigger Always Better?

      Moore, Delbert G. (Society for Range Management, 1985-06-01)
    • Is Deferment Always Needed After Chemical Control of Sagebrush?

      Smith, D. R. (Society for Range Management, 1969-07-01)
      The effects of 0, 1, 2, and 3 years of grazing deferment after sagebrush control were compared on subalpine ranges of the Big Horn Mountains in Wyoming. On units open to grazing, utilization of Idaho fescue was generally below the level which sustains yield under season-long grazing. Under such conditions, the desirable forage grasses quickly increased in vigor and revegetated the area after sagebrush was killed. Continued moderate utilization did not retard the revegetation process or influence the subsequent reinvasion of sagebrush.
    • Is Good Range Management for Livestock Really Good Management for Wildlife?: A Review of An SRM Symposium

      Boyd, Chad S.; Rollins, Dale; Engle, David M. (Society for Range Management, 1997-10-01)
    • Is Hand Plucking an Accurate Method of Estimating Bite Mass and Instantaneous Intake of Grazing Herbivores?

      Bonnet, Oliver; Hagenah, Nicole; Hebbelmann, Lisa; Meuret, Michel; Shrader, Adrian M. (Society for Range Management, 2011-07-01)
      Instantaneous intake is central to the understanding of large herbivore foraging strategies and rangeland ecology. Unfortunately, its measurement under field conditions remains challenging because of the difficulty of estimating bite mass. The hand plucking method provides a simple, noninvasive method of estimating bite masses and thus instantaneous intake of grazing herbivores. However, many authors questioned its accuracy and interobserver repeatability. In this study, we tested the accuracy and the repeatability of the hand plucking method using four observers and two herbivore species (i.e., cattle and goats). We compared hand plucked bite mass estimates to actual bite mass of bites taken by the herbivores on natural patches of grass. Training of the observers was fundamental to obtaining accurate bite mass measurements. The mean daily accuracy of the observers’ bite mass estimates increased from 60-80% to 80-94% within 5 d. After training, the relationship between bite mass estimates and actual bite mass was linear and not significantly different from a Y = X relationship. This means that individual bite mass estimates were centered on the real values and thus positive and negative errors canceled each other when combined. As a result, estimates of cumulative intake over about 10 feeding stations had accuracies of over 95%. Furthermore, neither the observer identity nor the herbivore species affected the accuracy of the measurements. The categorization of bites into different size categories proved to be essential in achieving accurate measurements. When observers are trained, hand plucking is a reliable and accurate method of estimating bites mass and instantaneous intake of grazing herbivores. This has important implications for rangeland research and management, as hand plucking is often the only practicable method available for estimating instantaneous intake of free-ranging herbivores.
    • Is No Grazing Really Better Than Grazing?

      Hughes, Lee E. (Society for Range Management, 1983-08-01)
    • Is pile seeding wyoming big sagebrush (artemisia tridentata subsp. wyomingensis) an effective alternative to broadcast seeding?

      Boyd, C. S.; Obradovich, M. (Society for Range Management, 2014-05)
      Sagebrush plays an important role in the ecological functions of sagebrush steppe plant communities and is a necessary component of habitat for a variety of wildlife including greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). At lower elevations, increased fire frequency associated with exotic annual grass invasion has heightened the need for effective sagebrush restoration strategies, but existing techniques have been largely ineffective. Our objective was to evaluate "pile seeding" (placing mature seed heads on the ground) of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata subsp. wyomingensis) as an alternative to broadcast seeding. We used a randomized block design (n=5) replicated in 2 yr at two contrasting ecological sites in southeastern Oregon. Treatments applied to 100×1.5 m plots included 1) pile seeding (four mature seed heads·pile- 1×10 piles·plot -1), 2) broadcast seeding (0.5 kg pure live seed [PLS]·ha -1), and 3) natural recovery (i.e., nonseeded). Planting occurred in fall 2008 and 2009, and plots were monitored for seedling establishment for three or two growing seasons postplanting. Seedling density was estimated at the plot scale within a 50-cm radius of each seed head pile ("island scale"). In the year following planting, sagebrush seedling density at the plot scale was up to 60-fold higher (P≤0.05) in pile-seeded plots compared to natural recovery and broadcast plots. Seedling mortality was high (up to 98% reduction in density) for pile-seeded plots between the first and second growing seasons postplanting and differences between broadcast and pile-seeded plots dissipated by 2-3 yr postplanting. Although pile-seeding had higher initial density than broadcast seeding, neither technique had sufficient multiyear survival to suggest restoration efficacy at the plot scale. Seedling density at the island scale suggests that pile-seeding may be useful for establishing sagebrush islands, depending on year conditions. Research is needed to determine strategies capable of increasing long-term sagebrush seedling survival.
    • Is Predator Control Going to the Dogs?

