• Our Range Society

      Pechanec, Joseph F. (Society for Range Management, 1993-06-01)
    • Our Range Society

      Pechanec, Joseph F. (Society for Range Management, 1948-10-01)
    • Our Responsibility to Youth and Range Management

      Quinn, Connee R. (Society for Range Management, 1979-10-01)
    • Our Youth—The Real Future of Range Management

      Martin, Niels LeRoy (Society for Range Management, 2005-08-01)
    • Outdoor Recreation in the Future of Public Lands

      Landstrom, K. S. (Society for Range Management, 1965-03-01)
      Range management's goal of increased profits from livestock production should be viewed within a broader context in which the professions dealing with natural resources try to bring about the greatest good for the greatest number of people. Range forage production from public lands can be maintained or increased under a well rounded resource conservation program despite land use restrictions for outdoor recreation.
    • Outline for Autecological Studies of Range Grasses

      West, N. E. (Society for Range Management, 1968-03-01)
      Complete autecological life history studies are necessary to overcome less obvious bottlenecks and enhance control or revegetation of important range plants. An outline of research needed for range grasses is given. This outline is guiding co-operative, multi-state studies of galleta and bluebunch wheatgrass.
    • Outplanting Wyoming Big Sagebrush Following Wildfire: Stock Performance and Economics

      Dettweiler-Robinson, Eva; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Evans, James R.; Newsome, Heidi; Davies, G. Matt; Wirth, Troy A.; Pyke, David A.; Easterly, Richard T.; Salstrom, Debra; Dunwiddie, Peter W. (Society for Range Management, 2013-11-01)
      Finding ecologically and economically effective ways to establish matrix species is often critical for restoration success. Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata subsp. wyomingensis) historically dominated large areas of western North America, but has been extirpated from many areas by large wildfires; its re-establishment in these areas often requires active management. We evaluated the performance (survival, health) and economic costs of container and bare-root stock based on operational plantings of more than 1.5 million seedlings across 2 200 ha, and compared our plantings with 30 other plantings in which sagebrush survival was tracked for up to 5 yr. Plantings occurred between 2001 and 2007, and included 12 combinations of stock type, planting amendment, and planting year. We monitored 10 500 plants for up to 8 yr after planting. Survival to Year 3 averaged 21% and was higher for container stock (30%) than bare-root stock (17%). Survival did not differ among containerstock plantings, whereas survival of bare-root stock was sometimes enhanced by a hydrogel dip before planting, but not by mycorrhizal amendments. Most mortality occurred during the first year after planting; this period is the greatest barrier to establishment of sagebrush stock. The proportion of healthy stock in Year 1 was positively related to subsequent survival to Year 3. Costs were minimized, and survival maximized, by planting container stock or bare-root stock with a hydrogel dip. Our results indicate that outplanting is an ecologically and economically effective way of establishing Wyoming big sagebrush. However, statistical analyses were limited by the fact that data about initial variables (stock quality, site conditions, weather) were often unrecorded and by the lack of a replicated experimental design. Sharing consistent data and using an experimental approach would help land managers and restoration practitioners maximize the success of outplanting efforts.
    • Overcoming dormancy in New Mexico mountain mahogany seed collections

      Rosner, Lee S.; Harrington, John T.; Dreesen, David R.; Murray, Leigh (Society for Range Management, 2003-03-01)
      Mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus montanus Raf) is a useful reclamation species because it can occupy and improve poor soils. Literature regarding seed propagation of this species is varied and often contradictory, recommending stratification durations of 14 to 90 days, and sulfuric acid scarification durations of none to 60 minutes. To assess variability in propagation requirements among seed sources, 8 New Mexico seed sources were tested with factorial combinations of scarification and stratification treatments. Sources were selected to encompass both a range of latitudes throughout New Mexico and a range of elevations at Questa, N. M. Seeds were scarified 5 or 10 minutes in concentrated sulfuric acid, tumbled 5 or 10 days in course grit, or unscarified (control). Seeds underwent subsequent stratification for 0 (control), 30, or 60 days. Averaged across scarification treatments, the 2 southernmost sources lacked a stratification requirement, while northern seed sources achieved their highest germination following the longest stratification duration (60 days). Improvement in germination due to stratification was greatest for the 2 highest elevation Questa sources. Scarification treatments were less effective in improving germination than stratification treatments, and produced more variable results. A 5-minute soak in sulfuric acid was the most effective scarification treatment, but for 2 sources, this treatment reduced germination. Variability in the stratification requirement appears to be an adaptation to macroclimatic differences among seed sources, whereas differential response to scarification may be a response to microclimatic differences.
    • Overcoming the Problems of Range Livestock Production in Southern South America

      Chapline, W. R. (Society for Range Management, 1962-09-01)
    • Overgrazing and Range Degradation in the Peruvian Andes

      Lozada, Carlos (Society for Range Management, 1991-04-01)
    • Overgrazing: Present or absent?

