• Mourning Dove Nesting on Tobosa Grass-Mesquite Rangeland Sprayed with Herbicides and Burned

      Soutiere, E. C.; Bolen, E. G. (Society for Range Management, 1976-05-01)
      A 2-year study of the effects herbicide spraying, and particularly, prescribed burning might have on mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) nesting ecology in rangelands infested with mesquite revealed that the loss of trees as nesting sites was compensated by the occurrence of gound nesting. Newly burned areas fostered better utilization (i.e., higher nesting densities) than did older burns except under drought conditions. Ground nests did not suffer from excessive predation, and differences in the productivity of ground nests probably were related to nesting density rather than to the apparent suitability of the site. Ground nests were more successful than tree nests.
    • Moveable Shade Shelter, as a Range Management Device

      Lodge, R. W.; Campbell, J. B. (Society for Range Management, 1961-11-01)
    • Moving and Mixing Range Steers

      McIlvain, E. H.; Shoop, M. C. (Society for Range Management, 1971-07-01)
      Knowledge of the weight-change response caused by moving range steers to strange pastures and mixing them with strange cattle is needed to help develop and apply improved range rotation and other grazing management systems. A 3-year grazing study showed that yearling Hereford steers were not greatly disturbed by either change of pasture or associates. The steers adjusted rapidly to new conditions, and compensatory gain offset most of the slightly smaller weight gain that occurred when the steers were moved and mixed. Behavioral disturbances were small. A little fighting and fence-walking occurred when the steers were moved and mixed, but this lasted for only 1 or 2 days. The weight-change response from moving and mixing range steers does not appear to be an important factor in the development of range rotation grazing systems, or in making other range use decisions which involve moving and mixing.
    • Mowing rights-of-way affects carbohydrate reserves and tiller development

      Nofal, Hisham R.; Sosebee, Ronald E.; Wan, Changgui; Borrelli, John; Zartman, Richard; McKenney, Cynthia (Society for Range Management, 2004-09-01)
      Intensive mowing has contributed to the loss of some climax grasses in Texas highway rights-of-way. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different mowing heights and frequencies on total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC) concentration and tiller density in short and mid-grasses grown along highway rights-of-way. Shortgrasses were represented by blue grama [Bouteloua gracilis (H.B.K) Lag ex Steud.], and mid-grasses were represented by silver bluestem [Bothriochloa saccharoides (Sw.) Rydb], both of which are indigenous species. During 1999 and 2000, grasses were either non-mowed (control) or subjected to mowing heights of 5 and 10 cm, and 5 mowing frequencies (monthly, bi-monthly, tri-monthly, 1-time-only at the beginning or end of the growing season). Plants of both species mowed less frequently at either stubble height had higher TNC concentrations than plants subjected to more frequent mowing. Mowing produced fewer (P 0.05) tillers after 2 consecutive mowing seasons than after 1 mowing season in silver bluestem. Silver bluestem tiller growth was more susceptible to frequent mowing than blue grama. Mowing during periods of rapid inflorescence development reduced tiller density in both species after 2 mowing seasons. Mowing height and frequency guidelines are proposed to maintain roadside grasses in their most productive state through planning mowing practices around the target plant's natural growth habit and it's ability to respond to defoliation.
    • Mowing Wyoming big sagebrush (artemisia tridentata ssp.Wyomingensis) cover effects across northern and central Nevada

