• Partnerships Preserves Historic Range Research Sites

      Tippets, David; Anderson, Val Jo (Society for Range Management, 1991-06-01)
    • Passage Rates, Rumen Fermentation, and Weight Change in Protein Supplemented Grazing Cattle

      Judkins, M. B.; Wallace, J. D.; Galyean, M. L.; Krysl, L. J.; Parker, E. E. (Society for Range Management, 1987-03-01)
      Protein supplementation is widely used to enhance the nutritional status of cattle on rangeland. The effects of protein supplementation on particulate and fluid passage rates, rumen fermentation, and weight gain were evaluated on cattle grazing dormant blue grama rangeland. Twelve rumen-cannulated steers were randomly allotted to 3 equal supplement groups (4/treatment): cottonseed cake (CSC), pelleted alfalfa (ALF), or no supplement (CON). Supplements were individually fed every other day at isonitrogenous levels (1.7 kg/hd CSC vs 3.6 kg/hd ALF). Particulate passage rate was measured during 2 collection periods. Concurrently, 102 yearling heifers were allotted to the same treatment groups for measurement of average daily gain. Cattle were fed these treatments from January through April 1983. In a second trial, 9 rumen-cannulated steers were randomly allotted to the same treatment groups as trial 1. An intraruminal dose of Co-EDTA was used to estimate fluid passage rates. Rumen ammonia, volatile fatty acids, and pH were also measured. In trial 1, average daily gain did not differ between ALF and CSC supplemented heifers; however, both ALF and CSC gained more than CON heifers. Passage rate estimates were not different among treatment groups. In trial 2, rumen fluid dilution rate, volume, and outflow rate were not different among treatments. Rumen ammonia-N was different at 11 h postsupplementation when the CSC steers had higher levels than steers in other treatment groups. Rumen pH was not influenced by supplementation. Molar proportions of acetate and propionate at 8 and 11 h after supplementation differed among treatment groups. Acetate was lowest in ALF, intermediate in CSC, and highest in CON supplemented steers. Propionate followed the reverse trend. Overall, protein supplementation improved livestock performance but the mechanism involved was not elicited. The current data suggest shifts in fermentation patterns and meeting dietary demands for gain are the factors involved in improving performance.
    • Past Performance and Future Potential of Black Grama for Southwestern Ranges

      Wright, N.; Streetman, L. J. (Society for Range Management, 1958-09-01)
    • Past, Present & Future: Rangelands in China

      Bedunah, Donald J.; Harris, Richard B. (Society for Range Management, 2002-08-01)
    • Pasturas Tropicales en el Noroeste Argentino

      Ayerza, Ricardo (Society for Range Management, 1981-08-01)
    • Pasture characteristics affecting spatial distribution of utilization by cattle in mixed brush communities

      Owens, M. K.; Launchbaugh, K. L.; Holloway, J. W. (Society for Range Management, 1991-03-01)
      Utilization patterns of cattle were related to pasture characteristics in a nonrandom and complex manner. Six mixed brush pastures on the Rio Grande Plains (244-356 ha) that were topographically flat and homogeneous in soil type and range sites were studied. Two experiments were conducted: the first experiment was conducted when green forage was abundant and the second under conditions of little vegetative regrowth. A total of 340 random points were characterized for amount, frequency, and greenness of both grasses and forbs, brush and shade tree density, and distance to nearest fence, road, and water. These are variables that can be altered with management practices. When green forage was abundant, factor analysis identified 5 orthogonal factors (green herbage availability, grass quantity, brush abundance, remoteness from roads, and water availability) which accounted for 70% of the communal variation. Six factors (brush abundance, grass quantity, green forb frequency, road location, fence proximity, and water availability) accounted for 70% of the communal variation when herbage was limited. Regression analyses predicting percent utilization from the orthogonal factors indicated that when green forage was abundant, utilization was related largely to green herbage availability, grass quantity, brush abundance, and remoteness (R2 = 0.54, RSD = 0.114). Remoteness, brush abundance, green forb frequency, and water availability were the factors associated with utilization when forage was limited (R2 = 0.45, RSD = 0.152). Green herbage availability was less important under conditions of limited forage. In mixed brush communities, the actual amount of grass, brush abundance, and remoteness were the major factors affecting utilization.
    • Pasture development during brush clearing with sheep and goats

