• Looking backward and forward from the Mountains: Renner and Russell—Revisited

      Renner, Ginger (Society for Range Management, 1988-10-01)
    • Looking Toward a Brighter Future for Lekking Grouse

      Boyd, Chad; Petersen, Steven; Gilgert, Wendell; Rodgers, Randy; Fuhlendorf, Sam; Larsen, Randy; Wolfe, Don; Jensen, K. C.; Gonzales, Phil; Nenneman, Melvin; et al. (Society for Range Management, 2011-12-01)
    • Low Altitude/Large Scale Aerial Photographs: A Tool For Range And Resource Managers

      Quilter, Mark C.; Anderson, Val Jo (Society for Range Management, 2000-04-01)
    • Low density of prickly acacia under sheep grazing in Queensland

      Tiver, F.; Nicholas, M.; Kriticos, D.; Brown, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 2001-07-01)
      Populations of an introduced woody weed, prickly acacia (Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile ssp. indica (Benth.) Brenan syn. Acacia arabica (Lam.) Willd. ssp. indica Benth.), were surveyed at 4 sites in central Queensland. There is a significantly lower frequency of plants of 3 m in height within populations which have been grazed by sheep, indicating that browsing by sheep reduces regeneration. There were higher losses of seedlings at a sheep-grazed site than at cattle-grazed sites. These results support previous assertions that prickly acacia is regenerating more successfully on cattle properties, because cattle both disperse seeds and are less effective herbivores. In regions of low annual rainfall, prickly acacia is capable of forming dense stands (up to 2,700 shrubs ha(-1)) in lowland landscape types. Stands are less dense in upland landscapes (maximum of 718 shrubs ha(-1)). Of most concern is that in regions of high annual rainfall prickly acacia can form extremely dense thickets across most landscape types (up to 3,400 shrubs ha(-1)). We suggest that prickly acacia is most likely to become a management problem on cattle properties, and an extreme problem in high annual rainfall areas. The inclusion of sheep in livestock rotations may be an effective control measure in the Mitchell Grasslands, but this may not always be possible. A high priority is to prevent prickly acacia from expanding its range into equivalent high rainfall areas within Queensland, and also in the Northern Territory, northern New South Wales, and Western Australia. This could be achieved by quarantining livestock which have come from infested properties until seeds have passed through the digestive tract, after about 6 days. Management strategies at the property level should aim to prevent further spread of prickly acacia by controlling cattle movements between paddocks during periods when cattle are ingesting pods and seeds.
    • Low Level Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilization on High Elevation Ranges

      Bowns, J. E. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Low levels of fall applied ammonium sulphate nitrogen and treble super-phosphate phosphorus fertilization were effective to increase production, crude protein, and phosphorus content of forage on high elevation native ranges in southwestern Utah. Vegetation was dominated by bistort, western yarrow, bluegrass, tufted hairgrass, spike trisetum, alpine timothy, and letterman needlegrass. The most effective level appeared to be 60 lb. each of available nitrogen and phosphorus in combination. Fertilizers were applied once and the residual effects carried over for two growing seasons for production, three for phosphorus, and one growing season for crude protein and gross energy. Visual differences between treatments were obvious during the first two years.
    • Low Rates of Tebuthiuron for Control of Sand Shinnery Oak

      Jones, V. E.; Pettit, R. D. (Society for Range Management, 1984-11-01)
      Tebuthiuron [N-(5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-N,N′-dimethylurea] pellets (20% ai) were broadcast at 0.2 kg increments to 1.0 kg/ha onto a sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii) community in west Texas (33 degrees 23′52″N and 102 degrees 46′38″W). Treatments greater than or equal to 0.4 kg/ha reduced oak canopy 98% and standing crop at least 90%. Grass yield was unaffected by herbicide treatments during the first year. Thereafter, yield on treated areas increased from 420 to 690 kg/ha as contrasted to 140 kg/ha on the control. Where oak was untreated, grasses became quiescent, due to drought, up to 6 weeks earlier than on treated areas.
    • Low Risk versus High Risk Range Improvements

