• Suppression of Knapweed Invasion by Crested Wheatgrass in the Dry Interior of British Columbia

      Berube, D. E.; Myers, J. H. (Society for Range Management, 1982-07-01)
      We resampled an experimental plot established 11 years previously in the dry interior of British Columbia to test the ability of crested wheatgrass and Russian wild rye to suppress the invasion of diffuse knapweed. Knapweed density was high in non-seeded plots, moderate in Russian wild rye plots, and very low in crested wheatgrass plots. Watering experiments indicated that lack of soil moisture resulted in high seedling mortality and prevented knapweed invasion into crested wheatgrass plots. Diffuse knapweed reinvaded a similar experimental area in a higher rainfall region of B.C., which shows that the same cultural practices will have different effects on knapweed suppression under different climatic regimes.
    • Surface Coal Mining in Wyoming: Needs for Research and Management

      Thilenius, J. F.; Glass, G. B. (Society for Range Management, 1974-09-01)
      Wyoming ranks second in the nation in strippable coal resources, with at least 18.9 billion tons of coal presently recoverable. Mining this coal could disturb about 590 square miles (0.6%) of the state's land area. The presence of this disturbed land offers a challenge to, and opportunity for, the varied fields of renewable resource research and management to practice their sciences and arts to allow the nation to use the coal without lasting detrimental effects on other resources.
    • Surface Fuel Sampling Strategies: Linking Fuel Measurements and Fire Effects

      Twidwell, Dirac; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D.; Engle, David M.; Taylor, Charles A. (Society for Range Management, 2009-05-01)
      We assessed the effectiveness of different sampling strategies in linking fine fuel load and crown scorch of ashe (Juniperus ashei) and redberry juniper (J. pinchotii) for prescribed fires conducted in wet and dry periods of the growing season on the Edwards Plateau, Texas, USA. Our aim was to determine if spatial and temporal variation in crown scorch was best predicted by estimates of fuel load sampled with spatially explicit, multiscale sampling strategies or with traditional, simple random sampling of fuel load. We found that multiscale sampling of fuel load underneath and adjacent to juniper crowns was more effective than simple random sampling in predicting crown scorch for the 14 fires conducted in the wet period and the five conducted in the dry period. The type of sampling strategy employed was critical in relating fuel load to crown scorch during the wet period. Percent crown volume scorched ranged from 0% to 100% in these conditions. In contrast, the type of sampling strategy was less important in the dry period when crown scorch was >90% for all juniper trees. We use these findings to illustrate how a multiscale sampling design can increase prediction power, thereby improving our ability to provide resource professionals with critical values to target in management. Using such a strategy in this study revealed that fine fuel loading of 2 670 kg ha-1 were needed to scorch juniper trees 100% for the conditions present in the wet period, whereas only 1 280 kg ha-1 were needed in the dry period. To provide managers with this type of information, we suggest that researchers shift from simple, random sampling of fuels to alternate sampling designs where randomization is maintained in the designation of treatments or selection of observations (i.e., individual juniper trees) but where fuel is systematically sampled at the location of the observation of interest. 
    • Surface runoff plot design for use in watershed research

      Williams, J. D.; Buckhouse, J. C. (Society for Range Management, 1991-07-01)
      A micro-watershed design is presented for use in watershed research projects. The plot size is 5 m (1 X 5 m) and uses low cost materials for construction. This plot size is suitable for surface flow and soil erosion research projects conducted where space is limiting and may be used either for monitoring natural or simulated rainfall events. Similar plots were used in research conducted on the Hall Ranch of the Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center, Union, Ore.
    • Survey of Professional Attitudes toward Range Science Education and Training

      Kienast, C. R.; Scifres, C. J. (Society for Range Management, 1973-05-01)
      Questionnaires relative to range science education and training were completed by about 120 professionals in the discipline. Respondents were in general agreement that coursework in the social sciences should receive more emphasis in range curricula. Most respondents also stressed the ever-increasing need for development and refinement of communicative skills. Natural resource use, planning, and management was most frequently cited as an important future problem facing range workers. Expertise in public relations also rated high as a future need for rangemen. The majority of the respondents indicated that training undergraduates as land resource managers should be emphasized instead of utilizing curricula dominated by "strictly scientific aspects." Most respondents were optimistic concerning future employment possibilities for range majors with indications that future graduates might be in increasing demand for certain areas of industry and business.
    • Survivability of Wyoming Big Sagebrush Transplants

