• Proline Concentrations in Water Stressed Grasses

      Bokhari, U. G.; Trent, J. D. (Society for Range Management, 1985-01-01)
      This study was conducted to screen several warm- and cool-season grasses for their proline-accumulating ability under water stressed conditions in the growth chamber. Plants of Old World bluestems (Bothriochloa spp.), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), western wheatgrass (Agropyron smithii) and weeping lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula) were subjected to water stress conditions at the vegetative stage. Water stressed plants exhibited a significantly greater (P<.05) increase in proline concentration than the non-stressed and the stress relieved plants. There was also a significant difference (P<.01) in the proline-accumulating ability of various species. An interdependency was observed between leaf water potential and proline concentration in all the species under water-stressed conditions.
    • Promoting Range Management in South America through Students

      Huss, Donald L.; Bernardon, Abel E. (Society for Range Management, 1988-08-01)
    • Pronghorn Reactions to Winter Sheep Grazing, Plant Communities, and Topography in the Great Basin

      Clary, W. P.; Beale, D. M. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      The winter distribution of pronghorn over a 142-km2 area on the Desert Experimental Range was significantly related to sheep grazing during the current winter, presence of black sagebrush, and topographic characteristics. Even moderate sheep use during the dormant period left grazing units relatively unfavorable for pronghorn until spring regrowth-at least on ranges where key pronghorn forage plants were in short supply. Winter use areas preferred by pronghorn were above the valley bottoms in rolling to broken topography where black sagebrush communities were evident. Movement characteristics of pronghorn have allowed many of them to readily locate rested grazing units, and, therefore, avoid severe dietary competition with sheep.
    • Propagation of Nevada Shrubs by Stem Cuttings

      Everett, R. L.; Meeuwig, R. O.; Robertson, J. H. (Society for Range Management, 1978-11-01)
      Stem cuttings of 54 Nevada shrub species varied in rooting capacity. Among those species most easily propagated were Artemisia spinescens, Atriplex lentiformis, Ceratoides lanatu, Grayia spinosa, Lepidospartum latisquamum, Prunus andersonii, Rosa woodsii, Salvia dorrii, and Vitis arizonica. Semihardwood cuttings were superior to either softwood or hardwood cuttings in rooting success. Differences in rooting potential among cuttings of the same species taken from different sites were also apparent.
    • Propane-powered Low-volume Sprayer and Weed Burner

      Jensen, E. H.; Robocker, W. C. (Society for Range Management, 1955-01-01)
    • Proper Burning Intervals for Tobosagrass in West Texas Based on Nitrogen Dynamics

      Sharrow, S. H.; Wright, H. A. (Society for Range Management, 1977-09-01)
      The time required for re-establishment of pre-fire nitrogen levels in tobosagrass (Hilaria mutica) communities in the Rolling Plains of West Texas was studied on five different ages of burns over a 2-year period. Time elapsed after burns varied from one to five growing seasons for both convex and concave topographic sites near Colorado City, Texas. Standing old growth-N returned to pre-fire levels by the end of the third growing season. However, litter-N on the soil surface took 5 years to reach pre-fire levels on concave sites and an estimated 8 years on convex sites. High variation prevented the recognition of any meaningful trends in root or soil nitrogen levels. Based on this data, tobosagrass should not be burned more frequently than 5 to 8 years, depending on the site.
    • Proper Grazing Can Save the West

      Day, Alan (Society for Range Management, 1987-02-01)
    • Proper Use: Old Concept—New Ideas

      Lawson, Henry (Society for Range Management, 1971-07-01)
    • Properties of Saline Range Soils of the Rio Grande Plain

      Fanning, C. D.; Thompson, C. M.; Issacs, D. (Society for Range Management, 1965-07-01)
      Range conditions on saline soils are poor as a result of overgrazing. Reseeding plans need to consider species and drought-inducing effects of excess salts. Soil properties suggest that proper vegetative cover would enhance salt removal.
    • Property Rights Orientations and Rangeland Management Objectives: Texas, Utah, and Colorado