      Dabaan, M. E.; Magadlea, A. M.; Bryan, W. B.; Arbogast, B. L.; Prigge, E. C.; Flores, G.; Skousen, J. G. (Society for Range Management, 1997-03-01)
      Knowing that sheep or goats can be used to control brush we quantified pasture changes during and after brush control. Over an 8-year period we measured the effects of control (no soil amendment), medium soil amendment (4,500 kg lime and 40 kg P ha-1), and high soil amendment (9,000 kg lime and 117 kg P ha-1) on soil fertility, pasture botanical composition and production of brushy pasture grazed by sheep or goats. Botanical composition was estimated from clipped samples. Soil pH was 4.8 in the control, 6.5 in the medium and 7.0 in the high amendment plots. Medium and high amendment increased legume dry matter in the pasture from 2 in the check to 8%. More animal grazing days were obtained on paddocks treated with lime and P. Grazing with sheep or goats and lime and application of P resulted, after 4 years, in pastures with a grass, legume, and other broadleaf plant composition similar to that of brush-free, natural pasture.
    • Pastures in the Italian Highlands

      White, W. T. (Society for Range Management, 1950-01-01)
    • Patagonia: Range Management at the End of the World

      Defossé, Guillermo E.; Robberecht, Ronald (Society for Range Management, 1987-06-01)
    • Patch burn grazing management in a semiarid grassland: Consequences for pronghorn, plains pricklypear, and wind erosion

      Augustine, D. J.; Derner, J. D. (Society for Range Management, 2015-01)
      Management strategies that allow for spatiotemporal interactions between fire and herbivores can potentially achieve multiple management goals related to livestock production and wildlife conservation, but little is known about such interactions in semiarid grasslands where fire has traditionally been viewed as having few management applications. We studied patch burn grazing management in the shortgrass steppe of northeastern Colorado, comparing unburned pastures to pastures where 25% of the area was burned in October or November each year over 4 years. Our objective was to examine the interactive effects of patch burns and the subsequent response by pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) on plains pricklypear (Opuntia polyacantha) and wind erosion rates. We monitored abundance of plains pricklypear and wind erosion rates throughout the experiment and quantified seasonal pronghorn densities and postburn damage to plains pricklypear cladodes during the latter 2 years of the study. Pronghorn density was 26 times greater in winter and 7 times greater in spring on patch burns compared with unburned pastures. By late winter, densities of bitten or uprooted plains pricklypear cladodes were five times greater on patch burns compared with unburned pastures. Patch burns, as well as the subsequent response of pronghorn, reduced plains pricklypear density by 54-71% during the first year after the burns, and density remained suppressed for up to 6 years after burns. Wind erosion rates on patch burns were greater compared with unburned pastures but were two orders of magnitude lower than rates measured on fallow croplands in the region. Autumn patch burns can be a valuable means to suppress plains pricklypear and thereby increase grass available for livestock consumption in the shortgrass steppe. These outcomes can be achieved without increasing wind erosion in a manner that threatens long-term soil sustainability and without negative consequences for livestock weight gains.
    • Patch burning effects on grazing distribution

