• Beef Cattle Performance on Crested Wheatgrass plus Native Range vs. Native Range Alone

      Hart, R. H.; Waggoner, J. W.; Clark, D. H.; Kaltenbach, C. C.; Hager, J. A.; Marshall, M. B. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Cattle gains and conception rates in 1974-1977 on crested wheatgrass pasture in spring and fall and native range in summer (CW-NR system) were compared with performance on native range throughout the grazing season (NR system). The CW-NR and NR systems were stocked at 0.20 and 0.10 AU/ha, respectively. Conception rates on CW-NR and NR were 84% and 86%, respectively, excluding results from 1975 when there were problems with heat detection; this difference was not significant. Cow, heifer, and calf gains (average of 0.30, 0.41, and 0.82 kg/day, respectively) and calf weaning weights (average of 196 kg) did not differ significantly between systems. Because of the higher carrying capacity of CW-NR, calf production averaged 24.8 kg/ha vs. 13.0 kg/ha on NR. Other advantages of the CW-NR system included reduced labor for heat checking and for gathering cows for breeding.
    • Beef Cattle Production and Range Practices in South Florida

      Rummel, R. S. (Society for Range Management, 1957-03-01)
    • Beef Cow Size and Productive Efficiency

      Rode, L. M.; Bowden, D. M. (Society for Range Management, 1987-02-01)
    • Beef production from native and seeded Northern Great Plains ranges

      Adams, Don C.; Staigmiller, Robert B.; Knapp, Bradford W. (Society for Range Management, 1989-05-01)
      Multiparous crossbred cows (N=355) were studied over 4 years to evaluate effects of native range (NR) and seeded range on cow reproduction and performance during prebreeding from parturition to the start of breeding and during a 45-day breeding period. Treatments for prebreeding were: (1) NR and (2) crested wheatgrass (CW; Agropyron desertorum Fisch. ex [Link] Schult.) and during breeding: (1) NR, (2) Russian wildrye (RWR; Psathrostachys juncea [Fisch.] Nevski) and (3) contour furrowed NR (CF) interseeded with 'Ladak' alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.). After breeding (postbreeding), all cows grazed NR to weaning in 3 of the 4 years. In year 4, calves were weaned at the end of breeding because of severe drought. Treatments and years were arranged as a factorial. Cow reproduction was evaluated by date of calving, the number of cows in estrus at least once before the beginning of breeding, and fall pregnancy rate. Prebreeding, breeding, and year effects as well as all interactions were nonsignificant (P>0.05) for all reproductive traits. Milk production and milk composition were not affected by prebreeding or breeding treatments. Differences in cow and calf weight gains occurred between prebreeding treatments and generally favored CW. Small differences also occurred in cow weight gains between breeding treatments. All cows gained weight and body condition during prebreeding and breeding and then lost weight and condition postbreeding. Breeding treatment effects on calf gains were small. We concluded that the primary benefits of seeded ranges in the Northern Great Plains are comparable to those documented for increased stocking rate and improved forage management. Seeded ranges did not improve individual animal performance.
    • Beef Production on Lodgepole Pine-Pinegrass Range in Southern British Columbia

      McLean, A. (Society for Range Management, 1967-07-01)
      Yearling steers on lodgepole pine-pinegrass summer range in British Columbia had an average daily gain of 1.75 lb for 103 days per year over a 5-year period. The average gain per acre was 19.3 lb for the season and the average stocking rate was 4.8 acres per AUM. Pinegrass, which provided over 50% of the forage yield, was readily accepted by cattle during early summer but became unpalatable by mid August.
    • Beef Production on Lodgepole Pine-Pinegrass Range in the Cariboo Region of British Columbia

      McLean, A. (Society for Range Management, 1972-01-01)
      Results from the Cariboo grazing trail confirm those from previous ones on lodgepole pine-pinegrass summer range near Kamloops. They also suggest that similar results could be expected in other regions with ecologically similar sites. Yearling steers in the Cariboo district had a 3-year average daily gain of 1.74 lb. for 97 days starting in early June. The average gain per acre was 17.8 lb. The average carrying capacity was 4.6 acres/animal unit month.
    • Beef Production on Native Range, Crested Wheatgrass, and Russian Wildrye Pastures

