• Tarweed, an Unloved Annual-Type Range Plant

      Perrier, Gregory K.; Williams, William A.; Menke, John W. (Society for Range Management, 1982-08-01)
    • Taxonomic and Agronomic Variation in Agropyron spicatum and Agropyron inerme

      Chapman, S. R.; Perry, L. J. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      The main morphological distinction between bluebunch wheatgrass and beardless wheatgrass is the presence of geniculate awns in the former and the absence of awns in the latter. Open pollinate progenies of plants classified as either A. spicatum or as A. inerme segregated clearly for this trait. This indicates the mere presence or absence of awns does not afford reproductive isolation; thus, the species designation is questionable. In addition, variation for rhizomes was detected in the progenies of bunch type plants, but segregation was not clear cut. Significant variation among progeny means for forage yield was also detected. There is apparent, real potential for varietal development, but care must be exercised in mixing awned and awnless types.
    • Taxonomic Determination, Distribution, and Ecological Indicator Values of Sagebrush within the Pinyon-Juniper Woodlands of the Great Basin

      West, N. E.; Tausch, R. J.; Rea, K. H.; Tueller, P. T. (Society for Range Management, 1978-03-01)
      Various sagebrush taxa are major understory components of most Great Basin pinyon-juniper woodlands. Improved understanding of their identification, distribution, and ecological indicator significance is necessary to interpret site differences for these ranges. Morphology within sagebrush taxa is so variable that chromatographic determination is more easily and objectively relied upon for identification. Big sagebrush is so widespread and likely genetically diverse that sub-specific designations are more helpful in reading site conditions. The various sagebrush taxa are found in particular situations in Great Basin woodlands. Climatic differences explain the basin-wide distributions much more than geologic, landform, or soil conditions. Soils and exposure become more important on the local scale. Presence of a particular sagebrush taxon within pinyon-juniper woodlands can be used for comparisons of site favorableness provided one understands the general distribution of the other sagebrush taxa.
    • Teaching Across Disciplines and Institutions

      Hickman, Karen R.; Murphy, Melanie (Society for Range Management, 2012-06-01)
      Several members of the Range Science Education Council (RSEC) are in rangeland programs that are being challenged by their administration to broaden the scope of courses to attract a wider audience, thus increasing enrollment, and to alter how the courses are taught (e.g., traditional face-to-face on campus, online, distance education). The challenges we face have been brought about by a couple of major issues. First, too few students are seeking degrees in rangeland science/management, resulting in a severe shortage of well-trained rangeland professionals available for current and future positions. Second, in the past decade or so, lower enrollment in many of the traditional, strictly rangeland classes put rangeland science/management programs at several universities in danger of elimination or absorption by other programs, ultimately reducing the number of graduates available to fill the growing demand. In addition, many programs no longer hire faculty with primarily teaching appointments. Because of this, our programs have fewer teaching faculty with backgrounds in rangelands, and both new and current rangeland faculty are compelled to increase class sizes, course loads, and the number of program graduates. Given these pressures, we are faced with larger classes filled with students representing a wider audience, with sometimes drastically different backgrounds and views. Although these limited resources are challenging, they also provide an opportunity to make innovative advances in curricula and produce well-rounded students that can fill rangeland employment needs. Two primary approaches to meeting the current challenges of range programs are to teach across disciplines and across institutional boundaries. 
    • Teaching Old Dogs New Tricks-An Educational Training Project for County Extension Agents in Texas

      Riddle, Richard R.; Cadenhead, J. F. (Society for Range Management, 1997-12-01)
    • Teaching Range English to International Students

      Templin, Rebecca (Society for Range Management, 1982-02-01)
    • Teaching Range Facts—The Role of the Schools

      Young, V. A. (Society for Range Management, 1951-09-01)
    • Teaching to Learn and Learning to Teach: Education in Rangeland Ecology and Management

      Tanaka, John; Call, Chris; Abbott, Laurie; Hickman, Karen (Society for Range Management, 2012-06-01)
      Teaching in our rangeland ecology and management discipline is continuously evolving to address emerging issues and meet the needs of our students and their potential employers. The core curriculum in many range science education programs is strongly influenced by current accreditation standards set by the Society for Range Management (SRM). These are based upon the standards developed by the Range Science Education Council (RSEC) and federal Office of Personnel Management (OPM) for employment as rangeland management specialists with federal land management agencies (GS-0454 series). However, a recent survey of range professionals revealed some gaps between what our students are learning and what potential employers and other stakeholders need and value. These findings prompted RSEC to begin a fresh examination of the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed by modern rangeland professionals, and our educational approaches to address these needs. 
    • Teaching Tomorrow's Ranchers Today

      Wilson, D. (Society for Range Management, 1955-09-01)
    • Teamwork on Wyoming Rangelands

      Stellingwerf, Ronald H. (Society for Range Management, 1999-12-01)
    • Teamwork Solves: A Case Study in Stewardship and Management

      Rater, Ricky (Society for Range Management, 1997-02-01)
    • Tebuthiuron to Enhance Rangeland Diversity

      Olson, Rich; Hansen, John; Whitson, Tom; Johnson, Kris (Society for Range Management, 1994-10-01)
    • Tebuthiuron-Environmental Concerns

      Emmerich, W. E. (Society for Range Management, 1985-02-01)
    • Technical and Human Factors Hinder Medusahead Control in Northern Utah