      Swanson, S.R.; Swanson, J.C.; Murphy, P.J.; McAdoo, J.K.; Schultz, B. (Society for Range Management, 2016)
      Many Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis) communities are invaded by exotic annuals, especially cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), promoting larger and more frequent wildfires. Mowing sagebrush can reduce fire risk. To identify community features favoring regeneration of native perennials over exotic annuals, we compared paired, adjacent unmowed and mowed areas treated between 2001 and 2010 at 76 sites across northern and central Nevada. We quantified soil surface and foliar cover in 12 cover groups, as well as slope, aspect, elevation, and time since mowing (0-10 years). We identified unmowed cover characteristics and site covariates that best predicted herbaceous cover in mowed areas and differences in herbaceous cover between adjacent mowed and unmowed areas. Mowed areas had significantly (P < 0.01) more absolute cover (%) of litter (14.6), perennial grasses (4.9), cheatgrass (2.0), and exotic forbs (1.1) and less sagebrush (-13.5), bare soil (-11.4), moss (-3.3), and rock (-0.8) than adjacent unmowed areas. Except for sagebrush, all cover group values were correlated between unmowed and mowed areas. The "perennial balance" (perennial minus annual herbaceous cover) was positive at 75% (57) of mowed areas and increased from unmowed to mowed areas at 51 sites. A positive perennial balance in mowed areas was more likely where paired unmowed areas lacked cheatgrass, had greater cover of perennial grass, and less of exotic forbs. Likewise, sites whose unmowed areas had > 30% sagebrush cover consisting of smaller plants had larger gains in perennial balance from unmowed to mowed areas. An increase in perennial balance from unmowed to mowed areas was more likely in central and northeastern Nevada and at sites mowed more recently. To encourage perennial grasses over annual herbaceous species in Wyoming big sagebrush communities, mowing is better suited to locales lacking exotic annuals and retaining ample cover of perennial grasses and sagebrush of smaller size. © 2016 The Society for Range Management. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Mowing Wyoming Big Sagebrush Communities With Degraded Herbaceous Understories: Has a Threshold Been Crossed?

      Davies, Kirk W.; Bates, Jonathan D.; Nafus, Aleta M. (Society for Range Management, 2012-09-01)
      Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis [Beetle A. Young] S.L. Welsh) plant communities with degraded native herbaceous understories occupy vast expanses of the western United States. Restoring the native herbaceous understory in these communities is needed to provide higher-quality wildlife habitat, decrease the risk of exotic plant invasion, and increase forage for livestock. Though mowing is commonly applied in sagebrush communities with the objective of increasing native herbaceous vegetation, vegetation response to this treatment in degraded Wyoming big sagebrush communities is largely unknown. We compared mowed and untreated control plots in five Wyoming big sagebrush plant communities with degraded herbaceous understories in eastern Oregon for 3 yr posttreatment. Native perennial herbaceous vegetation did not respond to mowing, but exotic annuals increased with mowing. Density of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), a problematic exotic annual grass, was 3.3-fold greater in the mowed than untreated control treatment in the third year posttreatment. Annual forb cover, largely consisting of exotic species, was 1.8-fold greater in the mowed treatment compared to the untreated control in the third year posttreatment. Large perennial grass cover was not influenced by mowing and remained below 2%. Mowing does not appear to promote native herbaceous vegetation in degraded Wyoming big sagebrush plant communities and may facilitate the conversion of shrublands to exotic annual grasslands. The results of this study suggest that mowing, as a stand-alone treatment, does not restore the herbaceous understory in degraded Wyoming big sagebrush plant communities. We recommend that mowing not be applied in Wyoming big sagebrush plant communities with degraded understories without additional treatments to limit exotic annuals and promote perennial herbaceous vegetation./Las comunidades de plantas de artemisia Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate ssp. Wyomingensis [Beetle & A. Young] S.L. Welsh) con degradadas coberturas herbáceas ocupan una gran extensión del oeste de los Estados Unidos. El restablecimiento de la cobertura herbácea nativa en estas comunidades es necesario para mejorar la calidad del hábitat para fauna silvestre, mitigar el riesgo de la invasión de plantas exóticas e incrementar la producción de forraje para ganado. A pesarde que comúnmente se hacen cortes en comunidades de artemisia con el objetivo de incrementar la vegetación nativa, se desconoce la respuesta de la vegetación al tratamiento en áreas con comunidades degradadas de Wyoming big sagebrush. Se compararon parcelas segadas y áreas control sin tratamientos en cinco comunidades de Wyoming big sagebrush con cobertura herbácea degradada en el este de Oregón durante tres años posteriores a la aplicación de los tratamientos. La vegetación perenne herbácea no respondió a la siega, pero las plantas exóticas anuales se incrementaron con esta práctica. La densidad de cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), una especie problemática exótica fue tres veces mayor en áreas segadas que en áreas control sintratamiento tres años después de la aplicación de los tratamientos. La cobertura herbácea anual en gran parte formada por especies exóticas fue 1.8 veces mayor en las zonas segadas que en las áreas control sin tratamiento tres años posteriores a la aplicación de tratamientos. La gran cobertura de pastos perennes no fue influenciada por la siega y permaneció debajo del 2%.La siega parece no promover la vegetación herbácea nativa en comunidades degradadas de Wyoming big sagebrush y podría facilitar el cambio de áreas de matorrales a pastizales anuales exóticos. Los resultados de este estudio sugieren que la siega, como un tratamiento independiente, no restablece la cobertura herbácea en comunidades de Wyoming big sagebrush. Nosotros recomendamos que la siega no se practique en comunidades de Wyoming big sagebrush con cobertura degradada sin tratamientos adicionales para limitar la presencia de plantas anuales exóticas y estimular la vegetación herbácea perenne.
    • Mowing: An important part of integrated weed management