      Law, A. S. (Society for Range Management, 1989-08-01)
    • Low Volume Spring Developments

      Northup, B. K.; Goerend, D. T.; Hays, D. M.; Nicholson, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1989-02-01)
    • Low-Cost Constant-Temperature Water Bath

      Pearson, H. A. (Society for Range Management, 1965-05-01)
    • Low-cost Diagonal Fence Strainer

      McKenzie, Dan W.; Currier, W. F. (Society for Range Management, 1985-02-01)
    • Low-Cost Radiation Shielding for Use in Mapping the Thermal Environments of Rangeland Animals

      Clark, Patrick E.; Johnson, Douglas E.; Harris, Norman; Thomas, David R. (Society for Range Management, 2006-11-01)
      Variations in its thermal environment can influence how an animal utilizes a rangeland landscape. Mapping the spatial and temporal air temperature patterns throughout a landscape may be helpful in predicting range animal distribution and habitat use. Many sampling points are required to effectively map air temperature levels throughout extensive and topographically diverse rangelands. Self-contained air temperature data loggers are commercially available, but these require shielding from solar radiation to provide accurate measurements. Commercial shields are expensive and fragile. A low-cost, robust, and effective alternative to commercial shields is needed for air temperature mapping applications. Two types of shields, vented cylinder and inverted-U shaped, were constructed from PVC pipe. Temperature loggers protected in either of these shielding types provided more accurate air temperature measurements than unshielded loggers. Temperature measurements from loggers protected by inverted-U shields were within +/-2.5 degreesC of a reference instrument in 94.7% of 2 496 observations. About 86.2% of observations acquired by loggers within vented-cylinder shields were within +/-2.5 degreesC of the reference. Conversely, only 66.1% of the measurements from unshielded loggers were within +/-2.5 degreesC of the reference. Both shielding types were designed to be attached to a swiveling mounting system, thus avoiding damage by animals and eliminating the need for protective exclosure fencing. Materials costs for constructing either shield type, including the mounting system, were 8.00 or less. In contrast, commercially available radiation shields with mounting hardware cost 75.00 or more. Compared to the use of commercial shielding, construction and deployment of these PVC-pipe shields would reduce the cost, time, and labor required to collect accurate air temperature data at many points across an extensive landscape. 
    • Low-energy Grubbing for Control of Junipers

      Wiedemann, H. T.; Cross, B. T. (Society for Range Management, 1981-05-01)
      Low-energy grubbing was effective and economical in controlling sparse to moderate stands of junipers infesting rangeland. A small, 48.5-kW (65-hp), shift-on-the-go crawler tractor, as compared to tractors larger than 74.5kW (100-hp) normally used, was adapted for grubbing by attaching a U-shape blade to the front mounted C-frame for root cutting at depths of 15 to 30 cm. A 98% plant kill was achieved because uprooting of trees below the bud-zone prevented sprouting. The newly designed hydraulic attachment significantly improved tree uprooting. Grubbing rate was a curvilinear function of juniper density and varied approximately from 4.0 to 0.5 ha/hr (10 to 1.25 ac/hr) to remove 80 to 500 trees/ha (30 to 200 trees/acre). Cost varied from $6.00 to $50.00/ha ($2.40 to $20.00/acre).
    • Low-energy Grubbing with Special Blade to Control Algerita

