• Sustainability of Inner Mongolian grasslands: application of the Savanna model

      Christensen, L.; Coughenour, M. B.; Ellis, J. E.; Chen, Z. (Society for Range Management, 2003-07-01)
      The sustainability and resilience of an Asian typical steppe grazing ecosystem was assessed by determining thresholds and stable states with an ecosystem simulation model. This analysis used the Savanna model to simulate spatial climate, vegetation, and livestock grazing dynamics, at 14 different stocking rates (5.5-59.8 AUY km-2). Grazing effects on vegetation were assessed, including effects on primary production, vegetation composition, and root biomass. Simulations were run for 100 years: 50 years to examine sustainability and 50 years to examine resilience of the system. Results showed that a grazing intensity (1-g/u; g = biomass in grazed area, u = biomass in ungrazed area) of 0.49 was sustainable for this particular system. This region was resilient to grazing up to the intensity of 0.49, where the system remained dominated by herbaceous production. Grazing intensities higher than 0.49, in combination with low precipitation events, resulted in decreased herbaceous net primary production and root biomass, and increased shrub net primary production and root biomass. Herbaceous vegetation was unable to gain a competitive advantage over shrubs in areas where grazing intensities were above 0.49; consequently, the system shifted to a stable shrub-dominated state that could not return its original composition even without further grazing.
    • Sustainable Management Strategies for Mesquite Rangeland: The Waggoner Kite Project

      Teague, Richard; Borchardt, Rob; Ansley, Jim; Pinchak, Bill; Cox, Jerry; Foy, Joelyn K.; McGrann, Jim (Society for Range Management, 1997-10-01)
    • Sustainable Ranching: A Rancher's Perspective

      Ward, Nol (Society for Range Management, 1998-06-01)
    • Sustainable Rangelands in the Near East and North Africa

      Sidahmed, Ahmed E. (Society for Range Management, 1992-08-01)
    • Sustainable Rangelands Roundtable

      Rowe, Helen Ivy; Maczko, Kristie; Bartlett, E. T.; Mitchell, John E. (Society for Range Management, 2002-12-01)
    • Sustaining Ecosystem Services From Private Lands in California: The Role of the Landowner

      Ferranto, Shasta; Huntsinger, Lynn; Kelly, Maggi (Society for Range Management, 2014-10-01)
      On the Ground • California landownerships are changing—becoming smaller and more amenity-driven, with important implications for ecosystem service production. • Residence on the property, larger property size, source of income from the land, having a longterm outlook, and using an advisory service are associated with landowner management for ecosystem services for the owner and for society. • Advisory services like Cooperative Extension and the Natural Resources Conservation Service, as well as private consultants and professional organizations, have an important role in the future of ecosystem service production.
    • Sustaining the People's Lands: Recommendations for Stewardship of the National Forests and Grasslands into the Next Century

      Johnson, K. Norman; Agee, James; Beschta, Robert; Dale, Virginia; Hardesty, Linda; Long, James; Nielsen, Larry; Noon, Barry; Sedjo, Roger; Shannon, Margaret; et al. (Society for Range Management, 1999-08-01)
    • Sustaining the Peoples' Lands: Implications for Rangeland Management

      Hardesty, Linda H. (Society for Range Management, 1999-08-01)
    • Sustaining Working Rangelands: Insights from Rancher Decision Making

