• Protein, P, and K Composition of Coastal Bermudagrass and Crimson Clover

      Adams, W. E.; Stelly, M.; McCreery, R. A.; Morris, H. D.; Elkins, C. B. (Society for Range Management, 1966-09-01)
      Increasing levels of N, P and K fertilization increased total nutrient uptake and the percentage of protein, P and K, in the Coastal bermudagrass forage. P and K content of associated crimson clover increased with increasing rates of application of each nutrient. Percent recovery of N and P in the forage declined with increasing rates of fertilization of each nutrient, but percent K recovery increased with increasing K rates. N-K balance was important in maintaining an optimum K level in the forage and reducing K-deficiency symptoms. Tame pastures supplement forest range and reduce the overall cost below that of tame pastures above.
    • Protocol for monitoring standing crop in grasslands using visual obstruction

      Benkobi, L.; Uresk, D. W.; Schenbeck, G.; King, R. M. (Society for Range Management, 2000-11-01)
      Assessment of standing crop on grasslands using a visual obstruction technique provides valuable information to help plan livestock grazing management and indicate the status of wildlife habitat. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a simple regression model using easily measured visual obstruction to estimate standing crop on sandy lowland range sites in the Nebraska Sandhills, (2) provide sampling and monitoring suggestions in the use of visual obstruction on this grassland type, and (3) compare the visual obstruction technique to the standard clip and weigh procedure. Visual obstruction precisely predicted average standing crop dry weights for the sandy lowland range sites (r2=0.88). A prediction accuracy of ± 295 kg ha-1was found using a test data set. Two sampling options (A and B) were evaluated using a 2-stage sampling protocol. Option A (1 transect/quarter section) provided more precise estimates applicable to extensive grasslands than option B. However, option A was not applicable to a section (259 ha) or a few sections. Option B (3 transects/section) provided estimates applicable to each section and to the entire area, but it required more intensive sampling than option A to attain the same precision. The visual obstruction technique provided more precise estimates of standing crop than the standard clip and weigh technique when clipping and weighing up to 6 plots per transect. When 7 or more clipped and weighed plots per transect were sampled, standing crop estimates were more precise than using visual obstruction readings. However, since 20 visual obstruction readings/transect (25 minutes) can be sampled in about half the time spent clipping and weighing 6 plots/transect (45 minutes), visual obstruction in combination with a previously estimated regression model provides a simple, reliable, and cost effective alternative to the clip and weigh technique. Regression models should be developed for other grassland types following the methodology described in this paper.
    • Provincial Grazing Reserves in West Central Alberta

      Maxwell, James F. (Society for Range Management, 1994-02-01)
    • Psst, Do You Want Some Information on Rangeland Resources and Management?

      Rumburg, C. B.; Hunt, Leigh (Society for Range Management, 1999-12-01)
    • Psy”cow”logy—an ‘Art’ in Range Management

      Quimby, Charles M. (Society for Range Management, 1989-02-01)
    • Public Land Grazing in California: Untapped Conservation Potential for Private Lands?

      Sulak, Adriana; Huntsinger, Lynn (Society for Range Management, 2007-06-01)
      Working landscapes may be linked to public lands.
    • Public Land Policy

      Lewis, O. (Society for Range Management, 1955-05-01)
    • Public land policy and the market value of New Mexico ranches, 1979-94

      Torell, L. A.; Kincaid, M. E. (Society for Range Management, 1996-05-01)
      Proposals outlined in Rangeland Reform '94 have been perceived to greatly alter grazing use on public lands. In addition to new rules and regulations, the grazing fee would double under this reform proposal. The debate about these controversial policies would be expected to affect the market value of public kind grazing permits. Regression models were developed using over 700 ranch sales to determine recent trends in market value for New Mexico ranches, including public land ranches. After 1988, nominal deeded ranch values were found to have increased by 3% per annum, but remained unchanged in 1992 constant dollars. This follows a 50% decline in real value from 1982-88. Ranches heavily dependent on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land for grazing capacity decreased in real value by about 1.8% per annum over the 1988-94 study period. The United States Forest Service (USFS) has recently had the most controversial land use polices and the highest average total grazing costs. This has been reflected in the market value of USFS ranches, with a continued decrease in permit value; USFS ranches in New Mexico have lost 75% of their real value since 1982. Doubling grazing fees on New Mexico state trust lands contributed to a downward trend in leasehold value. Somewhat surprising, given the higher grazing fee on state trust lands, these permits increased in market value in both real (1.7% per year) and nominal (5% per year) terms after controversy about state lands subsided and federal land policies became more controversial.
    • Public Opinions about Rangeland Resources in Northeast Nevada

