• Multiple use management of California's hardwood rangelands

      Standiford, R. B.; Howitt, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1993-03-01)
      The importance of evaluating multiple resource values on rangelands is demonstrated in this study of California's 3.0 million hectares of oak-covered (Quercus spp.) hardwood rangelands. Production functions are derived for oak tree growth on rangelands for stands with at least 50% of the total tree cover in blue oak (Quercus douglasii Hook. & Arn.) based on oak volume per acre and site index. Forage production is estimated based on oak cover, weather variables, growing period, and site factors from data reported in the literature. Hunting revenue and cost functions are derived from a survey of commercial hunting clubs, and are based on oak cover, hunter success variables, hunter demographics, advertising, livestock density, and club size. The interrelationship of these resource values is shown in output from an optimal control model that incorporates these production functions. Oak trees are gradually cleared for situations where cattle are the only economic product, whereas a residual tree canopy is maintained for cases where firewood and hunting enterprises are considered. In addition, cattle stocking is higher and net profitability is lower for the cattle only management scenario when compared with a multiple use management scenario. The development of these multiple use production functions allows the full range of resource management options to be considered.
    • Multiple use of public rangeland: Antelope and stocker cattle in Wyoming

      Bastian, C. T.; Jacobs, J. J.; Held, L. J.; Smith, M. A. (Society for Range Management, 1991-07-01)
      The government must manage public rangeland in the face of alternative multiple use interests, including wildlife and domestic livestock production. The objectives of this study were to estimate a production possibilities frontier for antelope (Antilocapra americana (Ord)) and stocker cattle on the Wyoming Red Desert and then evaluate the most economical combination for the specific production and price assumptions used in the analysis. Nine antelope-steer combinations were derived by using a linear programming model to maximize total number of animals subject to annual forage production on a representative 405-ha range site. The resulting 9 combinations included 72 head of antelope with no steers at one extreme and 35 head of stocker steers with no antelope at the other extreme, with various combinations of each in between. Because of the different forage preferences of antelope (primarily browse) and cattle (primarily grass), the marginal rates of substitution of cattle for antelope varied widely along the production possibilities frontier. Specifically, the marginal rate of substitution of cattle for antelope was very low moving from 72 antelope-0 steers, to 69 antelope-29 steers, in terms of sacrificing only a few antelope (3) in exchange for a comparatively large number of steers (29). Conversely, the marginal rate of substitution of cattle for antelope moving from 69 antelope-29 steers, to 0 antelope-35 steers was very high in terms of sacrificing a relatively large number of antelope (69) in exchange for only a few additional steers (6). This wide range of substitution rates suggests that economic benefits from antelope and cattle would have to be extremely different before "multiple use" is not preferred in the case study setting.
    • Multiple-Paddock Grazing Distributes Utilization Across Heterogeneous Mountain Landscapes: A case study of strategic grazing management

      Barnes, Matt; Howell, Jim (Society for Range Management, 2013-10-01)
      On the Ground • Grazing capacity increased substantially and rangeland vegetation measurements improved after the Howell Ranch applied strategically planned and managed grazing. Increased capacity was realized from more spatially uniform grazing distribution and harvest efficiency rather than improving conditions over time. • Dividing a ranch into paddocks and grazing them sequentially, especially at high stocking density, can even out distribution of grazing and thus increase grazing capacity. • More even utilization across more, smaller paddocks contributes to explaining and resolving the apparent discrepancy between successful ranch-scale applications of multiple-paddock grazing and small-scale studies that found no benefit to rotational grazing.
    • Multiple-Purpose Use of Rights-of-Way in British Columbia

      Guichon, B. G. E.; Bakewell, David R. (Society for Range Management, 1986-12-01)
    • Multiscale Detection of Sulfur Cinquefoil Using Aerial Photography

