• Nutritional Value of Crested Wheatgrass for Wintering Mule Deer

      Urness, P. J.; Austin, D. D.; Fierro, L. C. (Society for Range Management, 1983-03-01)
      The nutritional value of crested wheatgrass in the fall to spring diet of mule deer was determined from in vivo and in vitro digestibilities, a field grazing trial, and crude protein analyses. Its dietary significance was evaluated by comparing the known diet with and without the grass component. Findings indicated fall regrowth and spring growth of crested wheatgrass favorably affected the nutritional plane of mule deer on winter range dominated by big sagebrush having intermingled seedings of this exotic grass.
    • Nutritional value of fresh Gambel oak browse for Spanish goats

      Dick, B. L.; Urness, P. J. (Society for Range Management, 1991-07-01)
      Little information is available on the nutritional value of fresh browse for ruminants. This study examined the nutritive value of Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii Nutt.) for Spanish goats. Fresh Gambel oak browse was harvested at 2 phenological stages and mixed with chopped alfalfa hay to formulate 6 diets, varying in oak content. Diets included 95% juvenile oak/5% alfalfa (95J), 80% juvenile oak/20% alfalfa (80J), 65% juvenile oak/35% alfalfa (65J), 80% mature oak/20% alfalfa (80M), 40% mature oak/60% alfalfa (40M), and an alfalfa control (ALF). Diets were evaluated for goats using a series of digestion-balance trials, in a completely randomized design. Dry matter intake was highest (P < 0.01) for animals on diets with mature oak (80M-37.8, 40M-34.5 grams kg-1 day-1, and lowest on diets containing juvenile oak (95J-23.6, 80J-31.6, 65J-29.9 grams kg-1 day-1). Digestibility of dry matter and cell wall components was lower (P < 0.01) for mature oak diets, and higher for juvenile oak diets. Digestibility coefficients for dry matter were as follows: (80M-57.8%, 40M-58.8%, 95J-68.6%, 80J-65.3%, 65J-66.3%. Digestibility coefficients for cell wall were: 80M-33.1%, 40M-37.4%, 95J-53.7%, 80J-45.8%, 65J-47.3%. All diets provided nitrogen and energy in excess of maintenance requirements, as reflected by weight gains for all animals in every trial. Fecal and urinary nitrogen losses did not appear to be related to tannin content of the diets, since juvenile oak diets resulted in reduced nitrogen outputs, presumably due to reduced nitrogen intakes for these diets. We conclude that Gambel oak, even juvenile material in high dietary percentages (95%), provides adequate nutrients and should be considered a valuable forage for goats in oakbrush habitats.
    • Nutritional Value of Guajillo as a Component of Male White-Tailed Deer Diets

      Campbell, Tyler A.; Hewitt, David G. (Society for Range Management, 2005-01-01)
      Guajillo (Acacia berlandieri Benth.) is considered a medium- to high-quality forage for both wild and domestic ruminants. However, studies have shown that guajillo contains phenolic amines and alkaloids, and condensed tannins, which may cause toxicosis and reduced fertility, intake, and nutrient digestibility. To examine the nutritional value of guajillo to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann) more thoroughly, we present a comparison of mixed diets of 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% guajillo in male white-tailed deer. Four in vivo metabolism trials were completed with each diet. Dry matter intake and change in body mass did not differ among diets. Gross and digestible energy intakes did not differ among diets, whereas metabolizable energy intake decreased with increased dietary guajillo concentration. Nitrogen balance and digestibility decreased with increased dietary guajillo concentration. Urinary glucuronic acid excretion increased linearly with increased dietary guajillo concentration. Nitrogen requirements for body growth and antler development were met by diets containing < 60% guajillo, whereas energy requirements for maintenance and antler growth were met with diets containing < 20% guajillo. Therefore, concentrations of dietary guajillo < 20% will support the maintenance of white-tailed deer. The primary function of guajillo may be to facilitate maintenance of adult deer, which have fewer obligatory productive processes than young deer, during periods of drought.  
    • Nutritive Characterization of Certain Grass Hays in Northern New Mexico