      Kreuter, Urs P.; Nair, Malini V.; Jackson-Smith, Douglas; Conner, Richard J.; Johnston, Janis E. (Society for Range Management, 2006-11-01)
      In response to substantial economic and social dislocations in the United States, many rangeland owners are changing land use and management practices. Changes in land use can significantly affect the services rangeland ecosystems provide. Decisions associated with such changes are likely mediated by landowner views regarding individual rights, social responsibilities, and the future security of property rights. In this paper, we examine the extent to which landowners are likely to adopt, without public compensation, socially desirable land management objectives that enhance ecosystem services from rangelands. The study consisted of a mail survey of landowners with at least 40 ha: 500 in Texas, 500 in Utah, and 694 in Colorado. Adjusted responserates were 62% in Texas, 46% in Utah, and 51% in Colorado. Regression analyses showed that willingness to adopt socially desirable rangeland management objectives was positively correlated with the social responsibility dimension of respondents’ property rights orientations but negatively correlated with the rights erosion dimension. Our results also suggested that landowners in private land states, such as Texas, might be less willing than landowners in states with more public land to manage their land for the maintenance of ecosystem services without being compensated. Although the scope of our study was limited, the results suggest that agencies tasked with maintaining ecosystem services on private rangelands might more successfully achieve their mission by promoting social responsibility among landowners. Including community leaders with a highly developed sense of social responsibility in programs aimed at improving land stewardship and including peer-pressure incentives in such programs might enhance social responsibility perspectives among landowners. Such programs should also be adaptable at the state-level to account for differences in property-rights orientations relative to landowner dependence on private and public land.
    • Proposed CRP Policy: On Track or a Source of Concern

      Jones, Rodney D.; Ohlenbusch, Paul D.; Tranel, Jeffery (Society for Range Management, 1997-08-01)
    • Protect Traditional Values but Use Modern Methods and Current Viewpoints

      Heady, Harold F. (Society for Range Management, 1990-04-01)
    • Protecting Range Forage Plots from Rodents

      Howard, Walter E.; Kay, Burgess L. (Society for Range Management, 1957-07-01)
    • Protection of Instrument Wires in the Field

      Brown, R. W.; Collins, J. M. (Society for Range Management, 1979-11-01)
      Electrical wires used with field instruments are frequently damaged by adverse environmental conditions and animal activities. Such damage can be minimized by enclosing the wires in a housing made of polyvinyl chloride water pipe as described in this paper.
    • Protective Exclosure Evaluation: Oregon Salt Desert Shrub Forage Production Potential

      Kindschy, Robert R. (Society for Range Management, 1988-06-01)
    • Protein quality of cottontail rabbit forages following rangeland disturbance

      Pietz, D. G.; Lochmiller, R. L.; Leslie, D. M.; Engle, D. M. (Society for Range Management, 1997-09-01)
      Seasonal changes in the botanical composition of diets and protein quality of forages consumed by cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) were monitored on disturbed and undisturbed upland hardwood forest-tallgrass prairies in central Oklahoma. Our primary objective was to evaluate the seasonal dynamics of levels of selected amino acid nutrients in forages required for maintenance, growth, or reproduction, and explore bow these changes respond to habitat disturbance resulting from the use of herbicides and fire. Microhistological analyses of stomach digesta indiccated that summer diets were dominated by Panicum oligosanthes Schultes, Croton spp. and Sporobolus asper (Michx.) Kunth; winter diets were dominated by Bromus spp., P. oligosanthes, and Antennaria spp. Differences in the botanical composition and quality of diets between disturbed and undisturbed habitats were of little biological significance. Changes in the concentration of essential amino acids due to plant maturity were minimal in both summer and winter. Estimated levels of nitrogen and essential amino acids in reconstructed diets (based on food habits) appeared to be low, especially for the sulfur-containing amino acids (methionine + cystine) in summer.
    • Protein supplementation and 48-hour calf removal effects on range cows

