• Taking the Great Animal Crusades Over the Top

      Schmidt, Robert H. (Society for Range Management, 1987-06-01)
    • Taking the Reins

      Gordon, Kindra (Society for Range Management, 2006-08-01)
      Nevada and Idaho have taken a proactive stance on selling ranch stewardship to the public.
    • Talented Teens and Tornadoes

      Williams, Angela (Society for Range Management, 1999-10-01)
    • Tall Larkspur Control with Ammonium Sulphate Fertilizer

      Clementson, Connie (Society for Range Management, 1999-04-01)
    • Tall Larkspur Poisoning in Cattle: Current Research and Recommendations

      Pfister, James A.; Ralphs, Michael H.; Manners, Gary D.; Panter, Kip. E.; James, Lynn F.; Stegelmeier, Bryan L.; Gardner, Dale R. (Society for Range Management, 1993-08-01)
    • Tall Larkspur: Some Reasons for Its Continuing Preeminence as a Poisonous Plant

      Cronin, E. H. (Society for Range Management, 1971-07-01)
      Tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi Huth) causes more financial loss than all other poisonous plants growing on the Wasatch Plateau of Central Utah. It is found in the subalpine zone above 9,500 ft and is only locally abundant on a small portion of this area. Dense stands of tall larkspur occur mainly on sites where deep snowdrifts accumulate during the winter. Plants in the communities on these snowdrift areas remain tender, succulent, and green while the palatability of plants on the surrounding areas declines with increased maturity. This differential palatability limits the effectiveness of livestock management to reduce losses. Control of tall larkspur must be selective. Adequate vegetative cover must remain to protect sites which are predisposed to erosion. The survival capacity of tall larkspur indicates the need for surveillance schedule and provisions for retreating plants not killed by previous treatments.
    • Tallgrass Prairie Plant Community Dynamics Along a Canopy Cover Gradient of Eastern Redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.)

      Limb, Ryan F.; Engle, David M.; Alford, Aaron L.; Hellgren, Eric C. (Society for Range Management, 2010-11-01)
      North American grasslands make up less than 75% of their historic pre-European settlement area, and they continue to be converted to woodlands by woody plant encroachment. Conversion of grassland to woodland alters nutrient cycling, water use, and light penetration, which drives herbaceous plant community dynamics. Because studies examining this relationship among Juniperus species are limited largely to individual trees, we designed a study to examine the relationship between stand-level canopy cover of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) and the herbaceous plant community. We documented herbaceous plant species composition, abundance, and biomass within a North American tallgrass prairie invaded by eastern redcedar in which canopy cover of eastern redcedar ranged from 0% to 80%. Herbaceous species richness declined as a function of increased canopy cover of eastern redcedar and subsequent loss of open space, but this decrease in species richness closely followed a species-area model. Moreover, composition of C3 and C4 grasses and forbs did not change with increasing canopy cover. Herbaceous biomass, which declined with increasing canopy cover, varied most within those plots with intermediate canopy cover. While we found that species richness and biomass declined as canopy cover increased, the decline followed a species-area relationship and was without abrupt change typical of ecological thresholds. We recommend additional research with removal of eastern redcedar trees over a range of canopy cover to assess restoration potential along the encroachment gradient. 
    • Tallgrass prairie response to grazing system and stocking rate

      Gillen, R. L.; McCollum, F. T.; Tate, K. W.; Hodges, M. E. (Society for Range Management, 1998-03-01)
      Grazing system and stocking rate effects on standing crop of species and relative species composition of tallgrass prairies in north-central Oklahoma were evaluated from 1989 to 1993. Twelve experimental units, consisting of pastures dominated by big bluestem [Andropogon gerardii Vitman], little bluestem [Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash], and indiangrass [Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash], were arranged in a completely randomized design with either a short duration rotation or continuous grazing system and stocking rates ranging from 51.5 animal-unit-days/ha (AUD/ha) to 89.8 AUD/ha. Yearling steers grazed the pastures from late April to late September. Cumulative precipitation was above average during the study period. Continuous and rotation grazing affected the major herbage components similarly over time. Standing crop of all major herbage components declined as stocking rate increased. The standing crop of the major herbage components also declined from the first to the last year of the study. The decrease in standing crop of big bluestem, indiangrass and forbs over years was greatest at lighter stocking rates. Relative composition of switchgrass [Panicum virgatum L.] increased at the lower stocking rates over time in both grazing systems. The relationship between shortgrasses and stocking rate was different between grazing systems at the start of the study but became similar between grazing systems over time. After 5 years, short-grasses were positively related to stocking rate under both grazing systems. Favorable growing conditions and the high seral state of the vegetation in the experimental pastures may have tempered the response to grazing treatments.
    • Tallgrass prairie vegetation response to spring burning dates, fertilizer, and atrazine