      Naylor, Bridgett J.; Endress, Bryan A.; Parks, Catherine G. (Society for Range Management, 2005-09-01)
      We evaluated the effectiveness of natural color aerial photography as a tool to improve detection, monitoring, and mapping of sulfur cinquefoil (Potentilla rectaL.) infestations. Sulfur cinquefoil is an exotic perennial plant invading interior Pacific Northwest rangelands. Because sulfur cinquefoil produces distinctive pale yellow flowers, we timed aerial photography for early July, when the plant was at peak bloom. Photography was collected at 3 spatial scales (1:3 000, 1:6 000, and 1:12 000). A grid with 250-m spacing was superimposed over photographs of the entire study area using geographic information systems. At eac hgrid intersection point (n=80), we visually analyzed the photographs within a 404.7-m2 (0.1 acre) circular plot, recorded sulfur cinquefoil presence, and estimated sulfur cinquefoil percent cover. Sample points on the grid were then located in the field using a global positioning system. Field data collected at each point included sulfur cinquefoil presence, percent cover, and stem density; and total vegetation composition and percent cover by life form. Results indicate that the accuracy of detecting sulfur cinquefoil increased from small to large scale. At the 1:3 000 scale, sulfur cinquefoil presence was correctly identified in 76.9% of the sites, whereas at the 1:6 000 and 1:12 000 scales, infestations were identified in 67.9% and 59.1% of the sites, respectively. Low-density infestations (<1% cover) were detected at all scales. Accuracy of percent cover estimates ranged from 33.8% to 38.0% across scales. Although tree canopy hindered detection, our results indicate that aerial photography can be used to detect sulfur cinquefoil infestations in open forests and rangelands in the Intermountain West.  
    • Multispecies Allometric Models Predict Grass Biomass in Semidesert Rangeland

      Nafus, Aleta M.; McClaran, Mitchel P.; Archer, Steven R.; Throop, Heather L. (Society for Range Management, 2009-01-01)
      Multispecies allometric models to predict grass biomass may increase field study efficiency by eliminating the need for species- specific data. We used field measurements during two growing seasons to develop single-species and multispecies regression models predicting the current year’s aboveground biomass for eight common cespitose grass species. Simple and stepwise regression analyses were based on natural log expressions of biomass, basal diameter, and height, and a dummy variable expression of grazing history. Basal diameter had the strongest relationship with biomass among single-species (adjusted R2 = 0.80 to 0.91) and multispecies (adjusted R2 = 0.85) models. Regression slopes (b) for diameter among single-species (b = 1.01 to 1.49) and the multispecies (b = 1.25) models suggests that biomass will double when diameter increases <75%. Height and grazing history added little predictive value when diameter was already in the model. When applied to actual populations, biomass estimates from multispecies models were within 3-29% of estimates from the single-species models. Although the multispecies biomass-size relationship was robust across the cespitose life-form, users should be cautious about applying our equations to different locations, plant sizes, and population size-structures. 
    • Multispecies Grazing by Cattle and Sheep

      Esmail, S. H. M. (Society for Range Management, 1991-02-01)
    • Multivariate Statistical Methods to Determine Changes in Botanical Composition Vegetation

      Stroup, W. W.; Stubbendieck, J. (Society for Range Management, 1983-03-01)
      Confusion exists over the proper statistical methodology to use in analyzing the effect of treatments on changes in botanical composition over time. A rationale for using multivariate statistics is presented. Basic considerations involved in the use and interpretation of multivariate statistics specifically appropriate to the botanical composition problem are given. An example of how such an analysis can be performed using a common statistical computing package (SAS) is demonstrated.
    • Musk Thistle (Carduus nutans): An Undesirable Range Plant

      Hull, A. C.; Evans, J. O. (Society for Range Management, 1973-09-01)
      Musk thistle, a spiny, unpalatable biennial plant native to Europe and Asia, is becoming widely established on western ranges. It is a vigorous grower and prolific seed producer and is spreading rapidly to uncultivated areas and wild lands used for ranges and watersheds. Though musk thistle spreads faster and is more vigorous where there is little plant competition, it is also spreading and growing well in good native and seeded ranges and in irrigated pastures and meadows. It is relatively easy to control with herbicides. It should be controlled before it spreads to larger acreages.
    • Must Conservation Be a Government Monopoly?

      Mock, H. B. (Society for Range Management, 1952-09-01)
    • Must History Repeat?