      Clements, C.D.; Harmon, D.N. (Society for Range Management, 2019-04)
      Wyoming big sagebrush is a dominant shrub species on millions of acres of rangelands throughout the Intermountain West and plays a critical role in the health and diversity of many wildlife species. Restoration practices to re-establish Wyoming big sagebrush on degraded habitats have largely been met with submarginal success, yet the need to restore or rehabilitate Wyoming big sagebrush has become increasingly important due to extensive losses of big sagebrush habitats, fragmentation, and sensitive sagebrush obligate species. Lack of success from seeding rangelands either by ground application or aerially has prompted some resource managers to look more closely at transplantng methodologies. Transplanting of Wyoming big sagebrush is largely done using cone-size containers or bare-stock plants and is recommended to be conducted in spring. This study was initiated in 2012 to test fall versus spring transplanting. Fall transplanting success averaged 65% with a range of 41% to 82%, while spring transplant success averaged 41% with a range of 13% to 65%. The cold desert of the Great Basin receives the majority of its precipitation during winter months, therefore providing a more reliable source of available precipitation for newly transplanted Wyoming big sagebrush seedlings. A significant part of increasing big sagebrush transplanting success is the combination of increased container size and moving the timing of transplanting from spring to fall due to an increase in favorable and reliable precipitation.
    • Survival and agronomic performance of 25 alfalfa cultivars and strains interseeded into rangeland

      Berdahl, J. D.; Wilton, A. C.; Frank, A. B. (Society for Range Management, 1989-07-01)
      This study assesses survival and agronomic performance of 7-year-old stands of 25 alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars and experimental strains interseeded into rangeland near Mandan, N.Dak. Associated grasses consisted primarily of crested wheatgrass [Agropyron desertorum (Link) Schulte.], western wheatgrass [Pascopyrum smithii (Rydb.) Löve], needle-and-thread (Stipa comata Trin. & Rupr.), and blue grama [Bouteloua gracilis (H.B.K.) Lag.]. Soil was a Chama silt loam (Typic Haplustolls), an upland soil with moderate water holding capacity. Each entry was replicated 4 times in a randomized complete block design in plots consisting of 3 interseeded rows 6.1 m long with 90 cm between rows. Alfalfa cultivars and experimental strains with a high proportion of falcata [M. sativa subsp. falcata (L.) Arcang.] parentage were better adapted to interseeding into rangeland at a semiarid site in the northern Great Plains than traditional hay-type cultivars which have a high proportion of sativa (M. sativa L. subsp. sativa) parentage. Sativa-types with high levels of known winterhardiness had low survival in this test. Seven years after plant establishment, the 12 falcata-type entries averaged 100% more plants or propagules m-2, 124% wider foliage spread of plant rows, and 68% more dry matter yield, respectively, than the 13 sativa-type entries. Traits associated with falcata parentage such as plant spread by root proliferation and broad crown development, dormancy during midsummer drought, and slow, decumbent regrowth may help to enhance alfalfa survival in semiarid rangeland in the Northern Great Plains. These traits have no known utility in more humid environments where maximum forage yields from multiple harvests is a primary objective.
    • Survival and growth of blue grama seedlings in competition with western wheatgrass

      Samuel, M. J.; Hart, R. H. (Society for Range Management, 1992-09-01)
      Competition from other plant species may inhibit establishment and reduce phytomass production of blue grama [Bouteloua gracilis (H.B.K.) Griffiths] on rangeland. Varying levels of competition were achieved by transplanting four-week-old blue grama seedlings into openings 0, 4, 8, or 16 cm in diameter in a western wheatgrass [Pascopyrum smithii (Rydb.) A. Love] sod or in fallow soil. After the first growing season, 42, 79, 88, and 92% of blue grama seedlings survived in 0, 4, 8, and 16 cm openings, respectively, in sod. All plants survived the first growing season in all treatments on fallow, but 86% of the plants in fallow died the first winter. In the first growing season, blue grama plants averaged over 13 seed heads per plant in fallow but less than 1 seed head per plant in sod. Both above- and below-ground phytomass of blue grama and western wheatgrass were reduced by competition. Plant height in fallow was about twice that in sod. Both survival and vigor of blue grama seedlings were reduced with increasing levels of western wheatgrass competition. For successful establishment of blue grams in an existing sward, artificial or natural openings must be created.
    • Survival and growth of globemallow [Sphaeralcea] species in dry land spaced-plant nurseries