      Cross, B. T.; Wiedemann, H. T. (Society for Range Management, 1983-09-01)
      Algerita (Berberis trifoliolata Moric) infestations on low stony hill range sites in the Edwards Plateau vegetational area of Texas are a problem following primary brush control. Infestations appear well suited to control by low-energy grubbing. A feasibility study indicated the method was economical but plant kill was erratic. Sprouting of lateral roots near the periphery of the grubbed hole accounted for 56% of the regrowth while 13% was attributed to crown tissue attached to taproots. No sprouts originated directly from taproots. Remaining regrowth resulted from problems with blade penetration in the soil. To prevent sprouting, severing the taproot below the crown and uprooting of all lateral roots under the entire plant canopy to a depth of 10 to 15 cm was necessary. Grubber blade modification included an increase in width to 180 cm and an addition of small fins welded on top of the blade to increase plant uprooting. Grubbing with the modified blade resulted in a plant kill of 93% +/- 3.5 (x +/- S.D.) when tested in an algerita infestation of 42 to 195 plants/ha ranging in height from 1.0 to 1.5 m. The grubber averaged 2.13 ha/hr in a 110 plants/ha infestation and cost of $16.43/ha. The ha/hr grubbing rate (Y) plotted against trees/ha densities (X) followed the prediction equation log Y = 1.93 - 0.83 log X with a significant (P<0.01) correlation coefficient of r = 0.91. Low-energy grubbing using the modified grubbing blade is an effective and economical method of controlling algerita.
    • Low-Level Aerial Photography as a Management and Research Tool for Range Inventory

      Heintz, T. W.; Lewis, J. K.; Waller, S. S. (Society for Range Management, 1979-07-01)
      An inexpensive technique is reviewed for using low-level aerial photography as a management and research tool for range. Modifications of a previously documented camera mount are reported that allow greater flexibility in the use of aerial photography for range evaluation. This technique involves the use of color infrared film with a 135-mm telephoto lens double filtered with orange and magenta filters.
    • Low-Moisture Blocks: A Tool to Promote Uniform Utilization By Cattle?

      Thrift, Tanya M.; Brewer, Tracy K.; Welling, G. Robert (Society for Range Management, 2007-04-01)
      Learn how to achieve uniform utilization across pastures that are partially burned.
    • LU Land Projects—Preserving the Land and the People

      Eichhorn, Larry C. (Society for Range Management, 1982-04-01)
    • Lupine Poisoning as a Possible Factor in Congenital Deformities in Cattle

      Wagnon, K. A. (Society for Range Management, 1960-03-01)
    • Lupine-induced Crooked Calf Disease and a Management method to Reduce Incidence

      Keeler, R. F.; James, L. F.; Shupe, J. L.; Van Kampen, K. R. (Society for Range Management, 1977-03-01)
      Crooked calf disease is produced when pregnant cows between the 40th and 70th days of gestation graze certain members of the genus Lupinus that contain the quinolizidine alkaloid anagyrine. Calves born to these cows may have twisted or bowed limbs (arthrogryposis), twisted or bowed spine (scoliosis or kyphosis), twisted neck (torticollis), cleft palate, or a combination of any of these. The concentration of the teratogen anagyrine in these lupines is very high early in growth, decreases to a low level during flowering, rises abruptly in mature seeds, and decreases to a very low level after seeds have dropped. Data collected from 6 ranches for 8- to 25-year periods showed no consistent correlation between incidence of the disease and the free-choice feeding of a variety of mineral supplements. Marked variation in incidence did occur, however, during these periods. The variation was related to the period of gestation at which the cows grazed the lupine and to the stage of growth of the lupine-in other words, the amount of anagyrine ingested. Management programs that prevent pregnant cows from eating highly teratogenic early growth or seed-stage lupine plants between gestation days 40 and 70 will reduce crooked calf disease incidence.
    • Lupine-Induced Crooked Calf Disease: The Last 20 Years

      Lee, Stephen T.; Panter, Kip E.; Gay, Clive C.; Pfister, James A.; Ralphs, Michael H.; Gardner, Dale R.; Stegelmeier, Bryan L.; Motteram, Ernie S.; Cook, Daniel; Welch, Kevin D.; et al. (Society for Range Management, 2008-12-01)