      Green, Jeffrey S.; Woodruff, Roger A. (Society for Range Management, 1980-10-01)
    • Is Proactive Adaptation to Climate Change Necessary in Grazed Rangelands?

      Ash, Andrew; Thornton, Philip; Stokes, Chris; Togtohyn, Chuluun (Society for Range Management, 2012-11-01)
      In this article we test the notion that adaptation to climate change in grazed rangelands requires little more effort than current approaches to risk management because the inherent climate variability that characterizes rangelands provides a management environment that is preadapted to climate change. We also examine the alternative hypothesis that rangeland ecosystems and the people they support are highly vulnerable to climate change. Past climate is likely to become an increasingly poor predictor of the future, so there is a risk in relying on adaptation approaches developed solely in response to existing variability. We find incremental, autonomous adaptation will be sufficient to deal with most of the challenges provided by the gradual expression of climate change in the next decade or two. However, projections of greater climate change in the future means that the responses required are qualitatively as well as quantitatively different and are beyond the existing suite of adaptation strategies and coping range. The proactive adaptation responses required go well beyond incremental on-farm or local actions. New policies will be needed to deal with transformational changes associated with land tenure issues and challenges of some displacement and migration of people in vulnerable parts of rangelands. Even where appropriate adaptation actions can be framed, issues of when to act and how much to act in a proactive way remain a challenge for research, management, and policy. Whether incremental or transformational involving system changes, a diversity of adaptation options will be required in different rangeland regions to enhance social and ecological resilience./En este artículo evaluamos la idea de que la adaptación al cambio climático en pastizales pastoreados requiere un mayor esfuerzo que lo que se hace en la actualidad para manejar los riesgos debido a la inherente variabilidad climática que caracteriza a los pastizales y que provee un manejo del ambiente que está pre-adaptado al cambio climático. Examinamos la hipótesis alternativa que los ecosistemas de pastizales y la gente que mantienen es altamente vulnerable al cambio climático. El clima pasado es probable que se convierta cada vez más en un pobre predictor del futuro así que es riesgo en confiar en enfoques de adaptación desarrollados únicamente en respuesta a la variabilidad existente. Encontramos que la adaptación autónoma será suficiente para lidiar con la mayoría de los desafios proporcionados por la expresión gradual de cambio climático en las siguientes dos décadas. Sin embargo, las proyecciones de un mayor cambio climático en el futuro significan que las respuestas requeridas son tanto culitativa como cuantitativamente diferentes y éstas van más allá de los alcances de la estrategias adaptación y afrontamiento. La adaptación proactiva de las respuestas requiere ir más allá del incremento de la granja o de las acciones locales. Nuevas políticas serán necesarias para lidiar con los cambios transformacionales asociados con problemas de la tenencia de la tierra y los retros del desplazamiento y migración de la gente en ciertas partes vulnerable de los pastizales. Incluso donde las medidias adecuadas de adaptación se pueden enmarcar, problemas de cómo actuar y en qué medida en una manera proactiva siguen representado un reto para los investigadores, manejadores y las políticas. Ya sea envolviendo cambios sistemáticos transformacionales o incrementales, se exigirá una diversidad de opciones de adaptación en las diferentes regiones de pastizales para mejorar las resiliencia ecológica o social.
    • Is Range Management a Profession?