      Mitchell, R. B.; Masters, R. A.; Waller, S. S.; Moore, K. J.; Young, L. J. (Society for Range Management, 1996-03-01)
      Tallgrass prairies provide an important source of hay and summer forage in eastern Nebraska. A study was conducted in 1989 and 1990 on 2 late seral tallgrass prairies near Lincoln and Virginia, Nebraska to determine if production of selected components of tallgrass prairie communities could be altered by burning (not burned, or burned in either early, mid-, or late spring)and applying fertilizer (0 and 67-23 kg N-P ha-1) and atrazine [6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine] (0 and 2.2 kg a.iha-1). Vegetation was harvested the year treatments were applied at about 30-day intervals starting in June and ending in August. Maximum big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii var. gerardii Vitman) accumulated standing crop (ASC) on unburned areas and areas burned in mid-spring occurred later in 1990 than in 1989. Burning in late spring 1989 maintained big bluestem ASC above 1,100 kg ha-1 through July, whereas big bluestem ASC declined below 840 kg ha-1 in July on areas where other burn treatments were applied. In 1990, big bluestem ASC exceeded 1,570 kg ha-1 in June on areas burned in early and midspring and exceeded 1,500 kg ha-1 in July on areas that were not burned or burned in mid- or late spring. From July to August 1990 big bluestem ASC declined below 730 kg ha-1 for all treatments except the late spring burn treatment where ASC was 1,340 kg ha-1. Burning in late spring reduced prairie dropseed [Sporobolus heterolepis (A. Gray) A. Gray] and tall dropseed [S. asper (Michx.) Kunth.] ASC by at least 67% in June 1990 compared to areas burned in early and mid-spring. Cool-season grass ASC at Virginia declined 86% in June when burned in late spring compared to areas that were not burned. Fertilization increased big bluestem ASC by about 23 and 29% in June and July. Vegetation response to atrazine was variable. Atrazine had a negligible effect on big bluestem ASC. Burning late seral tallgrass prairie in late spring increased big bluestem ASC later in the growing season and decreased cool-season grasses more effectively than burning earlier in the spring.
    • Tamarisk...Maybe Not Invincible

      Hughes, Lee E. (Society for Range Management, 2000-02-01)
    • Tamarix: Impacts of a Successful Weed

      Brotherson, Jack D.; Field, Dean (Society for Range Management, 1987-06-01)
    • Tanglehead in Southern Texas: A Native Grass with an Invasive Behavior

      Wester, D. B.; Bryant, F. C.; Tjelmeland, A. D.; Grace, J. L.; Mitchell, S. L.; Edwards, J. T.; Hernández, F.; Lyons, R. K.; Clayton, M. K.; Rideout-Hanzak, S.; et al. (Society for Range Management, 2018-04)
      Tanglehead is a native bunchgrass with a pan-tropical distribution. Historically, tanglehead was common but not abundant in southern Texas and was considered a decreaser whose presence indicated good range condition. Beginning in the late 1990s, the Texas Coastal Sand Plain ecoregion witnessed dramatic increases in the abundance and distribution of tanglehead: thousands of acres of former grasslands were replaced by dense monotypic stands of tanglehead, reducing habitat quality for livestock and wildlife. Our research has focused on understanding factors related to tanglehead's expansion, its effects on habitat quality, and management practices that can improve range condition and habitat quality. The Authors
    • Tannin and in vitro digestibility of tropical browse: predictive equations