      Smoliak, S.; Slen, S. B. (Society for Range Management, 1974-11-01)
      Weight gains per acre of yearling steers on continuously grazed Russian wildrye were 96.2 lb, or six times the gain of 16.0 lb on native range over a 6-year period. Crested wheatgrass, native range, and Russian wildrye grazed in a rotation or free-choice system reduced the acreage requirement to 15 acres per animal-unit for 6 months from 28 acres required for native range and increased beef production per acre by 55 to 66%. The vegetation on each of the three pasture types was maintained in a more productive condition when they were grazed in rotation in individually fenced fields than when they were grazed free-choice as a single unit. Crested wheatgrass and Russian wildrye effectively extended the grazing season.
    • Behavior of Fistulated Steers on a Desert Grassland

      Zemo, T.; Klemmedson, J. O. (Society for Range Management, 1970-05-01)
      Behavior of four ruminal fistulated steers was studied for a 60-day period in mid-summer on mesquite and mesquite-free desert grassland pastures near Tucson, Arizona. Steers consistently grazed during four definite daylight grazing periods and two nighttime periods throughout the study. The four steers were remarkably similar in their activities and differed only in salting time; their activities did not appear to differ from those of intact cattle. Activities were similar on mesquite and mesquite-free pastures. As the grazing season advanced and forage matured, rumination time increased and frequency of urination declined. Other behavioral activities of the steers were unaffected by sources of variation studied.
    • Behavior of Forage Yields on Some Range Sites in Oregon

      Anderson, E. W. (Society for Range Management, 1962-09-01)
    • Behavior of Hereford Cows and Calves on Short Grass Range

      Peterson, R. A.; Woolfolk, E. J. (Society for Range Management, 1955-03-01)
    • Behavior of Range Cows in Response to Winter Weather

      Malechek, J. C.; Smith, B. M. (Society for Range Management, 1976-01-01)
      Hereford cows consuming a sub-maintenance diet on a northern Utah winter range altered their daily behavioral routines in response to changes in weather. They spent more time grazing and less time standing on warm days than on cold days. They also grazed and ruminated for longer time periods following changes in atmospheric pressure. Distances the cows traveled daily were highly and inversely related to average daily wind velocities. The net result of these alterations in behavioral patterns was a reduction in energy expenditures for physical activities during periods of weather stress.
    • Behavior of Yearling Cattle on Eastern Oregon Range

      Sneva, F. A. (Society for Range Management, 1970-05-01)
      Brahman x Hereford and Hereford yearling steers, grazing a sagebrush-bunchgrass range in eastern Oregon, displayed a distinct early morning, late evening, and a variable midday grazing pattern. Bedding occurred after 9 pm and little or no grazing activity was observed between that time and daybreak. The distribution of activity by these yearling steers during the grazing day was similar to that of cows grazing semi-arid ranges as reported by others. Three-fourths of the total travel time but only 20% of the total grazing time occurred around the time of watering.
    • Behavioral Factors in Rotational Grazing Systems

      Brunson, Mark W.; Burritt, Elizabeth A. (Society for Range Management, 2009-10-01)
    • Behavioral Interference Between Sympatric Reindeer and Domesticated Sheep in Norway

      Colman, Jonathan E.; Tsegaye, Diress; Pedersen, Christian; Eidesen, Ruben; Arntsen, Herbjørg; Holand, Øystein; Mann, Alex; Reimers, Eigil; Moe, Stein R. (Society for Range Management, 2012-05-01)
      Interspecific interaction among sympatric ungulates is important in management and conservation. We investigated behavioral interference between sympatric wild or semidomestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and sheep (Ovis aries) in two field studies and one enclosure experiment. For free-ranging wild and semidomestic reindeer, interference between the two species increased with decreasing distances, occurring only at less than 200 m and 30 m, for wild and semidomestic reindeer, respectively, and neither species consistently dominated the other. In a controlled, duplicated experiment we tested interference and confrontations at the feeding patch level among semidomestic reindeer and sheep within 40 X 50 m enclosures. When new reindeer or sheep were introduced into enclosures already occupied by reindeer, new reindeer resulted in significantly more interference and confrontations among individuals compared to new sheep; i.e., intraspecific interference was more prevalent than interspecific interference at equal densities. For all study areas, confrontations decreased with time after ‘‘first encounter,’’ indicating cohabituation. A sympatric use of pastures was not visually disruptive for recorded grazing behavior for either species./La interacción inter-específica entre ungulados que ocupan el mismo habitat es importante para el manejo y la observación. Investigamos la interferencia en el comportamiento entre el reno silvestre o semi-doméstico (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) y la oveja (Ovis aries) en dos campos de estudio y un exclusión experimental. Para renos silvestres o semi-domésticos que pastorean libremente la interferencia entre las dos especies aumenta conforme se reduce la distancia ocurriendo, solo a menos de 200 y 30 metros para los renos silvestres y renos semi-domésticos respectivamente y ninguna de las especies domino a la otra. En un experimento controlado y duplicado probamos la interferencia y confrontación a nivel de parche de alimentación entre renos semi-domésticos y ovejas dentro de una exclusión de 40350 metros. Cuando los renos u ovejas nuevos fueron introducidos en la exclusión donde ya estaba ocupada por otros renos, los nuevos renos resultaron en una interferencia y confrontación significativa mayor entre individuos comparada con ovejas nuevas; ejm. Interferencia intraespecífica fue más acentuada que interferencia interespecífica en densidades iguales. Para todas las áreas de estudio las confrontaciones disminuyeron con el tiempo después del primer encuentro indicando cohabitación. Un uso simpátrico del pastizal no fue visualmente disruptivo para el comportamiento de pastoreo registrado en ambas especies.
    • Behavioral Responses at Distribution Extremes: How Artificial Surface Water Can Affect Quail Movement Patterns