      Hooper, J. F.; Grumbles, J. B. (Society for Range Management, 1969-03-01)
      There is a lack of understanding among range managers of the meaning of the word "professional" and little appreciation of the obligations which professional recognition imposes. Many range managers are sub-professional and range management may be a sub-professional vocation. If you want to be identified as other than a second class citizen, read on to see what you can do.
    • Is Range Management a Worthwhile Profession?

      Morris, Melvin S. (Society for Range Management, 1966-09-01)
    • Is Rangeland Health Relevant to Mongolia?

      Damdinsuren, Bolormaa; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Pyke, David A.; Bestelmeyer, Brandon T.; Havstad, Kris M. (Society for Range Management, 2008-08-01)
    • Is supplementation justified to compensate pastoral calves for milk restriction?

      Coppock, D. L.; Sovani, S. (Society for Range Management, 1999-05-01)
      Competition for milk between calves and pastoral herders may reduce weaning weights, retard growth, and delay puberty in cattle. Calf supplementation could over-ride such effects and improve pastoral economies. To examine these issues in semiarid Ethiopia, 266 Boran calves (Bos indicus) were used in a 2 X 3 plus 1 factorial design contrasting graded levels of supplemental alfalfa hay (i.e., Medicago sativa L. with mean intakes of 0, 344, and 557 g head(-1) day(-1) on a DM basis) and supplemental water (i.e., with mean intakes of 0 and 3.8 liters head(-1) day(-1)). The trial was repeated for animals born in 2 consecutive years. Treatments occurred over a background of simulated traditional management in which calves had limited access to grazing and water and were allowed to suckle about two-thirds of their dams' daily milk yield. Traditionally managed controls received no supplements while other (positive) controls received no supplements but had greater access to milk. After 10 months of treatment calves were weaned and monitored. Supplementation with the high level of hay plus water markedly enhanced (P < 0.01) all productive features of calves at weaning compared to traditionally managed controls, and was an effective substitute for milk forgone in both years. Despite high variability in milk intake, access to supplements, and weaned body size as calves, all male cattle converged in liveweight and other productive features by 3.5 years of age, largely due to compensatory growth of traditionally managed controls. Heifers also converged in various attributes at maturity, but those which had received hay plus extra water as calves still conceived 2.6 to 4.3 months earlier (P < 0.05) than traditionally managed controls. We concluded that supplementation with hay and water can indeed compensate a young calf for typical levels of milk restriction here. Carry-over effects, however, were insufficient to justify large investments in supplementation considering the high inherent risks of production and traditions of marketing mature animals.
    • Is Tansymustard Causing Photosensitization of Cattle in Montana?

      Pfister, James A.; Lacey, John R.; Baker, Dale C.; James, Lynn F.; Brownson, Roger (Society for Range Management, 1990-06-01)
    • Is There Recovery After Fire, Drought, and Overgrazing?

      Hughes, Lee E. (Society for Range Management, 2002-08-01)
    • Is Walkingstick Cholla Control Worthwhile in Mexico?/¿Vale la pena controlar Cholla en México?

      Ibarra F., Fernando; Martin R., Martha; Cox, Jerry R.; Prieto G., Sergio (Society for Range Management, 1985-04-01)
    • Is Wildfire Really Bad?

      Hughes, Lee E. (Society for Range Management, 1985-06-01)
    • Issue Paper: Biodiversity of Rangelands

      Society for Range Management, 2003-12-01
    • It May Be Utilization, But Is It Management?

      McKinney, Earl (Society for Range Management, 1997-06-01)
    • It's No Bum Steer on Your Christmas List

      Jarecki, Penny (Society for Range Management, 1980-10-01)