      Wilson, A. D.; MacLeod, N. D. (Society for Range Management, 1991-09-01)
      This paper discusses the criteria needed for quantitative evidence of overgrazing and outlines some of the main pasture and external factors that promote overgrazing by herbivores. Overgrazing is defined as occurring where there is a concomitant vegetation change and loss of animal productivity arising from the grazing of land by herbivores. Confirmation of the loss of productivity requires the measurement of departures from the linear relationship between animal productivity and stocking rate for any given animal-pasture system. In the ex-ante situation of an experiment, overgrazing will be observed as a loss of linearity with time. in the ex-poste situation of a comparison between 2 paddocks of the some range type, but different grazing history, overgrazing will be observed as a difference in the optimum stocking rate. The outcome of a species change in terms of productivity is shown to be complex because of the interaction of the quality and quantity influences in both pasture and product. Influences that promote lower stocking rates include low cost-price margins and a negative relationship between product quality and grazing intensity. Conversely, higher stocking rates are promoted by the use of mineral supplements and products such as wool that have a positive relationship between product quality and stocking rate.
    • Overseas: Women Are at Home on the Range

      Hardesty, Linda Howell (Society for Range Management, 1984-02-01)
    • Overstory-understory relations in pinyon-juniper woodlands in New Mexico

      Pieper, R. D. (Society for Range Management, 1990-09-01)
      Herbage biomass for blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis [H.B.K. Lag]), pinyon ricegrass (Piptochaetium fimbriatum [H.B.K.] Hitche.), New Mexico muhly (Muhlenbergia pauciflora Buckl.), other grasses and forbs was estimated on 25 pinyon-juniper stands of varying overstory cover on the Fort Stanton Experimental Ranch in south-central New Mexico. Negative 2nd degree polynomial curves best expressed the relationships between total understory and blue grama biomass and overstory canopy cover. Positive polynomial relationships were shown for cool-season graazs, New Mexico muhly, and pinyon ricegrass. Reducing pinyon-juniper canopy cover would likely increase blue grama production and reduce production of New Mexico muhly and pinyon ricegrass.
    • Overstory-understory relationships for broom snakeweed-blue grama grasslands

      McDaniel, K. C.; Torell, L. A.; Bain, J. W. (Society for Range Management, 1993-11-01)
      Data collected over a 11-year period at 2 study areas near Vaughn and Roswell, N.M. were used to define equations that relate grass biomass to the amount of broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae [Pursh] Britt. & Rusby) occupying blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis [H.B.K. Lag]) rangeland over time. A 5 parameter sigmoidal growth equation and a negative exponential equation best expressed the relationship between understory grass biomass and overstory broom snakeweed biomass. Explanatory variables included realized precipitation during the second April to June) and third (July to September) quarters, which coincides primarily with warm-season grass growth. Minimum suppression of grass biomass occurred with complete elimination of broom snakeweed, suggesting control strategies with high overstory mortality will likely be most beneficial to understory production.
    • Overview of the Historic and Current Vegetation Near the 100th Meridian in North Central United States

      Lura, C.; Printz, J.; Hendrickson, J.R. (Society for Range Management, 2019-02)
      The Northern Great Plains contains a diverse group of vegetative communities, primarily dominated by grassland communities. Precipitation declines along an east-west gradient, ranging from 27.4 inches at Detroit Lakes, Minnesota to 12.4 inches at Miles City, Montana, and productivity follows a similar decline. Precipitation falls primarily during the growing season, which combined with the lower mean annual temperature results in productive, high-quality, cool-season dominated grasslands. Although the region is primarily dominated by areas of tallgrass, midgrass, and shortgrass prairie, there are outcrops of limber (Pinus flexilis) and ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) along the Little Missouri River and stands of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) in the Turtle Mountains. Besides climate and soils, fire, drought, and grazing have also contributed to the rich diversity of communities in the region. Recent invasions of perennial cool-season grasses are threatening historic plant communities; whether these invasions can be reversed and altered environmental services restored are the primary questions facing grassland managers.
    • Overwinter Soil Water Recharge and Herbage Production as Influenced by Contour Furrowing on Eastern Montana Rangelands

      Neff, E. L.; Wight, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1977-05-01)
      On fine-textured range sites in southeastern Montana, contour furrowing increased average overwinter soil water recharge 11 mm on a saline-upland range site and 39 mm on a panspot range site. Increased recharge resulted from decreased late fall and early spring runoff and increased snow accumulation. Overwinter recharge was a function of both antecedent soil water and the amount of water available for recharge. Herbage production was significantly (r = 0.89) related to spring soil water content.
    • Ownership and management changes on California hardwood rangelands: 1985 to 1992