      Sheley, Roger L.; Goodwin, Kim M.; Rinella, Matthew J. (Society for Range Management, 2003-02-01)
    • Mulching, Furrowing, and Fallowing of Forage Plantings on Arizona Pinyon-Juniper Ranges

      Lavin, F.; Johnsen, T. N.; Gomm, F. B. (Society for Range Management, 1981-05-01)
      Mulching with plastic film, cinders, or juniper slash; deep furrowing; and fallowing increased penetration and retention of soil moisture, delayed soil surface crusting, and lowered seeding-zone temperatures in tests at five different pinyon-juniper range locations. Responses of seven forage species to these practices varied. The combination of plastic film mulching, deep furrowing, cinder mulching, and fallowing uniformly had resulted in greater soil moisture, more seedlings, and better early growth than other combinations. Plants under juniper slash had a longer growing season and were protected from excessive grazing by rabbits, with no evidence of toxic effects from the juniper. Cinder mulch increased seedling emergence and establishement, but in one year appeared to be toxic to the planted species. Deep furrowing generally had no advantage over surface drilling. Fallowing benefited pubescent wheatgrass and fourwing saltbush at a cold-moist pinyon-juniper site. The number of seedlings emerging gave little indication of the plant stand several years later.
    • Mule deer and elk foraging preference for 4 sage-brush taxa

      Wambolt, C. L. (Society for Range Management, 1996-11-01)
      A 10 year study under natural winter conditions at 2 sites tested the hypothesis that mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) forage equally on 4 sagebrush (Artemisia L.) taxa. Each year approximately 2,500 available leaders on 244 plants on the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range were examined for browsing. Browsing levels increased with winter severity, reaching 91% of leaders browsed for mountain big sagebrush (A. tridentata ssp. vaseyana [Rydb.] Beetle), the preferred taxon (p< 0.05) that averaged 56.1% at the 2 sites. Wyoming big sagebrush (A.t. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle and Young) was narrowly preferred (38.6%) over basin big sagebrush (A.t. Nutt. ssp. tridentata) (30.3%). Black sagebrush (A. nova Nels.) was least preferred (17.0%). Differences in preference among taxa were smallest during the severest winters when more elk were present thereby increasing total sagebrush utilization. Mule deer diets averaged 52% sagebrush over the study. Many sagebrush plants were damaged and even killed by heavy browsing during the study. Promoting sagebrush productivity should be a management objective on similar winter game ranges.
    • Mule Deer Fecal Group Counts Related to Site Factors on Winter Range

      Anderson, A. E.; Medin, D. E.; Bowden, D. C. (Society for Range Management, 1972-01-01)
      Measurements of 32 site factors on 931, 100 ft2, circular plots systematically distributed among lower, middle and upper Cache la Poudre, Colorado winter range study areas of about 500 surface acres each, were related to cumulative mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) fecal groups counted on those plots (1963-65). Single and multiple linear regression and Chi-square analyses indicated that vegetative measurements, particularly antelope bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata) parameters, were the site factors most closely related to fecal group counts. These site factors accounted for about 10-13 percent in single linear regressions, and 8-20 percent in multiple linear regressions of the significant variation (R2) in fecal group counts.
    • Mule Deer Preference and Monoterpenoids (Essential Oils)

      Welch, B. L.; McArthur, E. D.; Davis, J. N. (Society for Range Management, 1983-07-01)
      Wild wintering mule deer browsed on a uniform shrub garden near Helper, Utah. On this garden, 21 accessions from 5 Artemisia taxa were selected to test the relationship between deer preference for these accessions and the amount of monoterpenoids present in the accessions. Deer preferences were determined by measuring removal of current year's growth. Samples of current year's growth (leaves and stems with terminal buds) were collected at the time preference measurements were taken to determine monoterpenoid content. Deer use ranged from zero to 83% of the current year's growth. Total monoterpenoid content among accessions varied from 0.75 to 3.62% of dry matter. Coefficients of determination, preference versus monoterpenoid levels (total and individual) ranged from 0 to 18%. The monoterpenoid content of various accessions of Artemisia taxa was not significantly related to deer preference.
    • Mule Deer Responses to Deer Guards