      Wallace, J. D.; Lenington, R. E.; Harms, L. W. (Society for Range Management, 1974-09-01)
      Botanical and chemical composition along with nutrient digestibility were studied on five grass hays from north-central New Mexico. Although botanical composition varied widely among the hays, they were similar in most chemical constituents and in digestibility of these constituents. Crude protein was the most variable chemical constituent and was also the most variable component in digestibility among the hays. Digestible protein contents for the hays were closely related to their crude protein percentages. By comparing nutrient composition to nutrient requirements for cattle, an estimate of the feeding value of the hays was obtained. All hays contained sufficient energy and all but one sufficient protein for pregnant cows, but most hays were deficient in these nutrients for lactating cows or growing calves.
    • Nutritive Content of Sheep, Goat, and White-tailed Deer Diets on Excellent Condition Rangeland In Texas

      Bryant, F. C.; Kothmann, M. M.; Merrill, L. B. (Society for Range Management, 1980-11-01)
      A one-year study was initiated in August, 1975, to examine the nutritive content in diets of four kinds of sympatric ruminants on excellent condition rangeland of the Edwards Plateau in Texas. Sheep, Angora goat, and Spanish goat diets were collected from animals fitted with permanent esophageal cannulae. Nutritive content of white-tailed deer diets was estimated by hand-plucking representative forages as the deer were observed grazing them. Mean, annual levels of crude protein (CP) were similar among the four kinds of animals. All diets were lowest in CP during January and February, with livestock diets showing higher levels than deer. However, deer diets were higher in CP than sheep and goat diets during spring and summer. During January and February, the livestock diets warranted only minimum protein supplementation while deer diets were significantly below recommended levels. Digestible energy (DE) levels were higher for sheep diets than for diets of either goats or deer. Similarly, the goat diets were higher in DE than deer diets. The DE levels were generally adequate for sheep but critically low for Angora goats during late gestation. Deer diets were very low in DE during winter and again in early summer, coinciding with the period of peak lactation. Energy would appear to be more limiting for animal production than protein under the conditions of this research.
    • Nutritive Quality of Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) and Eastern Gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides) Exposed to Tropospheric Ozone

      Lewis, John S.; Ditchkoff, Stephen S.; Lin, Jihn C.; Muntifering, Russell B.; Chappelka, Arthur H. (Society for Range Management, 2006-05-01)
      Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a phytotoxic air pollutant widespread in industrialized nations of the world. Ozone is produced by the photo-oxidation of hydrocarbons released into the atmosphere by combustion of fossil fuels. Studies demonstrate O3 can be transported from metropolitan areas to rural areas important to agricultural and forestry practices. Reports regarding O3 effects have focused on vegetation important to food production or agronomic crops of economic importance. However, relatively little is known about O3 effects on native plant species. The effects of tropospheric O3 on two warm-season grasses, eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides L.) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman), were examined during June-September of 2003. Plants were fumigated with three levels of O3 in a randomized-block experiment with three replicates of each treatment. Grasses were grown in open-top chambers with introduced carbon-filtered (CF) air, characteristic of clean air quality; non-filtered (NF) air, representative of quality in Auburn, AL; and air with double (2X) the ambient concentration of O3. Because forage quality can be as important as quantity, we determined various effects on nutritive quality characteristics in addition to biomass yield. Big bluestem exhibited little response to O3 exposure. For eastern gamagrass, we generally found decreased nutritive quality with increasing O3 exposure as evidenced by increased concentrations of cell wall constituents and decreased concentrations of N. Regrowth of both species exhibited little treatment effect which emphasizes the importance of timing and duration of O3 exposures in relation to physiological stage of plant development. Decreased nutritive quality parameters observed for eastern gamagrass may have implications to diet selection and nutrient intake by ruminant herbivores. In addition, range managers can use species-specific information regarding O3 sensitivity to make decisions about mechanical harvesting and grazing regimes of these forages growing in areas exposed to elevated O3 concentrations.  
    • Nutritive Quality of Ceanothus Shrubs in California Mixed Conifer Forest

      Kie, J. G. (Society for Range Management, 1986-11-01)
      Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in the Sierra Nevada rely heavily on mountain whitethorn (Ceanothus cordulatus, Kell.) and deerbursh (C. integerrimus, H&A) as summer forage. In this study, mountain whitethorn leaves, deerbrush leaves, and deerbush twigs were collected from shrubs growing in full sun every 2 weeks during summer, and from shrubs growing under a range of overstory crown closures during late summer-early fall. Samples were analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, crude protein, in vitro digestible dry matter (IVDDM), gross energy, digestible energy, and sequential fibers. Summer samples of all 3 forages had adequate concentrations of calcium, apparently adequate concentrations of crude protein, and inadequate concentrations of digestible energy and phosphorus for growth and development in deer. IVDDM values were lower than expected based on fiber content alone, suggesting high concentrations of digestion-inhibiting compounds. In general, forage quality declined as summer progressed. Crown closure and shrub age had only minor effects on forage quality, but significant annual differences were found in several variables in both species. Under conditions common to the southern Sierra Nevada, annual differences in precipitation may have been more important than available light in determining forage quality. Forage deficiencies in late summer may have a substantial adverse affect on newly weaned fawns. Marginal forage quality with respect to certain nutrients suggests the need to further explore deer nutritional ecology on summer and other seasonal ranges in the Sierra Nevada.
    • Nutritive Quality of Highbush Blackberry (Rubus argutus) Exposed to Tropospheric Ozone

