• JRM Rangeland Research Funding (1989-1993)

      Derner, Justin D. (Society for Range Management, 1994-12-01)
    • Judging and Evaluating Range and Pasture Forage Utilization (Proper Grazing Use) for Certain Portions of the Central Great Plains

      May, Joseph A. (Society for Range Management, 2014-08-01)
      On the Ground • Many guidance documents and references have been prepared by federal and state agencies on proper grazing use. This article summarizes these documents for use by field personnel. • Proper grazing use or acceptable forage utilization can be judged by the use of key forage plants in designated key grazing areas.
    • Juniper Consumption Does Not Adversely Affect Meat Quality in Boer-Cross Goats

      Menchaca, Matthew W.; Scott, Cody B.; Braden, Kirk W.; Owens, Corey J.; Branham, Loree A. (Society for Range Management, 2011-11-01)
      Goat browsing can be used as an alternative brush management option for redberry (Juniperus pinchotii Sudw.) and ashe (Juniperus asheii Buch) juniper instead of more expensive and invasive brush control methods, assuming consumption of juniper does not adversely affect the marketability of offspring. Some wildlife species reportedly retain juniper flavor when consumed. We determined if juniper consumption affected meat quality or flavoring of Boer-cross kid carcasses. Twenty recently weaned, Boer-cross wethers were randomly assigned to one of four treatments with treatments fed different amounts of juniper (0%, 10%, 20%, 30% juniper in the diet). All goats were fed juniper for 28 d at the Angelo State University (ASU) Management, Instruction, and Research Center. All goats were also fed a feedlot ration to meet maintenance requirements (2% body weight). Juniper intake varied (P < 0.05) between all treatments (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%) primarily because treatments were fed different amounts of juniper. Following a 28-d trial, goats were harvested at the ASU Food Safety and Product Development Laboratory. Carcass characteristics including live weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, loineye area, body wall fat thickness, and leg circumference were similar (P>0.05) among treatments. Sensory characteristics including tenderness, juiciness, flavor intensity, off-flavor, and overall acceptability were also similar (P > 0.05) among treatments. Landowners can utilize goats as a biological management tool without adversely affecting goat meat quality or flavoring.
    • Juniper encroachment in aspen in the Northwest Great Basin

      Wall, T. G.; Miller, R. F.; Svejcar, T. J. (Society for Range Management, 2001-11-01)
      In the northwest Great Basin, western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis subsp. occidentalis Hook.) is encroaching into aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) communities. There is a concern that aspen communities in this region are in a state of decline, but their status has not been documented. This study determined the timing, extent, and some of the effects of this expansion. Ninety-one aspen stands were sampled for density, canopy cover, age, stand structure, and recruitment of western juniper and aspen. Soils and tree litter beneath aspen and western juniper were collected to analyze the effects of western juniper on soils. Additionally, 2 large aspen complexes in southeast Oregon were intensively aged to determine disturbance (fire) frequencies. Western juniper encroachment peaked between 1900 and 1939 with 77% of all juniper trees sampled having been established during this period. Three-fourths of aspen stands sampled have established populations of western juniper. Twelve percent of aspen stands sampled were completely replaced by western juniper and another 23% dominated by western juniper. Average density of western juniper in aspen sites was 1,573 trees ha(-1). Seventy percent of aspen stands sampled had zero recruitment of new aspen. Aspen stands averaged 98 years old. There was an inverse correlation between aspen canopy cover and western juniper canopy cover. Soils influenced by western juniper had a higher C:N ratio, pH, salts, lime, and sulfate, and lower amounts of magnesium, iron, copper, and manganese. Aspen litter had a lower C:N ratio than western juniper litter. Two major aspen complexes sampled had even-age, 2-tiered even-age, and multiple-age aspen trees. The absence of presettlement juniper within all sampled aspen stands suggests fire was the primary stand-replacing disturbance in these northwest Great Basin aspen communities. The lack of fire coupled with aspen stand decadence and low recruitment levels will allow for the continued encroachment and replacement of aspen communities by western juniper in the northwest Great Basin.
    • Juniper Extract and Germination of Six Range Species

      Lavin, Fred; Jameson, Donald A.; Gomm, F. B. (Society for Range Management, 1968-07-01)
      Juniper foliage extract significantly decreased seed germination for three of six range species tested. Deficient aeration severely decreased germination for two species and completely inhibited germination of the other four.
    • Juniper Invasions in Grasslands: Research Needs and Intervention Strategies

      Leis, S. A.; Blocksome, C. E.; Twidwell, D.; Fuhlendorf, S. D.; Briggs, J. M.; Sanders, L. D. (Society for Range Management, 2017-04)
      On the Ground Despite prescribed fire programs, invasive juniper trees are increasing in the Great Plains. Continued encroachment of junipers in the Great Plains, especially eastern redcedar and Ashe's juniper, is degrading grasslands and increasing health concerns through pollen production. Biological and ecological research needs include effects on soil and water as well as restoration potential after a mature invasion is treated. The interface of social science, ecology, economics, and policy may yield productive approaches to slowing the invasion. © 2017
    • Junk or Science in the Court System: You may be surprised!