      Pendery, B. M.; Rumbaugh, M. D. (Society for Range Management, 1990-09-01)
      Globemallows (Sphaeralcea spp.) have potential in rangeland seedings. Thirty-seven accessions of globemallow were grown at 2 sites in northern Utah and southern Idaho to quantify their agronomic attributes. Data for transplant survival, standing crop, and seed yield were collected in 1987 and 1988. Total globemallow survival (mean = 92%) and seed weights (mean = 0.8 g/plant) differed significantly (P is lesser than or equal to 0.05) among locations. Plant weight (mean = 102 g/plint) differed significantly (P is lesser than or equal to 0.05) among locations, species (S. grossulariifolia, S. coccinea, S. parvifolia, S. munroana, and interspecific hybrids), and years. In a second study, 5 globemallow accessions of 2 species and ‘Spredor 2’ alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were grown with ‘Hycrest’ crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum X A. cristatum) to determine forage yields from 1985-1988. Globemallows produced significantly (P is lesser than or equal to 0.05) less forage (62 g/ml) than alfalfa (389 g/m2). Forage yield of S. munroana (76 g/m2) did not differ significantly (P>0.05) from that of S. grossulariifolia (48 g/m2). Forage yield of crested wheatgrass (mean = 101 g/m2) did not differ significantly (P>0.05) when grown with globemallow versus alfalfa. Plant breeding and selection could probably improve these agronomic attributes for globemallows seeded on rangelands.
    • Survival of 16 alfalfa populations space planted into a grassland

      Hendrickson, J. R.; Berdahl, J. D. (Society for Range Management, 2003-05-01)
      Many alfalfa (Medicago spp.) cultivars have limited ability to persist under grazing and therefore, a key step in incorporating alfalfa into pastures and rangelands is choosing a grazing tolerant cultivar. In this study, we evaluated the grazing tolerance of 16 alfalfa populations representing a range of potential grazing tolerance. Entries were transplanted on a rangeland site in July 1996 at the Northern Great Plains Research Lab in Mandan, N.D., USA and mob-grazed by cattle from 1997 to 2000. Plant survival, basal area, and stem numbers were recorded in the spring and fall of each year. At the final survival evaluation in May 2001, SCMF 3713 had the highest survival (90%), 'Vernal' had the lowest (23%) and 10 of the 16 entries had greater than 50% survival. A large decline in survival between September 2000 and May 2001 may be attributed to low temperatures in November and December of 2000. Entries such as 'Alfagraze', B-36 and Agripro ZG9415, which were developed in warmer climates, had the largest percentage drop in survival (43.0, 48.6, and 48.6 percentage points respectively) while SCMF 3713, 'Anik' and Alaska Syn A, developed in colder climates, had the least percentage point drops (2.8, 4.1, and 4.1 respectively). The ability to survive over winter contributed more to the different survival rates of these alfalfa populations than did any of the measured plant variables. Producers should know the origins of grazing tolerant alfalfa cultivars and consider selecting cultivars that have been tested in their area.
    • Survival of Alfalfa in Five Semiarid Range Seedings

      Rumbaugh, M. D.; Pedersen, M. W. (Society for Range Management, 1979-01-01)
      Selected cultivars and strains of alfalfa were seeded at five locations in Northern Utah during 1953 and 1954. Average annual precipitation ranged from 20 to 36 cm. Observations and detailed plant counts showed a decline in alfalfa stand densities at four of the five sites. The reduction in plant density at two sites was attributed primarily to livestock grazing and to severe damage by rabbits. Moisture stress was an additional factor at two other sites. Plant density has remained high at the fifth location for 23 years.
    • Survival of Cool-Season Species under Texas-Pecos Conditions

      Kemph, G. S.; Schuster, J. L.; Welch, T. G. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
      Four cool-season species were grown for 1 year under controlled conditions simulating a dry, a typical, and a wet fall planting season in far west Texas. Crested wheatgrass and Russian wildrye had higher survival percentages than sideoats grama at the end of the study. Both species appear capable of reducing the cool-season forage shortage in the Trans-Pecos region of Texas. Neither wintergreen hardinggrass nor burnet appear adapted to the Trans-Pecos. Seedling morphology did not affect plant survival.
    • Survival of Escherichia coli in Beef Cattle Fecal Pats Under Different Levels of Solar Exposure