      Ditchkoff, Stephen S.; Lewis, John S.; Lin, John C.; Muntifering, Russell B.; Chappelka, Arthur H. (Society for Range Management, 2009-07-01)
      Numerous studies have examined the impacts of ground level O3 on plants that are important for human consumption, but native species that are important for wildlife have received less scrutiny. During May-August 2004 we examined the effects of O3 on biomass production and nutritive quality of highbush blackberry (Rubus argutus Link), an important forage for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman) and other herbivorous mammals. Plants were fumigated in open-top chambers with three levels of O3 in a randomized-block experiment with three replicates of each treatment. Our three experimental treatments were carbon-filtered air, characteristic of clean air quality; nonfiltered air, representative of air quality in Auburn, AL; and air with double (23) the ambient concentration of O3. Although biomass production was not influenced by O3 exposure, nutritive quality of plants was associated negatively with O3 concentration. Specifically, neutral detergent fiber was greater and relative feed value was less in plants exposed to elevated levels of O3. Similarly, in vitro dry matter digestibility tended to be less in plants exposed to elevated O3. Nutritive quality of regrowth vegetation followed a similar pattern, where neutral detergent fiber was greater and relative feed value was less in plants exposed to elevated levels of O3. These data suggest that elevated levels of ground level O3 could have implications for diet selection of herbivorous mammals. 
    • Nutritive Quality of Nitrogen Fertilized and Unfertilized Blue Grama

      Pieper, R. D.; Kelsey, R. J.; Nelson, A. B. (Society for Range Management, 1974-11-01)
      Fertilization with 40 lb of nitrogen per acre generally increased crude protein content of blue grama plants during the growing season but not during the dormant season. However, because of increased dry matter yield under fertilization, total protein on the fertilized area exceeded that on the unfertilized area by 37 lb/acre during the dormant season. Fertilization decreased content of ash, silica and acid detergent fiber and had little effect on ether extract, cell wall constituents, acid detergent lignin, carotene content or in vitro dry matter digestibility or content of individual mineral elements of blue grama. Results indicated very little improvement in nutritive quality of blue grama during early spring stress period when cows are lactating and forage quality and quantity are low.
    • Nutritive value and aversion of honey mesquite leaves to sheep

      Baptista, R.; Launchbaugh, K. L. (Society for Range Management, 2001-01-01)
      Honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) is an invasive native plant that is abundant in Mexico and the Southwestern United States. We initiated 2 studies to determine if: 1) mesquite could provide valuable forage for domestic herbivores; and 2) if mesquite causes conditioned flavor aversions in ruminants. An in vivo digestion trial was completed with 15 lambs assigned to diets of 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20% dried mesquite leaves mixed with alfalfa hay to measure effects of mesquite on intake and digestion. Proportions of mesquite leaves >5% of the diet negatively affected dry matter (DM) intake, nitrogen (N) balance, energy balance and weight gain. Mesquite intake was highest at the 5% level averaging 1.81 g kg-1 body weight (BW), mesquite intake of the other mesquite-containing diets averaged 0.78 g kg-1 BW. Apparent digestibility was not affected by the level of mesquite in the diet. An in situ digestion trial did however, reveal that pure alfalfa was more digestible than mesquite leaves. A conditioned flavor aversion (CFA) trial tested the effect of post-ingestive feedback from mesquite on the intake of a novel food (rye). Lambs were offered rye and then ground mesquite was infused into their rumens by esophageal tube. Twenty one lambs were assigned to 3 dosing treatments: 0 (control), 3.0 (low), or 4.5 (high) g of mesquite per kg BW. Two days after dosing, lambs that received mesquite infusions ate less rye than controls indicating the formation of a CFA. The aversion to rye persisted for at least 2 days. The high dose of mesquite also decreased intake of the alfalfa basal ration for at least 3 days and resulted in persistent diarrhea in lambs. Chemical analysis of mesquite leaves revealed similar nutritive quality (crude protein, gross energy, and fiber) as mature alfalfa. However, to exploit the forage value of mesquite, the allelochemicals that cause flavor aversions and other negative digestive consequences need to be identified and overcome.
    • Nutritive Value and Intake of Kleberg Bluestem by Beef Cattle

