• Optimum Allocation in Multivariate Double Sampling for Biomass Estimation

      Ahmed, J.; Bonham, C. D. (Society for Range Management, 1982-11-01)
    • Optimum Cattle Management on Utah Ranches

      Workman, John P.; Evans, Scott G. (Society for Range Management, 1996-02-01)
    • Optimum Size and Shape of Quadrat for Sampling Herbage Weight in Grasslands of Northern Greece

      Papanastasis, V. P. (Society for Range Management, 1977-11-01)
      Five quadrat sizes, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.250, 0.500, and 1 square meter and three shapes, square, rectangular, and circular were tested in an ungrazed foothill bunchgrass range of northern Greece to determine the optimum quadrat for sampling herbage yield. Data on total herbage weight and clipping time were collected, which showed a high degree of variability. Shapes did not produce significantly different results. Larger quadrats were more efficient statistically but less efficient timewise than smaller quadrats. By maximizing the product of statistical and time efficiency, it was found that a quadrat of 0.0625 m2 of any shape was the optimum quadrat for herbage weight estimates.
    • Optimum Stand Selection for Juniper Control on Southwestern Woodland Ranges

      Jameson, D. A. (Society for Range Management, 1971-03-01)
      The optimum time for a land improvement investment when both cost and benefits are changing is when the rate of change of benefits equals the rate of change of costs. This principle can be applied to selecting optimum weed-tree stands for control operations where stands are present in a variety of age classes. If the cost of the control method is fixed, older stands with zero rate of tree cover change represent optimal treatment areas, but if the cost of the control method increases with stand age, young stands represent optimal treatment situations.
    • Optimum Stocking Rate, Monitoring, and Flexibility: Key Components of Successful Grazing Management Programs

      Ortega-S., J. Alfanso; Lukefahr, Steven D.; Bryant, Fred C. (Society for Range Management, 2013-10-01)
      On the Ground • This case study demonstrates the importance of adaptive management to the resilience of a ranch. • With a combination of strategic livestock and grazing management, especially adjusting the stocking rate to variability in forage production, we were able to increase the grazing capacity and the profitability of the ranch, even during drought. • The major concern during the drought should not be the productivity or profitability of the ranch, but rather the integrity of the plant communities and the herd in order to re-establish the production cycle following the severe drought. • Managing flexible grazing management programs with proper monitoring of weather, forage standing crop, cattle condition, and markets to make informed and timely decisions largely determines the resilience and profitability of the operation.
    • Optimum Temperatures for Germination of Winterfat

      Springfield, H. W. (Society for Range Management, 1972-01-01)
      Seeds of winterfat (Eurotia lanata) collected four consecutive years at a site in central New Mexico were tested at temperatures from 33 to 110 F. Optimum temperatures for germination were 50 to 80 F. Germination was practically complete within 5 days at 59 F or higher.
    • Opuntia Forage Production Systems: Status and Prospects for Rangeland Application

      Guevara, J. C.; Suassuna, P.; Felker, P. (Society for Range Management, 2009-09-01)
      This paper reports recent findings in Opuntia genetics, nutrient fertilization, and cultivation with promise to overcome limitations for Opuntia-based forage production systems. The essentially spineless, fast-growing Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. has been planted on millions of hectares for forage in tropical areas of Brazil and North Africa. The spiny, cold-hardy Opuntia species have been used for forage in Mexico and the southwestern United States, after the cladodes have been chopped or singed to remove the spines. Due to the recent increases in fuel prices, burning of the spines is more costly. Where only spiny varieties exist, some range animals forage on them without manipulation. As a result, spines frequently penetrate and form lesions on mouth and esophageal tissues, leading to serious health issues. Slow growth and low protein (ca. 5%) of the native Opuntia spiny species on nonfertilized rangeland is an impediment to greater use of Opuntia for forage. The only spineless species adaptable to US Department of Agriculture cold hardiness zones, 8 (i.e., Opuntia ellisiana Griffiths) is relatively slow growing. Full sibling crosses indicate spine heritability is probably single-gene controlled. Interspecific hybrids between the frost-sensitive, fast-growing, and spineless O. ficus-indica with cold-hardy, spiny, slower-growing O. lindheimerii Engelm. have produced spineless progeny, with greater cold hardiness than O. ficus-indica, and greater productivity than cold-hardy, spineless O. ellisiana. Nitrogen limitations on water-use efficiency of Opuntia have been overcome for the 120 million ha of semiarid northeastern Brazil with added nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization. With control of competing vegetation and fertilization, this system has 40 t dry matter ha-1 of 9.2% crude protein forage with 600 mm rainfall in 16 mo. Opuntia ficus-indica plantations were profitable even though a duplication of fertilizer current prices was considered. 
    • Orange Sneezeweed: "Beautiful Flower of Death"