      Coppock, D. L.; Hart, R. A.; Burritt, B. (Society for Range Management, 2017-04)
      We used social-science methods to study how social, economic, technical, and institutional factors have influenced medusahead control near Paradise, Utah, over the past 25 years. In general, control efforts have struggled. Each of the four factors can assume some responsibility for this outcome. Low and uncertain funding for both research and outreach, however, has been the major constraint overall. Research needs more funding to identify a reliable, cost-effective control program. Outreach then will have a message that landowners are eager to hear. Effective control methods can also promote improved weed law enforcement and the stability of state funding lines in support of weed management. Weed control, however, is also a shared responsibility. Landowners must be willing to make changes in grazing management that complement the application of new technology. “Silver bullet” technical solutions are unrealistic. Outreach needs more funding to support weed coordinators who can effectively work with the public. Today''s weed coordinator needs strong leadership, communication, and analytical skills. Recruiting and retaining such talent requires a commitment to higher levels of compensation than has been the norm. Despite the high socioeconomic diversity of landowners here, many have shared values on the importance of noxious weed control and the need for community collaboration. We also discovered that only 40 of 1,329 total landowners controlled 80% of all acreage, and 37 of these had never been engaged in formal weed-control efforts. This all represents untapped outreach opportunities, while the latter also illustrates the need for a targeted stakeholder analysis at the beginning of any weed-control project. Ultimately, research and outreach institutions must tackle funding gaps and build professional capacity to promote improved medusahead control. © 2017 The Society for Range Management
    • Technical Assistance in Agricultural Development

      Drosdoff, M. (Society for Range Management, 1966-11-01)
    • Technical note: A comparison of techniques for extracting monoterpenoids from Juniperus (Cupressaceae) species

      Owens, M. K.; Straka, E. J.; Carroll, C. J.; Taylor, C. A. (Society for Range Management, 1998-09-01)
      Concentration and composition of monoterpenoids in plant tissue affects a variety of environmental and ecological issues such as plant defenses, plant classification and phytotoxicity. Developing the techniques for extracting and estimating the concentration and composition of monoterpenoids must be species-specific because monoterpenoid storage location varies between species. Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei Buchholz) and redberry juniper (J. pinchotti Sudw) are 2 co-occurring species which differ in palatability and preference. The objective of this study was to determine which of 2 common extraction techniques provided the best estimate of the concentration and composition of monoterpenoids in mature plant tissue. Two extraction techniques were tested by soaking crushed juniper needles in hexane solvent for 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours or by steam distilling samples for 2, 4, 6, or 8 hours. The extracts were analyzed by using 2 different analytical columns in separate gas chromatographs. The hexane solvent soak, regardless of time in the solvent yielded a lower total concentration and a decreased compositional diversity of monoterpenoids compared to the steam distillation technique. An 8-hour steam distillation yielded the greatest concentration and composition of monoterpenoids. Both types of analytical columns resulted in similar estimates of monoterpenoid concentrations and composition.
    • Technical Note: A containerized technique for studying root systems

      Engel, R. K.; Nichols, J. T.; Brummer, J. E. (Society for Range Management, 1993-09-01)
      Quantifying root responses of naturally growing range plants to treatments is difficult. The objective of this study was to develop a containerized technique to study individual plants growing in the field under near natural environmental conditions. Three containers were evaluated: 15 X 100 cm nylon (2,000 pores/cm2) sacks, 15 X 100 cm polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes, and 30 X 100 cm PVC tubes. The 15 X 100 cm PVC tubes were easiest to handle, and plants grown in these containers appeared similar in size and growth form to adjacent, undisturbed plants. Survival rate for 165 sand bluestem (Andropogon hallii Hack.) plants grown for 2 years in the 15 X 100 cm PVC tubes was 98.8%. This survival rate was achieved despite clipping treatments during the second year.
    • Technical Note: A rotary seed processor for removing pubescence from seed of prairie grasses

      Vogel, K. P.; Masters, R. A.; Callahan, P. J.; Grams, K. (Society for Range Management, 1998-09-01)
      Many of the perennial prairie grasses that are used in restoration plantings in the central Great Plains have seed appendages such as awns and pubescence that make seed now through planters difficult. We have developed a rotary seed processor that efficiently processes small breeder or experimental lots of seed that can then be easily planted with small plot cone planters or conventional planters. The processor consists of a metal cylinder that is lined with corrugated rubber and a rotating center shaft with rubber paddles. Processing can be controlled by varying shaft rotation speed and processing time. A top-opening, full length trap door allows for easy loading and the cylinder can be inverted to dump out processed seed. The processor has been used successfully for several years on big bluestem [Andropogon gerardii Vitman], indiangrass [Sorghastrum nutans (L) Nash], little bluestem [Schizachyrium scoparium (Michaux) Nash], prairie sand reed [Calamovilfa longifolia (Rook.) Scribner] , and blue grama [Bouteloua gracilis (Willd. ex Kunth) Lagascaex Griffiths] seed. By removing seed appendages and pubescence, seed bulk is reduced and seed density and flow ability are improved. The processing operation is relatively gentle and seed germination per unit weight of seed is improved.
    • Technical Note: A simple method for preparing reference slides of seed

      Dacar, M. A.; Giannoni, S. M. (Society for Range Management, 2001-03-01)
      Microhistological analysis has become the most commonly used and successful method for determining micromammal diets. However, this technique has a number of limitations, particularly when used on fecal samples where identification of some items is difficult. This method underestimates those nearly unrecognizable plant parts in the diet, such as seed, and overestimates easily identifiable parts, such as leaf epidermis. In this note we describe a simple technique that uses a macerating solution of 17.5% NaHCO3 for preparing reference slides of seeds. Advantages of the proposed method are discussed and compared with Jeffrey's technique.