      Vermeire, Lance T.; Mitchell, Robert B.; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D.; Gillen, Robert L. (Society for Range Management, 2004-05-01)
      Post-fire forage growth is known to be a strong attractant for large herbivores. However, fire has generally been avoided as a grazing distribution tool for fear of localized over utilization of forage resources. Our objectives were to examine whether forage utilization was affected by season of burn, determine cattle grazing preference for burned sites relative to non-burned sites, determine forb response to patch burning, and describe the relationship between end-of-season standing crop and distance from burned sites. Sixteen, 4-ha plots were burned in mid-November or mid-April and left exposed to cattle grazing for the duration of the growing season. Burn treatments were blocked within pastures to allow individual herds access to fall-burned, spring-burned, and non-burned sites. Standing crop estimates for grasses, forbs, and total herbage were made in September by clipping on burned sites and at 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 m distant from the plot's edge. Standing crop was also sampled in exclosures on burned and non-burned sites. Cattle showed no preference for one burn season over the other. Cattle were strongly attracted to burned sites, reducing grass standing crop 78% within burns compared to 19% outside the influence of burns. Grass standing crop decreased in a predictable manner with proximity to burned plots. Forbs increased 60% to 1,095 kg ha-1 on grazed burned plots, but were unaffected by distance from burns. Patch burning can be employed as an effective, inexpensive grazing distribution tool.
    • Patch-Burn Grazing Effects on Cattle Performance: Research Conducted in a Working Landscape

      Winter, Stephen L.; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D.; Goes, Mark (Society for Range Management, 2014-06-01)
      On the Ground • Patch-burn grazing is a range management strategy that might be able to simultaneously optimize livestock production objectives and wildlife habitat objectives. • We compared patch-burn grazing to a traditional range management strategy in multiple pastures, representing a variety of land ownership and management histories, dispersed across a relatively large geographic area. Our results likely represent what land managers could expect if they adopted patch-burn grazing in similar situations. • We found that cattle performance in pastures managed with patch-burn grazing did not differ from that found in pastures managed with a traditional range management strategy. This suggests that land managers who adopt patch-burn grazing in our study region might be able to maintain levels of cattle performance they are accustomed to. Simultaneously, they might also be able to achieve wildlife habitat objectives that might not have been possible with the application of traditional range management strategies. • More research and trials of patch-burn grazing in other regions and vegetation types will further help land mangers determine if patch-burn grazing is a range management strategy that could be useful when applied to their unique circumstances.
    • Path Coefficient Analysis of Seed Yield in Big Bluestem

      Boe, A.; Ross, J. G. (Society for Range Management, 1983-09-01)
      Path coefficient analysis was performed on 19 spaced-plant, open-pollinated big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vit.) progenies to determine direct and indirect effects of seed yield components (number of flowering culms, florets per culm, fertility index, and seed weight) on seed yield. Seed yield was positively correlated with all its components. Number of flowering culms, florets per culm, and fertility index had substantial direct effects, in that order, on seed yield. The significant positive total correlation between seed weight and seed yield resulted from positive indirect effects of florets per culm and fertility index. The negative indirect effect of number of flowering culms substantially reduced total correlations between seed yield and fertility index and florets per culm. Correlations between forage characters and number of flowering culms and seed yield were highly significant. Number of flowering culms was negatively correlated with seed weight, fertility index, and floret per culm.
    • Pathways of Grazing Effects on Soil Organic Carbon and Nitrogen