      Reed, D. F.; Pojar, T. M.; Woodard, T. N. (Society for Range Management, 1974-03-01)
      In this investigation the effectiveness of guards 12, 18, and 24 feet long in preventing mule deer from crossing vehicle openings in fences 8 feet high was evaluated. The guards were constructed of flat mill steel rails 1/2 × 4 × 120 inches, and were tested under both controlled and field conditions. Under controlled tests, 16 of 18 deer successfully crossed the guard. Fifteen deer and one elk crossed guards under field conditions. Deer did not attempt wide jumps over the guards, but rather walked, trotted, or bounded across them. Use of this guard type under the condition tested is not recommended.
    • Mule deer-induced mortality of mountain big sagebrush

      McArthur, E. D.; Blauer, A. C.; Sanderson, S. C. (Society for Range Management, 1988-03-01)
      A fence line contrast was provided by a deer fence that bisected a mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana) community. The sagebrush community was located on an exposed, west-facing slope that was generally swept free of snow during the severe winters of 1982-83 and 1983-84. On the freeway side of the fence, the site was essentially free of browsing animals, while above the fence, the shrubs were exposed to concentrations of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). Considerable big sagebrush mortality was evident after the 2 successive winters of heavy snowfall. Big sagebrush mortality and partial dieback of portions of the canopy were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the portion of the community exposed to browsing. Herbaceous species composition also differed between the protected and browsed areas with a higher portion of annual species found in the browsed community. A large number of big sagebrush seedlings germinated in 1984, but failed to establish by 1986. Excessive use of native plants by native large herbivores can have lasting effects on plant communities.
    • Multi-Species Grazing and Marketing

      Glimp, Hudson A. (Society for Range Management, 1988-12-01)
    • Multiple Defoliation Effects on Herbage Yield, Vigor, and Total Nonstructural Carbohydrates of Five Range Species

      Buwai, M.; Trlica, M. J. (Society for Range Management, 1977-05-01)
      Western wheatgrass (Agropyron smithii), blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), and fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens) were subjected to multiple defoliations at moderate and heavy intensities during a 2-year period. Most heavy defoliation treatments drastically reduced herbage yield, vigor, and total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC) of western wheatgrass. Multiple defoliations were detrimental to vigor and herbage yield of blue grama; however, defoliation treatments did not detrimentally affect root TNC levels. All defoliation treatments severely reduced the number of seedstalks, live crown cover, and TNC of fourwing saltbush, but seedstalk length and live crown diameter were less affected by the defoliation treatments. Both fringed sagewort (Artemisia frigida) and antelope bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata) subjected to two moderate defoliations during quiescence and rapid growth (or flowers developing) remained in fair to good vigor at the end of the growing season. However, both species were detrimentally affected if utilized during the later part of the growing season. Defoliation effects were generally more severe when plants were defoliated at a heavy intensity than when defoliated at a moderate intensity during the same phenological stages. Five- and six-pasture rest-rotation grazing systems were proposed to ensure that grazed plants would receive rest following critical late summer foliage utilization.
    • Multiple Iron Holder for Freeze Branding

      Ely, D. G.; Launchbaugh, J. L. (Society for Range Management, 1969-03-01)
      Three hundred 450-lb Hereford steers were numerically freeze-branded on the right hip with a multiple iron holder. Time required to apply three-number brands was reduced from 150 seconds when irons were individually applied to 40 seconds when the multiple iron holder was used. Seventy-seven percent of the animals had legible brands eight months after branding. An additional 10% of the brands were marginal in legibility and the remaining 13% could not be readily identified.
    • Multiple Use at Work

      Gonder, W. (Society for Range Management, 1964-05-01)
    • Multiple Use in the Snake River Birds of Prey Area

      Kochert, Michael N.; Pellant, Mike (Society for Range Management, 1986-10-01)
    • Multiple Use Land Management in the 90's, or, Why Do We Have to Deal With the Courts?

      Kourlis, Rebecca Love (Society for Range Management, 1992-08-01)