      Conklin, N. L. (Society for Range Management, 1994-09-01)
      Summative equations to predict digestibility of tropical browse species for cattle were tested by comparison to in vitro digestibility. Four equations were used for the comparison: first the 2 Van Soest equations, 1 using sulfuric acid lignin and the other using permanganate lignin, neither of which have a correction for tannins. And second, the 2 Horvath equations, each using 1 of the 2 above mentioned lignin values and both include a value for tannin content. The Van Soest equation using permanganate lignin and the Horvath equation using sulfuric acid lignin predicted the in vitro digestibilities of the leaf species quite well (r = 0.89 for both). The same Horvath equation predicted the digestibility of the high tannin species better than the Van Soest equation (r = 0.93 versus 0.84). For initial evaluation and ranking of browse species suitable for future research efforts, either equation suitable.
    • Tannin chemistry in relation to digestion

      Hagerman, A. E.; Robbins, C. T.; Weerasuriya, Y.; Wilson, T. C.; McArthur, C. (Society for Range Management, 1992-01-01)
      Tannins are a diverse group of compounds which precipitate protein. The impact of tannins on herbivory has been difficult to assess because of diversity in tannin chemistry and in animal physiology. We have evaluated the effects of tannin on large ruminants (deer, sheep) using artificial diets containing well-defined tannins, and have compared the results to those obtained with natural forages. The different effects of condensed tannins and gallotannins on herbivores are related to the chemical stability of the tannins. Commercial tannic acid does not have the same effects on herbivores as gallotannins in natural forages. Molecular weight apparently determines the metabolic fate of gallotannins from various sources.
    • Tapping Soil Survey Information for Rapid Assessment of Sagebrush Ecosystem Resilience and Resistance

      Maestas, Jeremy D.; Campbell, Steven B.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pellant, Mike; Miller, Richard F. (Society for Range Management, 2016-12-01)
      On the Ground • Emerging applications of ecosystem resilience and resistance concepts in sagebrush ecosystems allow managers to better predict and mitigate impacts of wildfire and invasive annual grasses. • Widely available soil survey information can be harnessed to spatially depict and evaluate relative resilience and resistance from regional to site scales. • New products and tools illustrate how managers can use soils data to inform rapid risk assessments, determine appropriate management strategies, and prioritize resources to maintain and restore functioning sagebrush ecosystems.
    • Targeted Grazing in Southern Arizona: Using Cattle to Reduce Fine Fuel Loads

      Bruegger, R.A.; Varelas, L.A.; Howery, L.D.; Torell, L.A.; Stephenson, M.B.; Bailey, D.W. (Society for Range Management, 2016)
      Managing the risk of wildfires is a growing concern in the western United States. Targeted grazing, or managing livestock grazing to achieve specific vegetation goals, is one possible tool to treat fuels, but few studies have evaluated its efficacy. The goal of this study was to test the effect of targeted grazing on herbaceous fuel loads and fire behavior by 1) implementing targeted grazing in a field experiment and 2) using a fire model (BehavePlus) to evaluate changes in fire behavior resulting from treatments. We applied targeted cattle grazing using low-stress herding and strategic placement of low-moisture block supplement on rugged rangelands in southwestern Arizona using a herd of 58 Red Angus cows and two bulls. Six of the cows were initially fitted with global positioning system collars. We tested two grazing treatments: 1) herding and supplement versus 2) no herding and no supplement on two pairs of study sites and replicated this for 2 years. Herding and supplement affected both the distribution of cattle and herbaceous fuel loads. Despite light utilization (26%) in treated sites, the BehavePlus fire model predicted that herding and supplement reduced fire rate of spread by more than 60% in grass communities and by more than 50% in grass/shrub communities. Fuel treatments dropped flame lengths below a 1.2-m critical threshold under the moderate fuel moisture scenario in grass communities and below a 2.4-m critical threshold in grass/shrub communities under both moderate and extreme fuel moisture scenarios. These results suggest that targeted grazing could reduce the potential cost of fighting fires in conditions similar to this study site. However, implementing this type of treatment on other sites will require careful calibration of animal numbers, supplement amounts, and length of herding periods relative to the specific context and goals. © 2016 Society for Range Management. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Targeted Grazing of White Locoweed: Short-Term Effects of Herbivory Regime on Vegetation and Sheep