      Tanner, E. P.; Elmore, R. D.; Fuhlendorf, S. D.; Davis, C. A.; Thacker, E. T.; Dahlgren, D. K. (Society for Range Management, 2015-11)
      Supplementing wildlife populations with resources during times of limitation has been suggested for many species. The focus of our study was to determine responses of northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus; Linnaeus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata; Vigors) to artificial surface-water sources in semiarid rangelands. From 2012-2014, we monitored quail populations via radio telemetry at Beaver River Wildlife Management Area, Beaver County, Oklahoma. We used cumulative distribution functions and resource utilization functions (RUFs) to determine behavioral responses of quail to water sources. We also used Program MARK to determine if water sources had any effect on quail vital rates. Our results indicated that both northern bobwhite and scaled quail exhibited behavioral responses to the presence of surface-water sources. Northern bobwhite selected for areas < 700 m and < 650 m from water sources during the breeding and nonbreeding season, respectively. However, the nonbreeding season response was weak ( =-0.06, SE = < 0.01), and the breeding season ( = 0.01, SE = 0.02) response was nonsignificant on the basis of RUFs. Scaled quail selected for areas < 650 m and < 250 m from water sources during the breeding and nonbreeding season, respectively. The breeding season RUF ( =-0.31, SE = 0.07) indicated a stronger response for scaled quail than bobwhite. Conversely, there was no direct effect of surface water on quail vital rates or nest success during the course of our study. Although water may affect behavioral patterns of quail, we found no evidence that it affects quail survival or nest success for these two species. © 2015 Society for Range Management. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Behavioral toxicology of livestock ingesting plant toxins

      Pfister, J. A.; Cheney, C. D.; Provenza, F. D. (Society for Range Management, 1992-01-01)
      Traditionally, effects of plant toxins on livestock have been measured using tissue or biochemical changes to determine the extent of intoxication. In addition to traditional approaches, toxic effects can be measured using behavioral principles; this discipline is called behavioral toxicology. Behavioral toxicology is a combination of toxicology, pharmacology, and the experimental analysis of behavior. Behavioral toxicology offers a sensitive means to determine toxic impacts by evaluating behavior, since behavior is a functional integration of all body systems. Concurrent use of behavior and traditional pathological measures will enhance our understanding of plant-caused intoxications. Operant analysis of animal behavior is a powerful technique used often in behavioral toxicology for establishiig normal behavior, and detecting toxicity-induced deviations from normal behavior. Behavioral toxicology can provide an understanding of ingestive and reproductive (sexual and maternal) responses of livestock after exposure to a variety of plant toxins. Such information, together with knowledge about plant/animal interactions, will provide range and animal managers with tools to use in preventing or reducing livestock losses to poisonous plants.
    • Benavides Sociedad de Produccion Rural de R.S.—Una Empresa Ganadera Diferente

      Benavides, Trinidad (Society for Range Management, 1981-02-01)
    • Benefits from Good Management on Southern Forest Ranges

      Duvall, V. L. (Society for Range Management, 1964-05-01)
    • Benefits of Intercrops as Feed Sources for Livestock

      Esmail, S. H. M. (Society for Range Management, 1991-08-01)
    • Benefits of Managed Grazing: A Manager's Perspective

      Budd, Bob; Thorpe, Jim (Society for Range Management, 2009-10-01)