      Piñero, Gervasio; Paruelo, José M.; Oesterheld, Martín; Jobbágy, Esteban G. (Society for Range Management, 2010-01-01)
      Grazing modifies the structure and function of ecosystems, affecting soil organic carbon (SOC) storage. Although grazing effects on some ecosystem attributes have been thoroughly reviewed, current literature on grazing effects on SOC needs to be synthesized. Our objective was to synthesize the effects of grazing on SOC stocks in grasslands, establishing the major mechanistic pathways involved. Additionally, and because of its importance for carbon (C) biogeochemistry, we discuss the controls of soil organic nitrogen (N) stocks. We reviewed articles analyzing grazing effects on soil organic matter (SOM) stocks by comparing grazed vs. ungrazed sites, including 67 paired comparisons. SOC increased, decreased, or remained unchanged under contrasting grazing conditions across temperature and precipitation gradients, which suggests that grazing influences the factors that control SOC accumulation in a complex way. However, our review also revealed some general patterns such as 1) root contents (a primary control of SOC formation) were higher in grazed than in their ungrazed counterparts at the driest and wettest sites, but were lower at sites with intermediate precipitation (<400 mm to 850 mm); 2) SOM C:N ratios frequently increased under grazing conditions, which suggests potential N limitations for SOM formation under grazing; and 3) bulk density either increased or did not change in grazed sites. Nearly all sites located in the intermediate precipitation range showed decreases or no changes in SOC. We grouped previously proposed mechanisms of grazing control over SOC into three major pathways that can operate simultaneously: 1) changes in net primary production (NPP pathway), 2) changes in nitrogen stocks (nitrogen pathway), and 3) changes in organic matter decomposition (decomposition pathway). The relative importance of the three pathways may generate variable responses of SOC to grazing. Our conceptual model suggests that rangeland productivity and soil carbon sequestration can be simultaneously increased by management practices aimed at increasing N retention at the landscape level. 
    • Patricia G. Smith: Range Management Editor Extraordinaire

      Freeman, Danny (Society for Range Management, 1984-02-01)
    • Patrick Beveridge Kennedy—Early Range Manager

      Beetle, A. A. (Society for Range Management, 1951-03-01)
    • Pattern of Retrogression of Native Vegetation in North Central Oklahoma

      Sims, P. L.; Dwyer, D. D. (Society for Range Management, 1965-01-01)
      The pattern of retrogression due to grazing for native vegetation was established for the important plants of the loamy prairie range site. Total forb numbers increased as range condition declined but there were usually as many perennial forbs in high condition pastures as in low condition ones. Total available water was significantly greater in excellent condition than poor condition range.
    • Patterns of American licorice seed predation by Acanthoscelides aureolus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in South Dakota

      Boe, A.; McDaniel, B.; Robbins, K. (Society for Range Management, 1988-07-01)
      The bruchid beetle Acanthoscelides aureolus (Horn) is a major seed predator on American licorice (Glycyrrhiza lepidota Pursh) and other legumes in North America. Mature pods of American licorice from eastern South Dakota populations were examined for seed predation by A. aureolus over a 2-year period from 1985-1986. Frequency of seed predation varied significantly between years. Percent seed predation was similar for 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-seeded pods, indicating pods were attacked in proportion to number of seeds in the pod. Highest predation frequencies were found for seeds at the rachis end of the pod, regardless of pod size (seeds/pod). The largest seeds in pods with 4 or more seeds were from central positions while the smallest were from proximal and distal positions, suggesting beetle larvae did not select seeds on the basis of large size. When predation levels were low, seed position in the pod was more important than pod or seed size in determining frequency of seed predation by A. aureolus.
    • Patterns of Natural Revegetation in Arid Southeastern Utah

      Jaynes, R. A.; Harper, K. T. (Society for Range Management, 1978-11-01)
      Current and pending legislation will require that lands disturbed by mining activities be revegetated. Since few adapted species are now available for reclamation of such lands in the arid zone, this study was initiated to identify native species that are successful colonizers of disturbed sites. The native vegetation of bladed roadways in the Kane County, Utah, was sampled to identify natural colonizer species. Sixteen successful colonizers have been identified and studied to determine (1) their relative colonizing efficiency, and (2) their individual responses to elevational, soil textural, and other environmental gradients. The species fall into two natural groups: one group is well adapted to lower benchlands with sandy clay loam soils and the other is adapted to upper benchlands with sandy loam soils. Some of the species that appear to be most successful in initially revegetating disturbed areas include: (1) upper benchlands-Indian ricegrass, galleta grass, sand aster, pepperweed, broom snakeweed, small-leaf scarlet globemallow, and blue locoweed; (2) lower benchlands-shadscale, desert molly, cut-leaf globemallow, and pink locoweed.
    • Paved Drainage Basins as a Source of Water for Livestock or Game

      Humphrey, R. R.; Shaw, R. J. (Society for Range Management, 1957-03-01)