• Observations on Rangelands and the Political Process: Public Lands and Public Policy

      Lundburg, Frank L. (Society for Range Management, 1980-10-01)
    • Observations on Spotted and Diffuse Knapweed Invasion into Ungrazed Bunchgrass Communities in Western Montana

      Lacey, John; Husby, Peter; Handl, Gene (Society for Range Management, 1990-02-01)
    • Observations on spread and fragmentation of blue grama clones in disturbed rangeland

      Samuel, M. J.; Hart, R. H. (Society for Range Management, 1995-11-01)
      Establishment of blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis [H.B.K.] Lag ex. Steud.) depends on adequate precipitation at critical times and on reduced competition from associated vegetation. These conditions rarely occur on Central Plains rangelands. Therefore, rapid vegetative spread of new seedlings is desirable for colonizing disturbed rangeland. Blue grama genotypes selected for rapid spread would also be desirable for rangeland seeding. For 6 years, we followed the rate of spread of 19 blue grama clones originating from seedlings which emerged in 1980 and grew under natural competition. We observed a 4.5-fold difference in basal area and a 16.3-fold difference in above-ground biomass of these clones, perhaps because of genetic differences among clones and varying levels of competition. Clones must be tested under uniform competition with clonal replication to obtain reliable estimates of their capacity to spread.
    • Observations on the Mating System of Basin Wildrye

      Chapman, S. R. (Society for Range Management, 1969-11-01)
      Basin wildrye appears to be an obligate cross pollinator. Under forced self-pollination seed set is less than 2%.
    • Observations on vegetation responses to improved grazing systems in Somalia

      Thurow, T. L.; Hussein, A. J. (Society for Range Management, 1989-01-01)
      Vegetation community response is an important factor determining the potential for improvement of rangeland dormant season forage availability through implementation of grazing systems. Heavy continuous grazing (HCG) (5 ha AU-1) of communal rangelands in coastal southern Somalia has resulted in a herbaceous vegetation community dominated by short-lived annual forbs of low palatability that provide little forage during the dormant season. Changes in the plant community resulting from implementation of 2 grazing systems were compared: complete livestock deferral (LEX) and moderately stocked short-duration grazing (MSDG) (10-1; 3:30 day, stocked at 10 ha AU-1). After 2 years, the LEX pasture was dominated by palatable forbs (primarily Commelina forskalaei and Ipomoea garckeana), which formed a vine mat that overtopped other herbaceous species. These vines died and decomposed soon after the rainy season ended and thus were not a useful source of dry season forage. The periodic grazing in the MSDG opened the vine mat and enabled grasses to establish, thus grass cover became significantly greater on the MSDG pasture compared to either the LEX or HCG pastures and provided forage for livestock in the dry season.
    • Observations on white-tailed deer and habitat response to livestock grazing in south Texas

      Cohen, W. E.; Drawe, D. L.; Bryant, F. C.; Bradley, L. C. (Society for Range Management, 1989-09-01)
      Since short duration grazing (SDG) was introduced to Texas, concern for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) has magnified because they are a species of major economic importance to ranchers. The objective of this study was to observe the effects of SDG and continuous yearlong grazing (CG) on home ranges and movement indices of female deer, and on forage availability. The study was conducted on the Rob and Bessie Welder Wildlife Refuge, near Sinton, Texas. The study area included a 10-pasture SDG cell and a CG pasture, each stocked at 2.8 ha/auy. Cattle grazed each SDG paddock 2 to 8 days; paddocks were rested 32 to 47 days. A total of 3,961 radio-fixes from 11 does was collected over an 11-month study period in 1983. Monthly and annual home ranges of does were similar (P > 0.05) between SDG (207 ha) and CG (229 ha). However, white-tailed deer traveled 35% more (P < 0.05) between fixes in SDG (449 m) than in CG (332 m) from May to August, a time of greatest physiological and nutritional stress for female deer in south Texas. Also, does avoided (P < 0.05) cattle during 2 cycles of the SDG rotation. The primary trend observed was for the deer under SDG to avoid cattle concentrations by alternating between preferred habitats rather than a predictable paddock-to-paddock movement. In general, there were few differences in total grass and forb cover between SDG and CG. However, several forage species important to deer were less frequent (P < 0.05) under SDG than CG.
    • Observations: Potential long-term environmental impact of tebuthiuron and its metabolites in Utah juniper trees