      Hesker, Kay (Society for Range Management, 1982-10-01)
    • Orchardgrass Growth on Nitrogen and Sulfur Fertilized Volcanic Ash Soil

      Geist, J. M. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
      Growth responses of orchardgrass to additions of N and S from various sources were studied in the greenhouse on a volcanic ash soil. Sources with soluble S were superior to those with elemental S in producing faster growth, greater growth, and greater N recovery. Results indicate fertilizers with formulae of 21-0-0-24, 30-1-0-6, 27-12-0-4, or 16-20-0-15 should effectively aid rapid establishment of new orchardgrass seedings. Rapid early growth will take optimum advantage of stored soil moisture prior to the onset of dry summers which typically occur in much of the Northwest. Grazing at late growth stages will maximize returns from applied fertilizers.
    • Oregon Trail in Idaho

      Cramer, Howard Ross (Society for Range Management, 1986-10-01)
    • Organic Matter Turnover in Light Fraction and Whole Soil Under Silvopastoral Land Use in Semiarid Northeast Brazil

      Wick, Barbara; Tiessen, Holm (Society for Range Management, 2008-05-01)
      Trees in silvopastoral systems can accumulate carbon (C) and nutrients under their canopies. Most studies measure only net changes in organic matter and nutrients without evaluating turnover of soil organic matter. Here, the change in vegetation cover from caatinga, a semideciduous thorn forest (principally C3 metabolism) to buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) pasture (C4 metabolism) was used to quantify in situ input and turnover rates of organic carbon 14 yr after land-use changes. The accretion of C under new pasture and loss of original caatinga C was studied for whole soil (WS) and light fraction (LF). The effects of two tree species preserved during selective clearing and one species planted after complete clearing of caatinga were evaluated. All trees prevented organic matter mineralization that occurred in surrounding cleared pasture. The C mineralization under pasture was twice as high (66% loss) in LF as in WS (34% loss) over 14 yr. The C4-C was similar under and outside the remnant and planted tree canopies, i.e., the input of new C4-C did not compensate for the loss of old C3-C that occurred following caatinga clearing and pasture establishment. The organic matter in this tropical, semiarid region mineralized rapidly with C half lives between 9 and 16 yr for LF and between 11 and 28 yr for WS. The 13C data indicate that elevated C contents under preserved (WS and LF) and planted (LF) trees, relative to the pasture outside the tree canopies, largely represent C3-C inherited from the caatinga. In this silvopastoral system, derived from land-use changes from dry forest, the islands of fertility and organic matter under the trees were not built up and represent preserved, rather than new, C inputs. 
    • Organic Matter, N, and Base Accumulation Under Pensacola Bahiagrass

      Beaty, E. R.; Tan, K. H. (Society for Range Management, 1972-01-01)
      A deep and unfertile sandy soil in the Georgia Coastal Plain from which the top soil had been removed was seeded to Pensacola bahiagrass in 1967 and allowed to grow until 1970. No harvests were made, and no fertilizer was applied. When sampled in 1970, the plots under grass contained 23.1% more N than did fallow plots. The soil organic matter content to 12 inches deep in the soil profile had more than doubled under the sod, and bases had been accumulated in the soil surface under sod but were concentrated lower in the soil profile under fallow.
    • Organic Solvent-Soluble Organic Matter from Soils Underlying Native Range and Crested Wheatgrass in Southeastern Alberta, Canada