      Pacheco, M. E.; Brown, R. D.; Bingham, R. L. (Society for Range Management, 1983-03-01)
      Four cuttings of Kleberg bluestem (Dicanthium annulatum) were fed to 15 Santa Gertrudis steers to develop prediction equations for intake based on nutrient analyses of the forage with 4 replications. The 4 forages were found to differ in nutrient content (P<.05) and intake (P<.005). DE and DMD of Kleberg bluestem can be accurately predicted by laboratory means; however, prediction of intake of this forage with present analysis is impractical.
    • Nutritive Value of Cheatgrass and Crested Wheatgrass on Spring Ranges of Utah

      Cook, C. W.; Harris, L. E. (Society for Range Management, 1952-09-01)
    • Nutritive Value of Clipped and Grazed Forage Samples

      Jefferies, N. W.; Rice, R. W. (Society for Range Management, 1969-05-01)
      Esophageal-fistulated yearling steers were grazed on shortgrass range units under a rotation and a seasonlong system. The digestibility and protein values of clipped grasses and sedges were compared to fistula samples from the two units. In a dry year clipped forages contained protein levels comparable to those found in fistula samples. In a year with abundant early moisture, annual forbs were produced in abundance. These forbs were grazed readily and brought about higher protein levels and dry matter digestibilities in fistula samples than in clipped samples, especially during the early part of the grazing season.
    • Nutritive Value of Desmanthus Associated With Kleingrass During the Establishment Year

      Gonzalez-V, E. A.; Hussey, M. A.; Ortega-S, J. A. (Society for Range Management, 2005-05-01)
      Seasonal variation in production and quality of warm-season grasses is a limitation for livestock productivity. The use of high quality forage legumes to aid in overcoming this problem can be a management alternative. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutrient content of kleingrass (Panicum coloratum L.)-bundleflower (Desmanthus sp.) mixtures during the establishment year. Plots were drilled at a 0.15 m row-spacing with kleingrass sown either alone or in association with Illinois bundleflower (Desmanthus illinoensis [Michx.] MacM.) or desmanthus (Desmanthus pubescens [L.] Willd), which was previously identified as Desmanthus virgatus. Spacings of 0.30, 0.60, and 0.90 m between rows of bundleflower were used. Plots were planted in April and nutritive value was determined on samples harvested at 60, 90, and 120 days after planting. Age reduced kleingrass crude protein (CP) and increased fiber concentration. The CP concentration of desmanthus leaves was greater than that of Illinois bundleflower; however, the CP on a whole-plant basis was greater in Illinois bundleflower. Associations had greater CP yield than did the kleingrass monoculture. The tannin content was higher in desmanthus than in Illinois bundleflower. In both legumes the leaves had the greatest tannin concentrations, with a mean of 2.1% and 1.69% in desmanthus and Illinois bundleflower, respectively. With the exception of calcium (Ca), mineral content declined with increased age in both legumes and the grass. Levels of potassium, sodium, copper, and manganese were greater in kleingrass than in the legumes, while the legumes had greater concentrations of Ca and magnesium (Mg). Phosphorus and zinc concentrations were similar for kleingrass and legumes. The legumes did not affect the nutrient content of kleingrass when established in association, and the high CP of both legumes and their high levels of Ca and Mg suggest that animals grazing kleingrass-desmanthus associations may benefit nutritionally.  
    • Nutritive Value of Forage and Diets of Sheep and Cattle from Oregon Subclover-Grass Mixtures

      Bedell, T. E. (Society for Range Management, 1971-03-01)
      During spring-summer over a three-year period, selectivity by both sheep and cattle grazing on subclover-perennial ryegrass and subclover-tall fescue resulted in higher nutritive value of diets than of ungrazed forage. Sheep diets consistently contained more crude protein and had higher in vitro dry matter digestibility than did cattle diets. Both sheep and cattle diets were more digestible under light than under heavy grazing but diet protein levels were inconsistent. In one year stocking rate had no effect on level of protein in the diet and the next year high protein levels were associated with heavy use. Summer vegetative regrowth of tall fescue caused by heavy cattle grazing resulted in levels of dietary protein for cattle similar to those for sheep. The level of dietary protein for sheep exceeded recommended requirements. In the summer, protein levels of cattle diets were near or below requirements except when cattle heavily grazed subclover-tall fescue pastures.
    • Nutritive Value of Forages on Sandy Soils As Affected by Tebuthiuron