      Roche, L. M.; Schohr, T. K.; Derner, J. D.; Lubell, M. N.; Cutts, B. B.; Kachergis, E.; Eviner, V. T.; Tate, K. W. (Society for Range Management, 2015-09)
      Grazed rangeland ecosystems encompass diverse global land resources and are complex social-ecological systems from which society demands both goods (e.g., livestock and forage production) and services (e.g., abundant and high-quality water). Including the ranching community's perceptions, knowledge, and decision-making is essential to advancing the ongoing dialogue to define sustainable working rangelands. We surveyed 507 (33% response rate) California ranchers to gain insight into key factors shaping their decision-making, perspectives on effective management practices and ranching information sources, as well as their concerns. First, we found that variation in ranch structure, management goals, and decision making across California's ranching operations aligns with the call from sustainability science to maintain flexibility at multiple scales to support the suite of economic and ecological services they can provide. The diversity in ranching operations highlights why single-policy and management "panaceas" often fail. Second, the information resources ranchers rely on suggest that sustaining working rangelands will require collaborative, trust-based partnerships focused on achieving both economic and ecological goals. Third, ranchers perceive environmental regulations and government policies-rather than environmental drivers-as the major threats to the future of their operations. © 2015 Society for Range Management.
    • Sward and steer variables affecting feasibility of electronic intake measurement of grazers

      Forwood, J. R.; Da Silva, A. M. B.; Paterson, J. A. (Society for Range Management, 1991-11-01)
      Forage intake is perhaps the most critical parameter in understanding performance of ruminants on pasture. The Thermal Conductivity Cannula (TCC) is an animal-carried device that measures forage intake without disturbing normal grazing patterns by counting the number of boli swallowed over time. To evaluate its accuracy, studies of the effects of animal size, forage availability, quality, and species differences were conducted. In a grazing study, bolus weights of heavy (533 kg) and light (360 kg) esophageally fistulated steers were monitored on 2 different grazing systems [tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Shreb) + red clover (Trifolium sp.) season-long vs. tall fescue + red clover in spring and fall and bit bluestem (Andropogon gerardi Vit; cv. Kaw) in summer]. Boli weight differences between steer weights indicated that TCC intake estimation will require calibration for steer weight or use of uniform steers. Boli weights of heavy steers varied (P < 0.05) within (9.0 to 19.4 g) and among (19.4 to 30.2 g) forage species. That did not occur with light steers (average = 6.25). Analysis of data on a metabolic weight basis indicated that size of the oral cavity and the 'critical mass' needed to stimulate swallowing may be a factor as well as weight. Sward characteristics and quality parameters were poorly correlated with bolus weight. An indoor study using 3 steer weights (heavy-546 kg, medium-486 kg, and light-220 kg) fed orchardgrass (100%), alfalfa (100%), and orchardgrass X alfalfa hay (50/50) indicated that heavier steers always produced heavier boli but that the weight differences between steers had to be greater than 86 kg to be significantly different. Light steers produced most consistent boli weights over all feeds.
    • Sward quality affected by different grazing pressures on dairy systems

      Mosquera-Losada, M. R.; Gonzalez-Rodríguez, A.; Rigueiro-Rodriguez, A. (Society for Range Management, 2000-11-01)
      The objective of the experiment was to examine the effects of different stocking densities (3.7, 4.6, and 5.5 cows ha- l) on tiller density, botanical composition, and chemical (crude protein [CP], acid detergent fiber [ADF], Ca, P, K, and Mg) quality of pasture and the seasonal (before flowering [spring], after flowering [summer], and autumn) distribution of these parameters. Percentages of sown [perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv ‘Brigantia’) and white clover (Trifolium repens L. cv ‘Huia’)] and volunteer species were not significantly affected by stocking density, although as stocking density increased, tiller density also increased. This effect was more pronounced for volunteer species than sown species. Density was significantly higher before flowering than after flowering or autumn. Stocking density affected the chemical quality of herbage with ADF, CP, P, K, and Mg higher at high stocking density. The Ca/P relationship was lower at high stocking density, but the K/(Ca+Mg) relationship was not significantly affected by stocking density. Chemical quality of the pasture was higher before flowering than after flowering or autumn. The Ca/P ratio exceeded the upper limit recommended for dairy cows, but no osteomalacia was found in the presen texperiment. Low values of the K/(Ca+Mg) ratio were found in the spring. Therefore, on these pasture types it is advisable to use concentrates high in Mg or Mg supplements in the spring in order to avoid hypomagnesemia.
    • Sweetclover as a Range Legume