      Dormaar, J. F.; Johnston, A.; Smoliak, A. (Society for Range Management, 1980-03-01)
      Gas chromatographic patterns of organic solvent-soluble constituents present in alkaline hydrolysates of organic matter from soils underlying native range and crested wheatgrass were qualitatively, but not quantitatively similar. The peak at 222 degrees C or with a retention time of about 31 min was identified as bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Larger quantities of the extracted compounds were obtained from the native range than from the crested wheatgrass soils. Fifty years was not long enough for organic matter of soil cultivated for only 5 years to regain its original quantitative chemical composition under the prevailing climatic conditions.
    • Organizational Structure and Function of the Society for Range Management

      Brock, John H. (Society for Range Management, 1988-08-01)
    • Organized Action At Root of Sunflower Success

      Snell, Glen (Society for Range Management, 1980-06-01)
    • Origin of Soil Mounds Associated with Clumps of Ribes velutinum

      Saunders, D. V.; Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      The mounds of soil associated with multi-stem clumps of Ribes velutinum Greene are apparently the result of rodent activity and are not remnant erosion surfaces. The development of the mounds is a dynamic response to stand renewal by burning. Rodents apparently are attracted by the increase in annuals, especially downy brome, which occurs after fire. The protection of the spiney clumps of resprouting Ribes provides a safe place for the rodents to build their dens.
    • Origin, Persistence, and Resolution of the Rotational Grazing Debate: Integrating Human Dimensions Into Rangeland Research

      Briske, D. D.; Sayre, Nathan F.; Huntsinger, L.; Fernandez-Giminez, M.; Budd, B.; Derner, J. D. (Society for Range Management, 2011-07-01)
      The debate regarding the benefits of rotational grazing has eluded resolution within the US rangeland profession for more than 60 yr. This forum examines the origin of the debate and the major reasons for its persistence in an attempt to identify common ground for resolution, and to search for meaningful lessons from this central chapter in the history of the US rangeland profession. Rotational grazing was a component of the institutional and scientific response to severe rangeland degradation at the turn of the 20th century, and it has since become the professional norm for grazing management. Managers have found that rotational grazing systems can work for diverse management purposes, but scientific experiments have demonstrated that they do not necessarily work for specific ecological purposes. These interpretations appear contradictory, but we contend that they can be reconciled by evaluation within the context of complex adaptive systems in which human variables such as goal setting, experiential knowledge, and decision making are given equal importance to biophysical variables. The scientific evidence refuting the ecological benefits of rotational grazing is robust, but also narrowly focused, because it derives from experiments that intentionally excluded these human variables. Consequently, the profession has attempted to answer a broad, complex question—whether or not managers should adopt rotational grazing—with necessarily narrow experimental research focused exclusively on ecological processes. The rotational grazing debate persists because the rangeland profession has not yet developed a management and research framework capable of incorporating both the social and biophysical components of complex adaptive systems. We recommend moving beyond the debate over whether or not rotational grazing works by focusing on adaptive management and the integration of experiential and experimental, as well as social and biophysical, knowledge to provide a more comprehensive framework for the management of rangeland systems.
    • Our 1951 Student Issue

      Campbell, R. S. (Society for Range Management, 1951-09-01)
    • Our Forgotten Rangelands

      Whittekiend, J. Craig (Society for Range Management, 1999-08-01)
      Range resources played only a small role in the first round of national forest plans, the Society for Range Management believes, and the Committee of Scientists’ proposal for identifying lands suitable for values other than timber production is still vague. But the committee’s strong appeal for a collaborative approach to planning, the opportunity for involvement at multiple levels, and the emphasis on local input will help ensure that range managers can become involved. If they can’t, controversy resulting from the past lack of direction for rangelands may continue.
    • Our Native Range—A New Horizon in Soil, Water, and Plant Conservation

      Anderson, E. W. (Society for Range Management, 1963-07-01)