      Johnsen, T. N. (Society for Range Management, 1992-03-01)
      The concentrations, distribution, and longevity of tebuthiuron [N-[5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl]-N,N'-dimethylurea] and its metabolites in Utah junipers [Juniperus osteosperma (Torr.) Little] killed by tebuthiuron are not known, causing concern about potential residues and their release into the environment from decaying plants or burning wood. Utah juniper trees killed by tebuthiuron at 3 north-central Arizona locations were assayed for tebuthiuron and its metabolites by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Foliage, twigs, stems, and litter from recently killed trees averaged 13.3 +/- 0.4, 0.4 +/- 0.1, 0.4 +/- 0.1, and 4.0 +/- 6.6 mg/kg of tebuthiuron plus its metabolites, respectively. Dead stems averaged 0.5 +/- 0.4 mg/kg in sapwood, 0.1 +/- 0.1 mg/kg in heartwood, and 0.4 +/- 0.7 mg/kg in bark, 3 to 9 years after application. Root bark averaged 1.1 +/- 1.9 mg/kg, and root wood averaged 0.5 +/- 1.4 mg/kg. Although long lived, these small tebuthiuron residues should have little potential environmental harm if treated Utah juniper wood is used as firewood or fence posts.
    • Occupational Patterns of Wildlife on a Major East Kootenay Winter-Spring Range

      Hudson, R. J.; Hebert, D. M.; Brink, V. C. (Society for Range Management, 1976-01-01)
      Empirical descriptions of spatial overlap of coexisting herbivores are difficult to interpret in terms of functional interaction. In an attempt to obviate some of these difficulties, partial correlation analysis was applied to the study of habitat use behavior of whitetail deer, mule deer, elk, and bighorn sheep on an important wildlife winter-spring range in southeastern British Columbia. A probe was made of the basic determinants of habitat selection in order to isolate the response of represented species to the physical and vegetational environment and to summer grazing by cattle. Distinct patterns of habitat utilization were exhibited by each species. Whitetail and mule deer habitat preferences were distinguished from one another by elevation, ruggedness of terrain, and openness of forest and shrub vegetation. Elk were most widely distributed and showed the least apparent response to measured environmental parameters, whereas bighorn sheep were most localized and specific in their response to environment. Distributions of all species were only weakly influenced by the activities of grazing cattle at the level and pattern found on the study area. Partial correlation techniques appeared to offer some potential for analyzing resource division in mixed grazing systems. However, a number of technical and conceptual difficulties may limit their value in systems where reciprocal feedbacks, thresholds, and optima exist in the response of animals to environment.
    • Occupied and unoccupied sage grouse habitat in Strawberry Valley, Utah

      Bunnell, Kevin D.; Flinders, Jerran T.; Mitchell, Dean L.; Warder, John H. (Society for Range Management, 2004-09-01)
      This study evaluated multiple aspects of spring/summer sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) habitat in Strawberry Valley, Utah by measuring vegetation associated with nest, brood and adult use sites. In addition, 3 types of random habitats were measured including available habitat within core use areas, random sagebrush (Artemisia spp.)/grass habitat outside core use areas, and random sagebrush/grass habitat sites that had been converted to an understory of smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss) by past range management practices. Logistic regression was used to identify those habitat variables that discriminated between site types. Variables that discriminated adult habitat from brood rearing habitat included: 1) sagebrush height (P ≤ 0.01) and 2) forb diversity (P = 0.12) with sagebrush height being greater at adult sites and forb diversity greater at brood sites Variables that significantly discriminated occupied adult habitat from random habitat outside of core use areas included: 1) percent grass cover (P ≤ 0.01) and 2) area of sagebrush canopy (P = 0.03) with both variables having grater values in adult habitat. Variables that significantly discriminated occupied adult habitat from random habitat with a smooth brome understory included: 1) percent forb cover (P ≤ 0.01), 2) shrub canopy cover (P = 0.02), and 3) area of sagebrush canopy (P = 0.08) with all variables being greater in adult habitat. In addition, this study identified sagebrush age, sagebrush canopy area, and forb diversity as potentially important aspects of sage grouse habitat that have not been previously reported.
    • Occurrence and Toxicology of Selenium in Halogeton and Associated Species

      Williams, M. C.; Binns, W.; James, L. F. (Society for Range Management, 1962-01-01)
    • Occurrence of C3 and C4 Photosynthetic Pathways in North American Grasses