      Meays, Cindy L.; Broersma, Klaas; Nordin, Rick; Mazumder, Asit (Society for Range Management, 2005-05-01)
      Understanding the survival and transport of Escherichia coli in feces on land and in water is important when trying to assess contamination of water by grazing animals. A fecal-pat experiment was conducted in July and August of 2003 to investigate the survival of E. coli under 4 levels of solar exposure controlled by using shade cloth. Fresh beef cattle manure was uniformly blended to produce 2.5- and 1.6-kg fecal pats, which were placed in plastic trays or in contact with the soil and covered with 0%, 40%, 80%, or 100% shade cloth treatments and replicated 5 times. Samples from each fecal pat were collected at Time 0 to establish E. coli levels; sampling was repeated at Day 1, Day 3, and approximately weekly thereafter for 45 days to determine die-off. E. coli concentration and percent moisture were measured for each fecal sample. At the end of the experiment, fecal pats under the 0% shade cloth had the lowest E. coli concentrations, followed by the 40%, 80%, and 100% treatments, with 0.018, 0.040, 0.11, and 0.44 X 10^6 colony-forming units (CFU) g-1, respectively. Fecal-pat size was significant only on Day 17, when large fecal pats had higher concentrations of E. coli (P < .0001). There was no significant difference (P = 0.43) in E. coli concentration between the fecal pats in contact with the soil vs. those in plastic trays. Percent moisture of fecal pats was not a good covariate. Age of fecal pats, as well as exposure to solar radiation negatively influences the survival of E. coli. From a management perspective, E. coli in fecal pats under forested situations would survive longer than in open grasslands due to shading, and any possible contamination by E. coli would be greatest within 7 days of removing cattle from a riparian area or pasture.  
    • Survival of juvenile basin big sagebrush under different grazing regimes

      Owens, M. K.; Norton, B. E. (Society for Range Management, 1990-03-01)
      Basin big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt ssp tridentata Beetle) often invades rangelands seeded to introduced grass species. Livestock grazing may enhance the invasion but the effects of grazing intensity on invasion rates are not known. To investigate invasion rates, individual big sagebrush plants were marked and observed for mortality over a 4-year period within a short duration grazing (SDG) cell and continuous season-long grazed pastures. Over the course of the experiment, the survival of juvenile big sagebrush was higher in the SDG cell. However, there were no differences in survival between grazing treatments during the first year of the study. In subsequent years, declining tiller numbers and density of individual crested wheatgrass plants may have decreased the competitive pressure on juvenile big sagebrush under SDG. The intensity of grazing did not affect which individual juveniles survived. Plants with more than 50 cm2 canopy area had the highest survival rates of all big sagebrush in both grazing treatments. Plant density, which ranged from 1 to 30 plants m-2, did not affect plant survival in either of the grazing treatments. Big sagebrush survival in the SDG cell was higher in a rhizomatous grass community than in a tussock grass community.
    • Survival of Rabbitbrush, Chrysothamnus Spp., Following Chemical, Burning, and Mechanical Treatments

      Robertson, J. H.; Cords, H. P. (Society for Range Management, 1957-03-01)
    • Survival of Sprouting Shrubs Following Summer Fire: Effects of Morphological and Spatial Characteristics

      Dacy, Emily C.; Fulbright, Timothy E. (Society for Range Management, 2009-03-01)
      Efficacy of fire in reducing shrub density is low in plant communities where most woody plants resprout from stem bases and crowns following fire. Our objective was to determine the relationship of shrub mortality and recovery from summer fire to prefire shrub structural characteristics. A randomized, complete block design with two treatments (burned and control) and three blocks was used in the experiment. Within each block and treatment combination, we randomly selected 40 individuals each of brasil (Condalia hookeri M. C. Johnst.), huisache (Acacia farnesiana [L.] Willd.), and spiny hackberry (Celtis ehrenbergiana [Klotzsch] Liebm.). We estimated height, canopy diameter, number of stems, stem diameter, and distance to the nearest shrubs before ignition of fires. Fires were ignited during July and August 2001. Survival, sprout number, height, and total plant height were estimated 47-52 wk postburn. Mortality of brasil was 26 times greater on burned sites than on control sites, but mortality of huisache and spiny hackberry was negligible. Mortality of brasil varied from 0% to 68% among blocks. Postburn height and number of sprouts increased with preburn shrub height and number of stems, indicating that longer intervals of time between fires that allow shrub growth facilitate more rapid postfire recovery. Factors other than the preburn shrub structural characteristics we measured appear to influence postfire shrub survival most strongly, although these characteristics are useful in predicting postfire sprout production and shrub height. 
    • Survival Patterns of Major Perennials in Salt Desert Shrub Communities of Southwestern Utah