      McAdoo, J. Kent (Society for Range Management, 2003-08-01)
    • Public Perceptions of Sagebrush Ecosystem Management in the Great Basin

      Shindler, Bruce; Gordon, Ryan; Brunson, Mark W.; Olsen, Christine (Society for Range Management, 2011-07-01)
      Intact sagebrush communities in the Great Basin are rapidly disappearing because of invasion of nonnative plants, large wildfires, and encroachment of pinyon and juniper woodlands. Land management options, including the use of prescribed fire, grazing, herbicides, or mechanical treatments, can reduce the potential for wildfire and restore plant communities. Public acceptance of management actions, and trust in agencies to carry out those actions, is a critical component of developing and implementing successful long-term land management plans. This study examines citizens’ opinions and perceptions about rangeland management in the Great Basin. In fall 2006 we conducted a mail survey of randomly selected households in three urban and three rural regions of the Great Basin, receiving 1 345 valid responses for a 45% response rate. Overall, respondents perceived that the environment is moderately healthy; however, they do recognize threats to sagebrush ecosystems. Public acceptance is relatively high for the use of prescribed fire, grazing, felling woodland trees, and mowing shrubs, but low for herbicide treatment and chaining. Although respondents indicated high levels of acceptance for some management actions, they expressed relatively low levels of trust in land management agencies to implement these actions.
    • Public Policy on Private Lands—A View From a Professional Society Standpoint

      Housley, Ray (Society for Range Management, 1993-02-01)
    • Punch Planting to Establish Grass Seed

      Hauser, V. L. (Society for Range Management, 1982-05-01)
      Perennial grasses are difficult to establish from seed in the Southern Great Plains. The conventional planting practice is to plant grass seeds 1 to 2 cm deep in the soil; but that soil layer often dries quickly, thus preventing plant establishment. I investigated punch planting, which may avoid the problem of soil drying around grass seeds. Punch planting is defined as the placement of seeds in open, small-diameter holes, punched in the soil to a much greater depth than conventional planting. Under drying conditions, punch planting produced satisfactory stands for 5 grasses, but conventional planting produced failures. Where the soil was kept wet, both methods produced satisfactory grass stands. Optimum depth of punch planting was related to seed size and seedling vigor. Small-diameter holes (0.6 cm) produced best plant emergence, because soil at the bottom of these holes dried slower than at the bottom of large holes. Punch planting may offer a solution to the problem of seeding failures.
    • Putting Range Management Facts to Work

      Rogers, A. (Society for Range Management, 1951-09-01)
    • Putting the Pieces Together: Assessing Social, Ecological, and Economic Rangeland Sustainability

      Maczko, Kristie A.; Bryant, Larry D.; Thompson, Dennis W.; Borchard, Steven J. (Society for Range Management, 2004-06-01)
    • Pyric-Herbivory and Cattle Performance in Grassland Ecosystems

      Limb, Ryan F.; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D.; Engle, David M.; Weir, Johhn R.; Elmore, R. Dwayne; Bidwell, Terrance G. (Society for Range Management, 2011-11-01)
      Achieving economically optimum livestock production on rangelands can conflict with conservation strategies that require lower stocking rate to maintain wildlife habitat. Combining the spatial and temporal interaction of fire and grazing (pyric- herbivory) is a conservation-based approach to management that increases rangeland biodiversity by creating heterogeneous vegetation structure and composition. However, livestock production under pyric-herbivory has not been reported. In both mixed-grass prairie and tallgrass prairie, we compared livestock production in pastures with traditional fire and grazing management (continuous grazing, with periodic fire on tallgrass prairie and without fire on mixed-grass prairie) and conservation-based management (pyric-herbivory applied through patch burning) at a moderate stocking rate. Stocker cattle weight gain, calf weight gain, and cow body condition score did not differ (P > 0.05) between traditional and conservation- based management at the tallgrass prairie site for the duration of the 8-yr study. At the mixed-grass prairie site, stocker cattle gain did not differ in the first 4 yr, but stocker cattle gained more (P < 0.05) on conservation-based management and remained 27% greater for the duration of the 11-yr study. Moreover, variation among years in cattle performance was less on pastures under conservation management. Traditional management in mixed-grass prairie did not include fire, the process that likely was associated with increased stocker cattle performance under conservation management. We conclude that pyric-herbivory is a conservation-based rangeland management strategy that returns fire to the landscape without reduced stocking rate, deferment, or rest.
    • Pyric-Herbivory and Hydrological Responses in Tallgrass Prairie