      Sowell, B. F.; Wallace, J. D.; Parker, E. E.; Southward, G. M. (Society for Range Management, 1992-03-01)
      In 1984, 99 Angus X Hereford cows (4- to 6-yr-olds) were assigned randomly to a 4-yr, 2 X 2 factorial study. Treatment assignment was permanent, and no new cows were added during the study. By 1987, 71 cows remained, and over-all, 335 complete cow-calf data sets were used. Main effect treatments were beginning time (prepartum [PRE] vs postpartum [POST]) for crude protein (CP) supplementation (twice weekly feeding of 41% CP cottonseed meal pellets at 1.58 kg cow-1 feeding-1) and temporary calf removal (48 hour [48-H] vs 0 hour [CONT]) just before the breeding season. For analyses, sex of calf was included as a third main effect (2 X 2 X 2) and year was included as a random factor; the 4-way interaction served as the testing term for repeated measures over years. Year was the dominant source of variation for most traits; we attributed this mainly to different amounts and timing of precipitation among years. Very few interactions were observed. The PRE supplemented cows had reduced (P<0.01) spring body weight losses and higher prebreeding body condition scores (4.9 vs 4.5; P<0.01) compared with POST cows. Reproductive performance did not differ between PRE and POST cows. Use of 48-H calf removal vs CONT did not influence (P>0.10) reproductive traits measured. Likewise, 48-H treatment did not impair health or reduce weaning weights of calves. In a separate, within-year analysis used to examine age of dam effects, productivity of 4-yr-old cows during 1984 was slightly below that of older cows for some traits. Cow age effects were not detected in other years. We conclude that control cows in our study were approaching optimum fertility and production levels in concert with their environment and that improvement beyond these levels with the treatments imposed was unlikely.
    • Protein supplementation of steers grazing tobosa-grass in spring and summer

      Pitts, J. S.; McCollum, F. T.; Britton, C. M. (Society for Range Management, 1992-05-01)
      A 3-year study evaluated weight gain, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and fecal nitrogen (FN) of beef steers fed 0.00, 0.34, or 0.68 kg/hd/day of cottonseed meal (41% CP) while grazing mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa Torr.)/tobosagrass (Hilaria mutica [Buckl.] Benth.) range between April and July. Mixed breed beef steers (avg wt 230 kg) were allocated to three 6-pasture grazing cells and group-fed prorated amounts of supplement 3 days a week. Individual weights were recorded every 21 days. Crude protein in clipped forage samples remained above 7.0% except in July, 1985 (6.5%). Gain response varied among periods within year but the primary effects occurred in the first 40 to 60 days of grazing. In 1985, daily gains over 92 days were 0.38, 0.44, and 0.67 kg/hd/day for the 0.00, 0.34, and 0.68 kg supplement groups, respectively. In 1986 and 1987, daily gains during 85-day trials were 0.65, 0.66, and 0.71 kg/hd/day and 0.98, 1.08, and 1.07 kg/hd/day, respectively. Blood and feces were collected from 10 steers in each treatment group on each weigh date during the first 2 years. The 0.68 kg/hd/day supplement maintained higher (P<0.05) BUN and FN than the control group but response to 0.34 kg supplement was inconsistent. Performance and BUN data suggested that protein concentrate was not the appropriate supplement for steers grazing tobosagrass in the spring and summer.
    • Protein supplementation of stocker cattle in the Northern Great Plains

      Grings, E. E.; Adams, D. C.; Short, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1994-07-01)
      A comparison of the response of varying classes of growing beef cattle to protein supplementation was conducted on Northern Great Plains rangeland during the summer and early fall. Response was evaluated in 2 experiments, conducted in 1988 and 1989, by measuring organic matter intake and body weight gain in 13-month-old (spring-born steers) and 7-month-old steers (fall-born steers), which received either a 26% crude protein supplement or no supplement. Weight gain was also monitored in 7-month old heifers (fall-born heifers). In experiment 1, spring-born steers were fed 1.28 kg and fall-born steers and heifers 1.64 kg of protein supplement every other day. During experiment 2, spring-born steers were fed supplement at a rate of 1 kg and fall-born steers and heifers at 1.8 kg every other day. Intake of forage organic matter for steers was not affected (P > 0.10) by supplementation in either experiment. In experiment 1, total organic matter intake tended to be increased by protein supplementation in June but not in August (date X supplementation level interaction, P = 0.08). Forage organic matter digestibility was greater (P < 0.01) in June than in August during experiment 1 and in August than September in experiment 2. In experiment 1, this difference was greater for fall-born steers than spring-born steers. In experiment 1, supplementation increased (P < 0.01 average daily gain of cattle from 0.63 to 0.78 kg/day. In experiment 2, daily pin of cattle was increased (P < 0.01) from 0.62 0.82 kg/day with protein supplementation. Also, in experiment 2, cattle receiving supplement were 18 kg heavier (P < 0.05) at the end of the grazing season than unsupplemented controls. Protein supplementation increased weight pins of growing cattle in the late summer in the Northern Great Plains. The advantage was most consistent for fall-born steers with higher relative protein requirements.