      Huntsinger, L.; Buttolph, L.; Hopkinson, P. (Society for Range Management, 1997-07-01)
      Results of a 1985 survey of California hardwood rangeland landowners were used to develop a multi-agency research and extension program known as the Integrated Hardwood Range Management Program. In 1992, the same properties were re-surveyed. Although the results cannot prove the program is the sole or direct agent of change, program-sponsored education and research aimed at encouraging oak rangeland owners to change oak management practices is reflected in changes in key landowner behaviors. Program-sponsored research showed that intermediate levels of oak canopy cover did not significantly reduce forage production. Concurrently, landowners have significantly reduced the clearing of oaks for forage production. Other significant changes are reduction of cutting of living oaks for any reason, reduced cutting of oaks for fuelwood, increased use of oak promoting practices, and a growing awareness of the need to be concerned about the status of oaks. Landowners who were aware of the resource benefits of having oaks, or who believed oaks were threatened, or who had been in contact with a natural resource advisory service were significantly more likely to carry out oak-promoting practices. Between 1985 and 1992, many properties changed hands: 24% of parcels were sold but remained intact, while an additional 11% were subdivided. As was found in 1985, owners of smaller properties manage for different and more diverse goals than those of larger properties. The changing pattern of hardwood rangeland land ownership will have an impact on education and conservation programs.
    • Oxalate and tannins assessment in Atriplex halimus L. and A. nummularia L

      Abu-Zanat, M. M.; Al-Hassanat, F. M.; Alawi, M.; Ruyle, G. B. (Society for Range Management, 2003-07-01)
      The study was conducted at 3 locations in the arid region of Jordan to assess the seasonal changes of oxalate and tannins in Atriplex halimus L. and A. nummularia L. plants commonly used for revegetation of degraded rangelands. During spring and fall seasons, 20 shrubs of each species were selected randomly at each location, 20 similar twigs per shrub were clipped and analyzed for oxalate and tannins. Atriplex halimus contained higher levels of oxalate (7.00%) compared with A. nummularia plants (6.20%) (P < 0.001). Oxalate levels averaged 8.29 and 4.92% in spring and fall season, respectively. Plants of A. halimus accumulated more oxalate in spring than those of A. nummularia. Clipping had no effect on oxalate concentration. The seedlings of A. nummularia contained more oxalate than old plants whereas old shrubs of A. halimus contained more oxalate than the young seedlings. The browse of A. halimus contained more condensed and hydrolyzable tannins (1.05% and 0.67%, P < 0.0001) than A. nummularia (0.80% and 0.39%, P 0.0001), respectively. Clipping had no effect on the levels of tannic phenols, condensed and hydrolyzable tannins. Young plants of the 2 species had higher levels of condensed tannins compared to older plants. However, seedlings of A. nummularia contained significantly higher levels of condensed tannins compared to A. nummularia seedlings (1.57% and 1.47%, respectively). Atriplex halimus synthesized more oxalate, tannic phenols, condensed and hydrolyzable tannins than A. nummularia. These secondary metabolites may explain the low palatability of Atriplex halimus compared to A. nummularia.
    • Oxygen Uptake and Nitrification by Soil Within a Grazed Atriplex vesicaria Community in Semiarid Rangeland

      Rixon, A. J. (Society for Range Management, 1971-11-01)
      The effect of plant distribution on oxygen uptake and nitrification in surface soil of a semiarid rangeland community was studied. Oxygen uptake and nitrification in surface (0-7.5 cm) soils from sites associated with Atriplex vesicaria bushes were at least twice as great as in soils from the interbush area. The pattern of nutrient cycling tended to reflect the distribution of plant material within the plant community. The effect did not extend to the 7.5-15 cm soil horizon. The rate of nitrification per unit total soil nitrogen was greater for the sites associated with saltbush than for the interbush area. These differences in rate of nitrification per unit total nitrogen persisted for at least two years following the total elimination of saltbush (Atriplex vesicaria) by heavy grazing.
    • Ozone-Treated Mesquite for Supplementing Steers in West Texas

      Bryant, F. C.; Mills, T.; Pitts, J. S.; Carrigan, M.; Wiggers, E. P. (Society for Range Management, 1984-09-01)
      Ozonated-mesquite was compared with cottonseed hulls as the fiber base in supplemental rations fed to growing steers under range conditions. Average daily gains of steers fed the 2 rations for the 2 winter feeding periods were similar. Similarities in concentrations of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, and acetic:propionic acid ratios between rations indicated no alterations in production of these acids as affected by composition or physical form of the ozonated-mesquite. Therefore, ozonated-mesquite appears to be equal in value to cottonseed hulls as a roughage base in supplemental rations fed to range steers.