      West, A.L.; Zou, C.B.; Stebler, E.; Fuhlendorf, S.D.; Allred, B. (Society for Range Management, 2016)
      Pyric-herbivory is the spatial and temporal interaction of fire and grazing on area resources that results in site selection by animals on recently burned areas. Pyric-herbivory promotes heterogeneity by increasing bare ground on some patches and litter and aboveground biomass on other patches. The influences of this heterogeneity on hydrological properties and sediment transport are not well documented. We monitored the pattern of cattle occupancy on annually burned and patch burned pastures under moderate stocking rates of steers in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve and quantified surface runoff and sediment transport for simulated rainfall of 10-year return storm intensity applied to different phases of the fire-grazing interaction in 2011 and 2012. Results showed that patch burn altered grazing distribution with cattle spending 70% of their time within the most recently burned areas. Our rainfall simulation results showed the high-intensity grazing following a spring fire did not have a prolonged, ecologically meaningful detrimental impact on hydrological properties of the burned patch in comparison with annually burned grazing pasture. Instead, the increased spatial and temporal heterogeneity of hydraulic properties could potentially enhance resource conservation through runoff and runon interactions within the patch-burned pasture. Further study focusing on quantifying pyric-herbivory effects on runoff and sediment transport at watershed scale will provide needed insights for managing tallgrass prairie for improving ecosystem services. © 2016 Society for Range Management. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Pyric-Herbivory to Promote Rangeland Heterogeneity: Evidence From Small Mammal Communities

      Fuhlendorf, Samuel D.; Townsend, Darrell E.; Elmore, R. Dwayne; Engle, David M. (Society for Range Management, 2010-11-01)
      Management of rangelands has largely operated under the paradigm of minimizing spatially discrete disturbances, often under the objective of reducing inherent heterogeneity within managed ecosystems. This has led to a simplified understanding of rangelands and in many cases simplified rangelands. We argue that this type of management focus is incapable of maintaining biodiversity. An evolutionary model of disturbance (pyric-herbivory) suggests that grazing and fire interact through a series of feedbacks to cause a shifting mosaic of vegetation patterns across the landscape and has potential to serve as a model for management of grasslands with an evolutionary history of grazing. Our study demonstrates that the spatially controlled interaction of fire and grazing can be used to create heterogeneity in grassland ecosystems and the resulting heterogeneity in vegetation is expressed through other trophic levels, specifically small mammals in this study. Discrete fires were applied to patches, and patchy grazing by herbivores promoted a shifting vegetation mosaic across the landscape that created unique habitat structures for various small mammal species. Peromyscus maniculatus was about 10 times more abundant on recently burned patches (1-2 mo) than the uniform treatment or unburned patches within the shifting mosaic treatment. Chaetodipus hispidus was about 10 times greater in patches that were 15-20 mo post-fire in the shifting mosaic treatment than in the uniform treatment. Sigmodon hispidus, Microtus ochrogaster, and Reithrodontomys fluvescens became dominant in the shifting mosaic in patches that were more than 2 yr post-fire. This study, along with others, suggests that by managing transient focal patches, heterogeneity has the potential to be a new central paradigm for conservation of rangeland ecosystems and can enhance biological diversity and maintain livestock production across broad scales. 
    • Pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of houndstongue (Cynoglossum officinale L.)

      Pfister, J. A.; Molyneux, R. J.; Baker, D. C. (Society for Range Management, 1992-05-01)
      Houndstongue (Cynoglossum officinale L.) is a biennial weed infesting pasture, hayfields, and disturbed areas throughout North America. Houndstongue contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) that are hepatotoxic. First and second year's growth of houndstongue were harvested from emergence to maturity. Nuclear magnetic resonance was used to determine the levels of total PAs, free base, and N-oxide forms of the alkaloids in leaves, stems, buds, flowers, and pods. PA levels generally were highest (1.5 to 2.0% dry weight) in immature plant tissue, with a gradual decline during maturation. Most plant parts contained greater quantities of the N-oxide form of PAs (60-90%) compared to the free base form. Leaves and pods of mature houndstongue contained sufficient PAs to be potentially toxic if ingested by livestock.
    • PyrShaft: an inexpensive homemade drip torch

      Nicholson, Robert A. (Society for Range Management, 1994-02-01)