      Waller, S. S.; Lewis, J. K. (Society for Range Management, 1979-01-01)
      A literature survey was made for the occurrence of C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways in the United States Gramineae. Distinctive characteristics of the two photosynthetic pathways are discussed. Leaf anatomy, CO2 compensation point, net enhancement of photosynthesis in oxygen-deficient atmosphere, 13 C discrimination, and initial product labeling were criteria selected to evaluate data for 6 subfamilies including 25 tribes, 138 genera, and 632 species. The Arundinoideae, Bambusoideae, Oryzoideae, and Pooideae (Festucoideae) are composed of species with C3 pathways. All tribes within the Eragrostoideae have C4 pathways with the exception of Unioleae. Within the Panicoideae, the Andropogoneae and all of the Paniceae, excepting the genera Sacciolepus, Isachne, Oplismenus, Amphicarpum, and Panicum, have C4 pathways. The subgenus Dichanthelium within Panicum is C3 while the Eupanicum subgenus contains plants with both C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways.
    • Occurrence of Four Major Perennial Grasses in Relation to Edaphic Factors in a Pristine Community

      Kleiner, E. F.; Harper, K. T. (Society for Range Management, 1977-07-01)
      The ecology and phytosociology of a virgin grassland community (Virginia Park, Canyonlands National Park, Utah) have been investigated. Based on the use of C × F index, Hilaria jamesii and Stipa comata are the most abundant of the four major perennial grasses. Oryzopsis hymenoides and Sporobolus cryptandrus are less abundant in decreasing order. The sites dominated by Hilaria are characterized by soils with finer texture, slightly warmer average temperature and higher surface K+ and organic matter compared to sites dominated by Stipa comata. In addition, frequency of both vascular and cryptogamic species is greater on sites dominated by Hilaria.
    • Ocular Point Frame

      Stanton, Frank W. (Society for Range Management, 1960-05-01)
    • Ocular Point Quadrat Method

      Ibrahim, Karmal M. (Society for Range Management, 1971-07-01)
      The Ocular point quadrat used in recording data by sighting through cross-haired holes instead of using pins was developed. The method reduces field work, and eliminate difficulties regarding using the pins as compared to the standard point quadrat frame.
    • Ode to Green and Ampt's f

      Wood, Karl; Eldridge, David (Society for Range Management, 1993-10-01)
    • Ode to Manning's n

      Brunner, James R. (Society for Range Management, 1991-08-01)
    • Of a Good Communicator

      Heady, Harold F. (Society for Range Management, 1984-06-01)
    • Of grouse and golden eggs: Can ecosystems be managed within a species-based regulatory framework?

      Boyd, C. S.; Johnson, D. D.; Kerby, J. D.; Svejcar, T. J.; Davies, K. W. (Society for Range Management, 2014-07)
      Declining greater sage-grouse populations are causing concern for the future of this species across the western United States. Major ecosystem issues, including exotic annual grass invasion and conifer encroachment, threaten vast acreages of sagebrush rangeland and are primary threats to sage-grouse. We discuss types of problems facing sage-grouse habitat and argue that complex ecosystem problems may be difficult to address under the Endangered Species Act as currently applied. Some problems, such as anthropogenic development, can be effectively regulated to produce a desired outcome. Other problems that are complex and involve disruption of ecosystem processes cannot be effectively regulated and require ongoing commitment to adaptive management. We believe that historical inertia of the regulatory paradigm is sufficient to skew management toward regulatory mechanisms, even though complex ecosystem problems impact large portions of the sage-grouse range. To overcome this situation, we suggest that the regulatory approach embodied in the Endangered Species Act be expanded to include promoting management trajectories needed to address complex ecosystem problems. This process should begin with state-and-transition models as the basis for a conceptual framework that outlines potential plant communities, their value as sage-grouse habitat, and their ecological status. Desired management trajectories are defined by maintenance of an ecologically resilient state that is of value as sage-grouse habitat, or movement from a less desired to a more desired state. Addressing complex ecosystem problems will involve shifting conservation roles. Under the regulatory approach, programmatic scales define regulatory policies, and local scales focus on implementing those policies. With complex ecosystem problems, programmatic scales empower local conservationists to make decisions necessary to adaptively manage problems. Putting ecosystem management on par with traditional regulatory actions honors obligations to provide regulatory protections while maintaining the capacity of the ecosystem to produce habitat and greatly expands the diversity of stakeholders willing to participate in sage-grouse conservation. © 2014 The Society for Range Management.
    • Oh! How I Miss Those Great North Dakota Nights!

      Frieling, Hannah (Society for Range Management, 2007-08-01)