      Schroeder, W. Alan (Society for Range Management, 2000-06-01)
    • Jupiter Root Competition Reduces Basal Area of Blue Grama

      Jameson, Donald A. (Society for Range Management, 1970-05-01)
      Juniper root competition reduces the basal area of blue grama, but the effect is small enough that careful control of experimental error is necessary to detect the difference.
    • Justification for grazing intensity experiments: analysing and interpreting grazing data

      Bransby, D. I.; Conrad, B. E.; Dicks, H. M.; Drane, J. W. (Society for Range Management, 1988-07-01)
      Grazing trials in which treatments are compared at only 1 grazing intensity greatly outnumber those in which treatments are compared at several grazing intensities. This suggests that, compared to other treatments and the need for replication in grazing trials, researchers consider grazing intensity lower in priority. In this study, a regression modeling approach for analyzing and interpreting data was developed to enhance the value of grazing intensity trials. As an example, results from 5 irrigated bermudagrasses (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers) (Callie, Coastal, Brazos and experimental hybrids S-54 and S-16) which were continuously grazed without field replication by Santa Gertrudis steers at 4 grazing intensities were considered. The relationships between average daily gain (ADG) and stocking rate, ADG and herbage present (Mg/ha), and between stocking rate (animals/ha) and herbage present were well described by linear functions for all cultivars, with correlation coefficients (r) mostly above 0.9. Coefficients of determination (R2) for linear regression models derived for ADG vs stocking rate, ADG vs herbage present, and stocking rate vs herbage present were 0.90**, 0.89**, and 0.87**, respectively. Significant cultivar × grazing intensity (as measured by stocking rate or herbage present) interactions (P≤0.01) were observed. Furthermore, estimated stocking rates which provided maximum gain/ha ranged from 6.6 to 9.4 animals/ha, and the range in herbage present which provided maximum gain/ha was 0.35 to 1.95 Mg/ha. Callie provided an estimated maximum gain/ha of 881 kg/ha/season, while maximum gain/ha for the other cultivars ranged from 613 to 687 kg/ha/season. Comparison between these 5 cultivars at only 1 grazing intensity would have had very narrow application. The procedure described allowed statistical comparison of cultivars without replication, and inferences about the separate effects of forage quality and quantity on animal performance could be made. Herbage present and cultivar were descriptors of the pasture. Since there was a substantial range of values for herbage present and stocking rate, all important assumptions underlying linear regression were met and designs utilized in analysis of variance were not needed.
    • Justification for grazing intensity experiments: economic analysis

      Bransby, D. I. (Society for Range Management, 1989-09-01)
      Economic arguments in favor of grazing intensity trials are provided by economic analysis of grazing intensity results from Coastal, Callie and experimental hybrid S-16 bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. Pers), and by emphasizing the biological and economic differences among cultivars. Cattle buying prices of 1.20, 1.30, and 1.40/kg and price margins (selling price minus buying price) from -0.20 to 0.20 were considered on a return/ha and /animal basis, assuming land or capital to buy animals to be limiting, respectively. When price margin was -0.20, the stocking rate at which profit/ha was maximized ranged from 4.19 to 5.85 animals/ha, while profit/animal was maximized between 4.77 and 6.89 animals/ha. Corresponding ranges in average weight of herbage present/ha which maximized profit/ha and /animal were 2.83 to 3.60 Mg and 2.34 to 3.72 Mg. For a price margin of 0.20, profit/ha and /animal were maximized at stocking rates of 7.36 to 9.86 and 4.14 to 5.93 animals/ha respectively, with corresponding levels of herbage present/ha in the ranges 0.33 to 1.79 Mg and 2.73 to 4.06 Mg. Relative differences in profit/ha and /animal among cultivars did not correspond to differences in gain/ha and /animal. Economic comparison of the cultivars considered in this study would have had little relevance if only one grazing intensity had been used in the field trial. Only grazing trials with several grazing intensities per treatment can allow for the determination of economic optimum grazing intensities in respect of a wide range in economic conditions.