      Miles, A. D. (Society for Range Management, 1970-05-01)
      Sweetclover grows among native grasses and supplies nitrogen and phosphate. Sweetclover has been increased on the ranch by managing for seed set, for seedling establishment and by introducing it into new areas. Seed set is favored by grazing off the heavy second year growth to conserve moisture for seed production. Seeding establishment is favored by spring grazing that reduces competition. The ability to reseed itself has been found to be limited to south facing slopes. The sweetclover provides nitrogen and extracts phosphate from the soil for its large growth; the fertility remains to fertilize the grasses.
    • Sweetvetch Seed Germination

      Redente, E. F. (Society for Range Management, 1982-07-01)
      Sweetvetch (Hedysarum boreale Nutt. var. boreale) is a potentially important revegetation species for drastically disturbed lands and range improvements in western North America. The germination of sweetvetch was studied under various temperature, light, and moisture conditions. It was found that sweetvetch can germinate under a wide range of temperature and light conditions following physical scarification of the seed coat. Under constant temperatures optimum germination occurred at 15 degrees C and 20 degrees C, while under alternating temperature optimum germination occurred at 15-25 degrees C and 20-15 degrees C (for 8 hours and 16 hours, respectively, in each case). Dark treatments resulted in greater germination than light treatments. When temperature and light conditions were held constant and moisture conditions varied, the germination of sweetvetch declined rapidly at osmotic potentials below -7.5 bars.
    • Switchgrass growth and development: water, nitrogen, and plant density effects

      Sanderson, M. A.; Reed, R. L. (Society for Range Management, 2000-03-01)
      Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), an important component of the tallgrass prairie, is a productive warm-season forage grass. Interest in growing switchgrass for alternative uses has raised questions about resource use during production. The objective of our study was to examine how resource inputs affected interspecific plant competition in switchgrass. 'Alamo' switchgrass was established from seed in outdoor lysimeters in May 1993 and grown under 22 or 112 kg N ha(-1), and under field capacity or water-deficit conditions until August 1994. Plant spacing varied systematically from 10 to 70 cm. Plants were harvested in late summer each year and individual plant dry weight, tiller number, leaf area, and morphological development stage were measured. Soil moisture tensions below -45 kPa reduced switchgrass photosynthetic rates and xylem pressure potential. As plant spacing increased, tiller number, leaf area, plant dry weight, and morphological development stage increased. Plant dry weight and tiller number in the establishment year was not affected by N input. Established plants in 1994, however, responded to high N input at low plant densities with 50 to 100% greater leaf area and up to 3-fold greater plant dry weight compared to the low-N treatment. The increased plant dry weight at high N input resulted from increased individual tiller weight and not increased tiller number. Our data indicate that competitive responses of switchgrass plants at high plant densities were controlled by competition for aboveground resources, as plant yield and morphology at high densities were not affected by water or N inputs.
    • Switchgrass recruitment from broadcast seed vs. seed fed to cattle

      Ocumpaugh, W. R.; Archer, S.; Stuth, J. W. (Society for Range Management, 1996-07-01)
      Fecal seeding by livestock may be an effective, low-cost means of rangeland restoration. We compared recruitment of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) from seed fed to cattle and deposited in dung to that of broadcast-seeded plots receiving a comparable number of unfed seed. Although germinability of seed passed through livestock (52 to 62%) was reduced relative to that of broadcast seed (85 to 91%), recruitment of switchgrass from seed in cattle feces was equal to or superior to that of broadcast seed in terms of establishment (frequency of occurrence and density), plant growth and final plant size. The frequency of plot with emerging switchgrass plants ranged from 62 to 100% when seeds were delivered in feces, but only 2 to 40% when seeds were broadcast. After 1 year, the frequency of occurrence of switchgrass plant in fecal vs. broadcast-seeded plot was comparable for autumn trials. However, evaluations 1 year after the spring trials continue to result in higher frequency of plot with switchgrass plant from seed delivered in feces than of broadcast seedings (56 vs. 4% for May 1990, P < 0.05; and 90 vs. 51% for May 1991, P less than or equal to 0.01). Enhanced plant recruitment on fecal-seeded plots occurred even though broadcast-seeded plots received 1.5 to 1.7 times more pure live seed (PLS). Plants on fecal-seeded plots had a greater plant size score (based on visual ratings of height, culm density, and biomass) than plants on broadcast-seeded plots (P < 0.05 for May seedings; P < 0.05 for October 1990; P < 0.10 for October 1991). Results suggest significant advantages of fecal seeding over conventional broadcast seeding in terms of seedling emergence, establishment and growth.
    • Switchgrasses: Forage Yield, Forage Quality and Water-use Efficiency