      Heady, Harold F.; Vaux, Henry J. (Society for Range Management, 1969-05-01)
    • My Last Goodbye to a Founder of SRM: Dr. Alan A. Beetle, 1913-2003

      Gartner, F. R. (Society for Range Management, 2003-06-01)
    • My Life as a Ranch Cowgirl

      Frasier, Shelby (Society for Range Management, 2005-08-01)
    • My Personal Experience in Ranching for Profit and Conservation

      Brewster, B. B. (Society for Range Management, 1953-07-01)
    • My Range Use Affects Salmon and Steelhead Production

      Gover, W. C. (Society for Range Management, 1967-07-01)
      The Gover Ranch carries out a program of streambank manipulation and shore protection that maintains suitable spawning grounds for king salmon and steelhead. Estimated values are very high.
    • Mycorrhizal Colonization Patterns Under Contrasting Grazing and Topographic Conditions in the Flooding Pampa (Argentina)

      Grigera, Gonzalo; Oesterheld, Martín (Society for Range Management, 2004-11-01)
      Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) can ameliorate the impact of disturbance on agroecosystem sustainability. The objective of this study was to describe mycorrhizal colonization patterns in contrasting grazing situations (exclosure and continuous grazing) and topographical positions (upland and lowland) in the flooding pampa (Argentina). We determined the mycorrhizal colonization of the community as a whole and of Dallis grass (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.), a highly palatable, dominant species. We characterized colonization by the proportion of root length occupied by fungi and their different structures. At the community level, there was higher total colonization in the grazed area than in the exclosure. In contrast, Dallis grass showed higher total colonization and higher proportion of vesicles and arbuscules in the exclosure than in the grazed area. For both levels, colonization was higher in the lowland than in the upland position. Differences were observed only in winter and spring, not in summer. Our results show that 1) continuous grazing is associated with an increase of mycorrhizal colonization at the community level and 2) community-level patterns of mycorrhizal colonization cannot be inferred from dominant species. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of AM abundance at the plant community level under contrasting long-term grazing conditions in a subhumid grassland.
    • Mycorrhizal Hyphal Length as a Function of Plant Community Richness and Composition in Restored Northern Tallgrass Prairies (USA)

      Bingham, Marcus A.; Biondini, Mario (Society for Range Management, 2009-01-01)
      We assessed the total length of external arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae as a function of plant species and functional form richness in restored northern tallgrass prairies. Total hyphal length increased with species and functional form richness. Hyphal length also increased when plant communities were dominated by species with high root density, high root to shoot ratios, and high nitrogen use efficiency. Hyphal length was positively correlated with the biomass of late successional C4 grasses (Andropogon gerardi Vitman, Panicum virgatum L., Schizachyrium scoparium [Michx.] Nash-Gould, and Sorghastrum nutans L.), which are obligately mycorrhizal and characterized by high root to shoot ratios, and high root surface area per unit of root biomass. We thus conclude that in order to recover extraradical arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphal length in restored northern tallgrass prairies, at least three factors need to be given priority: 1) achieving high levels of species and functional form richness; 2) making sure that late successional C4 grasses are present; and 3) making sure that the seed mixture includes species that are characterized by high root to shoot ratio, high root density, and high nitrogen-use efficiency. 
    • Mycorrhizal influences on big bluestem rhizome regrowth and clipping tolerance

      Hetrick, B. A. D.; Wilson, G. W. T.; Owensby, C. E. (Society for Range Management, 1990-07-01)
      Mycorrhizal symbiosis is critical to growth of many warm-season prairie grass seedlings, but its effect on regrowth of rhizomes has not been determined. As forage species, the effect of grazing on the symbiosis is also important. when the impact of mycorrhizae on regrowth of Andropogon gerardii Vit. rhizomes was assessed, A. gerardii rhizomes collected from the field and grown with mycorrhizal inoculum produced larger plants than rhizomes grown in the absence of the symbiont. The effect of the symbiosis on clipping (simulated grazing) tolerance was quantified by growing A. gerardii in steamed or nonsterile prairie soil, with or without mycorrhizal fungus inoculation. Plants were clipped and a portion of the plants harvested at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 weeks after planting. As an additional control, Benomyl fungicide was applied to plants to inhibit the symbiosis. Mycorrhizal clipped plants were larger than nonmycorrhizal clipped plants, but the difference diminished with successive clippings. Mycorrhizal root colonization also decreased in response to repeated clipping. Maximum shoot and root biomass of mycorrhizal plants was produced at 12 and 18 weeks, respectiveIy. Fungicide-treated plants did not grow appreciably after the fit clipping. Thus, mycorrhizae improved clipping tolerance, but with repeated intensive clipping, significant changes in root/shoot ratio occurred and eventually mycorrhizal root colonization and growth benefit were lost.
    • Mystery grass turns into business

      Eaheart, David (Society for Range Management, 1992-04-01)