      Goodman, L. E.; Cibils, A. F.; Lopez, S. C.; Steiner, R. L.; Graham, J. D.; McDaniel, K. C.; Abbott, L. B.; Stegelmeier, B. L.; Hallford, D. M. (Society for Range Management, 2014-11)
      White locoweed (Oxytropis sericea Nuttall) and nontarget vegetation response to 2 yr of targeted grazing by sheep, one treatment of picloram plus 2, 4-D (HER) or no treatment (CON) were compared. Serum of sheep that grazed locoweed intermittently (IGZ, 5 d on locoweed followed by 3 d off locoweed) vs. counterparts that grazed locoweed continuously for 24 d (CGZ) was also examined. Alkaloid toxicity was inferred by serum levels of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and swainsonine, as well as behavior and body weight gains. Three sites were used in a randomized complete block design. IGZ, CGZ, and HER treatments reduced locoweed density (P < 0.01), canopy cover (P < 0.01), number of flower stalks (IGZ: P = 0.02, CGZ and HER: P = 0.01), and plant size (P < 0.01). White locoweed seed density in the soil seed bank was not reduced with grazing, and nontarget vegetation was mostly unaffected by treatments. Grass canopy cover increased in grazed and herbicide plots throughout the study (IGZ: P = 0.03, CGZ and HER: P < 0.01). Percentage bare ground was unchanged (IGZ: P = 0.46, CGZ: P = 0.44) in grazed plots but decreased (P = 0.03) in HER plots. After 24 d, ewes in the IGZ treatment had lower levels of serum ALKP (P < 0.01) and AST (P = 0.02) and marginally lower swainsonine levels (P < 0.07) than CGZ ewes that tended to exhibit lower serum T3 (P < 0.07) and similar serum T4 (P = 0.25) levels. Time spent feeding on locoweed tended to differ (P = 0.06) between treatments. Body weight gain was the same (P = 0.19) regardless of treatment. IGZ of locoweed-infested rangeland with sheep may be a viable short-term means of reducing locoweed density without detrimentally affecting animal health. © 2014 Society for Range Management
    • Targeted Grazing: Applying the Research to the Land

      Frost, Rachel; Walker, John; Madsen, Craig; Holes, Ray; Lehfeldt, John; Cunningham, Jennifer; Voth, Kathy; Welling, Bob; Davis, T. Zane; Bradford, Dave; et al. (Society for Range Management, 2012-02-01)
      The discipline of range science is in part based on the observation that vegetation on rangelands changes in response to livestock grazing. For much of the history of range science, livestock grazing was considered to affect range plants and ecological condition negatively. Thus range plants were classified as increasers, decreasers, or invaders as a function of their response to grazing. The concept that grazing can be used to restore degraded rangelands is relatively new. It requires a paradigm shift for most people from grazing animals reaping the benefits of the land to the land reaping the benefits of the grazing animals. Using livestock to accomplish vegetation management goals is referred to as targeted grazing. Targeted grazing is defined as the application of a particular kind of grazing animal at a specified season, duration, and intensity to accomplish specific vegetation management goals. It is the last half of this definition that differentiates targeted grazing from traditional grazing. The focus is on the vegetation and the subsequent outcomes and changes in composition or structure, rather than the performance of the grazing animal. Where the potential for targeted grazing to create positive change on the landscape has been clearly demonstrated through research and the experiences of practitioners, it still struggles to gain recognition as a viable vegetation management option. The recently published handbook Targeted Grazing: A Natural Approach to Vegetation Management and Landscape Enhancement was organized and written largely by range scientists to provide the scientific basis for targeted grazing. However, it did not provide much information on the practical and daily management decisions required by contract graziers and land managers. While the scientific basis for targeted grazing provides the foundation for understanding and improving this technology, as with all grazing management it is the daily operations and decisions that determine its success. The diversity of situations to which this tool can be applied necessitates the exchange of real-life experiences to promote learning among practitioners and to inform land managers of the successful programs and potential pitfalls to avoid....