      Koshi, P. T.; Stubbendieck, J.; Eck, H. V.; McCully, W. G. (Society for Range Management, 1982-09-01)
      The purpose of the study was to evaluate 3 strains of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) under 3 water and 3 harvest regimes. Dry matter yields, under natural rainfall and full irrigation, averaged 2.0 and 6.7 metric tons/ha, respectively. Productivity of the 3 strains ranked G 300>HV-341>Blackwell. Yields of HV-341 and Blackwell were similar under 1, 2, or 3 harvests per year but those of G-300 were reduced by 2 or 3 harvests. Switchgrass forage contained about 10.8% crude protein (CP) and 0.23% P in late June. In November, previously unclipped forage contained 4.3% CP and 0.12% P, while that clipped twice contained 5.5% CP and 0.15% P. Maximum production was obtained with 116.5 cm of water use but maximum water use efficiency was obtained with about 85.5 cm of water use (rainfall + irrigation + soil water). The switchgrasses are adapted for use both without irrigation and when varying amounts of irrigation water are available. G-300 yielded more and produced earlier and later than the other two strains thus it may be the best choice for use for range improvement or for irrigated pastures. However, it requires careful management because it is more susceptible to overuse than the other two strains.
    • Symposium on the Plowing of Fragile Grasslands in Colorado

      Laycock, W. A. (Society for Range Management, 1983-04-01)
    • Synthesis Paper: Assessment of Research on Rangeland Fire as a Management Practice

      Limb, R.F.; Fuhlendorf, S.D.; Engle, D.M.; Miller, R.F. (Society for Range Management, 2016)
      Rangelands are fire-dependent ecosystems severely altered through direct fire suppression and fuels management. The removal of fire is a dominant cause of ecological sites moving across thresholds with the majority of North American rangelands currently showingmoderate or high departure from reference conditions. Recognizing the need to restore fire on rangelands and incorporate prescribed fire into management plans, the Natural Resource Conservation Service initiated the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) to evaluate the validity current practices through peer-reviewed scientific literature. We updated the CEAP review and broadened the discussion of prescribed fire as a global management practice. We reviewed and summarized prescribed fire literature available through Web of Science using search terms in the title. The majority of literature (40%) evaluated plant responses to fire with fire behavior and management (29%), wildlife and arthropods (12%), soils (11%), and air quality (4%) evaluated less frequently. Generally, fire effects on plants are neutral to positive and the majority of negative responses lasted less than 2 years. Similarly, soil responses were recovered within 2 yr after burning. However, most studies did not report how long treatments were in place (62%) or the size of experimental units (52%). The experimental literature supporting prescribed burning is in need of greater managerial relevance that can be obtained by directly addressing spatial scale, temporal scale, and interaction with other disturbances, including drought and grazing. Reliance on information from single fires applied on small plots tracked for a relatively short time interval greatly constrains inferences and application to ecosystem management and information should be applied with caution. Therefore, conservation purposes need to incorporate temporal dynamics to the extent that this information is available. The complex interaction of scientific knowledge, social concerns, and variable policies across regions are major limitations to the successful and critical restoration of fire regimes. © 2016 The Society for Range Management. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.