      West, N. E. (Society for Range Management, 1979-11-01)
      Chart quadrat records periodically taken at the Desert Experimental Range in southwestern Utah over 34 years were examined for evidence of establishment and survival of eight major perennial plant species. A set of seedlings that became established in 1935-37 were followed until 1968-70. Relatively few individuals have died since the second year after establishment. There were few significant differences between the survival of plants in the grazed versus ungrazed plots.
    • Survivorship and Causes of Mortality for Livestock-Guarding Dogs on Namibian Rangeland

      Marker, Laurie L.; Dickman, Amy J.; Macdonald, David W. (Society for Range Management, 2005-07-01)
      This paper reports upon the survivorship of 143 livestock-guarding dogs placed on Namibian rangeland between January 1994 and January 2002 as part of a study of techniques that could be used to reduce stock losses on commercial ranches and communal farms. During the study period, 61 (42.7%) of the dogs placed were removed from working situations. Deaths accounted for 49 (80.3%) of removals, while the remaining 12 (19.7%) were transfers out of the program. Causes of death varied by both farm type and age group. The most common cause of death for working dogs, especially young ones, was accidental, which accounted for 22 reported deaths, while culling of the dog by the owner was the reason for 12 working dog deaths, all of which occurred on commercial ranches. The mean survival time as a working dog was estimated as 4.16 (+/-0.40) years for males, 4.65 (+/-0.45) years for females, and 4.31 (+/-0.31) years for all dogs placed. Survival distributions differed slightly (P = 0.049) between farm types, with adult mortality less common on communal farms than on commercial ranches. There was no significant difference (P = 0.612) between the sexes regarding survival distributions. With good care of the dogs and sufficient information provided to farmers, guarding dogs can act as an effective and economically beneficial method of livestock protection, with implications for range management both in Namibia and elsewhere.  
    • Susceptibility of Selected Woody Plants to Pelleted Picloram

      Kitchen, L. M.; Scifres, C. J.; Mutz, J. L. (Society for Range Management, 1980-09-01)
      Picloram pellets, aerially applied at 1.1 kg/ha in the spring to South Texas mixed-brush, effectively controlled spiny hackberry and pricklypear, and 2.2 kg/ha temporarily controlled blackbrush acacia. However, agarito, desert yaupon, lotebush, Texas persimmon, and whitebrush were only slightly susceptible to soil applications of picloram, and honey mesquite and creeping mesquite were tolerant. Range site exerted a significant influence only with initial defoliation of twisted acacia. Although canopy reduction of twisted acacia after one growing season was higher on Shallow than on Rolling Blackland or Claypan Prairie range sites, it was apparently only moderately susceptible to pelleted picloram. Shredding prior to pellet applications did not improve the level of brush control compared to applying the picloram to undisturbed brush stands. There was no consistent difference in brush control within an application rate between 5% or 10% active ingredient formulations of picloram pellets.
    • Sustainability in Spanish Extensive Farms (Dehesas): An Economic and Management Indicator-Based Evaluation

      Gaspar, P.; Mesías, F. J.; Escribano, M.; Pulido, F. (Society for Range Management, 2009-03-01)
      The dehesa is defined as an agroforestry system that is characteristic of the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, where grassland is combined with evergreen species of the genus Quercus. Those systems have been gradually transformed from the Mediterranean forest into a unique kind of pastoral woodland by means of an agricultural use. Dehesas occupy more than 6 million ha, and the livestock systems that are based in them are of vital importance for their sustainability. The present work classifies, describes, and evaluates the sustainability of these systems in the Spanish region of Extremadura (southwestern Spain). To this end, we apply a methodological adaptation of the Framework for the Evaluation of Management Systems incorporating Sustainability Index (MESMIS). MESMIS is based on the evaluation of basic attributes of sustainability from indicators that allow one to make a simultaneous and comparative analysis of different types of farms. For the study, 69 farms were selected at random, and were classified using multivariate techniques into four types according to their level of intensification and productive orientation. The results were used to obtain an overall value of sustainability from a technical economic perspective for each farm type present in the dehesa. The mixed systems (beef cattle-sheep-Iberian pigs) have been found to be the most sustainable in general terms. The high-stocking rate sheep dehesas are the least sustainable, although at present, they are the most profitable. The other two groups analyzed, ‘‘low-stocking rate sheep farms’’ and ‘‘beef cattle farms,’’ had intermediate and similar scores. Mixed livestock dehesa farms are the closest to the traditional systems with a highly diverse production, an optimal use of the system’s resources, and little dependence on external subsidies. In the present context, with uncertainties about European Union subsidies, this type of farm should be a goal for dehesa farmers.