      Biondini, M.; Pettit, R. D.; Jones, V. (Society for Range Management, 1986-09-01)
      Tebuthiuron, [N-(5-1,1-dimethyethyl-l1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-N,N′-dimethylurea], a root-absorbed pelleted herbicide, was broadcast onto sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii) rangeland in west Texas, May 1978. Green herbage of the dominant grasses was assayed for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), 24-hr in vitro dry matter digestibility (24 hr-IVDMD), and cell wall content (CWC) on 3 dates in both 1978 and 1979. In 1978, tebuthiuron at 0.4 kg/ha or above improved quality of the major forages. Crude protein was up to 28% higher in treated plants the year of application. The P content ranged from 0.08 to 0.12% over all sampling dates. Digestibility increased slightly while no difference was found in CWC. Tebuthiuron had no effect on forage quality the year after application. The most consistent change in parameters measured was water content of little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium). Untreated plants averaged 38% water throughout the growing season, while treated plants contained 50% water. Major benefits of killing oak are increased forage availability and not yet resolved palatability factors.
    • Nutritive Value of Hay from Nitrogen-Fertilized Blue Grama Rangeland

      Kelsey, R. J.; Nelson, A. B.; Smith, G. S.; Pieper, R. D. (Society for Range Management, 1973-07-01)
      Wether lambs were used in a feeding study (voluntary consumption, nutrient digestibility, metabolizable energy, and nitrogen retention) to evaluate the nutritive value of hays harvested from unfertilized and nitrogen-fertilized blue grama rangeland. Fertilization increased consumption by 29%; increased digestibility of dry matter, protein, and energy by about 5%; and increased the retention of nitrogen by about 7%, although the percentage retention of absorbed nitrogen (biological value) was apparently depressed.
    • Nutritive Value of Some Browse Plants in Winter

      Smith, A. D. (Society for Range Management, 1957-07-01)
    • Nutritive Value of Tree Leaves in the Kansas Flint Hills

      Forwood, J. R.; Owensby, C. E. (Society for Range Management, 1985-01-01)
      Leaves from bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.), a bur oak hybrid (bur $\text{oak}_{{\rm H}}$), red elm (Ulmus rubra Muhl.), Osage orange (Maclura ponifera (Raf.) Schneid.), and cottonwood (Populus deltoides Marsh.) were analyzed for crude protein, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), and tannic acid equivalents (TAE) from mid September through late October during 1979 and 1980. Samples were taken biweekly from the trees and from the ground after leaf fall. Cottonwood was significantly lower over the season in crude protein than all other species except bur oak. Crude protein content declined with advancing season in all species although not significantly. Leaves on the trees were considerably higher in crude protein than True Prairie understory vegetation or leaves on the ground although leaves on the ground had equal or greater crude protein levels than True Prairie understory vegetation. Sample date and species significantly affected digestiblity. Digestiblity generally increased during middle sample periods and returned to initial levels in late October. Averages over all dates showed digestibility of Osage orange > cottonwood > red elm > bur oak(H) > bur oak. Leaves on the tree were generally more highly digestible than those on the ground. Red elm, Osage orange and cottonwood leaves on the tree were more digestible than True Prairie understory vegetation. Osage orange and cottonwood leaves on the ground were more digestible than True Prairie understory vegetation. Tannic acid equivalents of bur oak(H) > oak > red elm and cottonwood > Osage orange. Tannic acid equivalents generally increased during the middle sample periods and returned to initial levels in late October. There were no TAE differences between leaves on the trees and those on the ground. Overall quality ranking based on the constituents measured showed Osage orange and red elm to be the highest quality leaves of the group, bur oak poorest, and cottonwood and bur oak(H) intermediate. On the basis of these limited tests, Osage orange and red elm would provide the best roughage source in times of severe drought or as a roughage substitute in cattle finishing rations.
    • Nutritive Values of Browse on Montana Winter Ranges

      Jameson, D. A. (Society for Range Management, 1952-09-01)