• Turkish Rangelands and Shrub Culture

      Koc, Ali (Society for Range Management, 2000-08-01)
    • Turning Information Into Knowledge for Rangeland Management

      Karl, Jason W. (Society for Range Management, 2011-08-01)
    • Twelfth in a Series: Insight From SRM's Charter Members

      Bedell, Tom (Society for Range Management, 2006-04-01)
    • Twelve years biomass response in aspen communities following fire

      Bartos, D. L.; Brown, J. K.; Booth, G. D. (Society for Range Management, 1994-01-01)
      Vegetation responses to prescribed fire over a 12-year period are reported for several deteriorating aspen clones in northwestern Wyoming. This study extends earlier work by Bartos and Mueggler (1981) on a prescribed fire intended to regenerate these aspen clones. After 3 years, numbers of suckers were close to pre-burn levels ranging between 10,000 to 20,000 suckers/ha. After 12 years, 1,500 to 2,400 suckers/ha remained at a meager height averaging approximately 0.5 m. The demise of this aspen was attributed to heavy ungulate use, primarily elk. Total undergrowth production increased substantially by the second postfire year and declined slowly after that. Biomass values of 2,130 kg/ha (low burn severity), 2,140 kg/ha (moderate burn severity), and 2,190 kg/ha (high burn severity) were recorded after 12 years. This exceeds preburn production by 23 to 46%. Forbs made up approximately 75% of the undergrowth production after 12 years, which was dominated by a dramatic postburn shift to fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium L.). The remaining production was comprised of approximately 20% grasses and 5% shrubs. Most of the fluctuation in species composition occurred on the high severity burn sites.
    • Twenty Commandments for Grass Men

      Lawrence, T. (Society for Range Management, 1980-02-01)
    • Twenty Years After the Dude Fire: Targeted Cattle Grazing of Weeping Lovegrass Through the Use of Protein Supplementation

      Bernau, Christopher R.; Sprinkle, Jim; Tanner, Ray (Society for Range Management, 2014-12-01)
      On the Ground • The 1990 Dude Fire on the Mogollon Rim in Arizona and the following restoration resulted in an invasion of weeping lovegrass. • Ecosystem restoration required successful collaboration between federal, state, and private individuals. • We used protein supplementation to redistribute grazing pressure on the rangeland and to increase use of nutrient-poor old-growth weeping lovegrass forage. • We observed that cattle hoof action worked in concert with targeted grazing to achieve the desired effect on weeping lovegrass. After 2 years of targeted grazing, we saw a short-term reduction in weeping lovegrass and increased competitive opportunities for native vegetation.
    • Twenty Years of Changes in Grass Production Following Mesquite Control and Reseeding

      Cable, D. R. (Society for Range Management, 1976-07-01)
      Production of native perennial grasses and seeded Lehmann lovegrass was measured periodically for 21 years on a semidesert area where velvet mesquite was controlled by 2,4,5-T aerial spray and on an adjacent unsprayed area to determine how mesquite control would affect grass production and how long the effect would last. Grass production on the sprayed area increased dramatically during the first 5 years in a time-dependent relationship in response to the higher levels of available soil moisture. During the last 12 years, changes in lovegrass production were associated with changes in summer rainfall of the current and previous summers and of the intervening winter (2 separate variables). Because of the strong competition from lovegrass, native grass production during the last 12 years did not show its usual relationship with summer rainfall, but decreased gradually and consistently on both the sprayed and unsprayed areas. At the end of the study period, native grasses provided only 10% of the total perennial grass production on the sprayed area and 20% on the unsprayed. Increased grass production, resulting from the mesquite control treatment and seeding, paid for the treatment within 4 years, and the sprayed area was still producing more grass than the unsprayed area 20 years later.
    • Twenty Years of Rest-Rotation Grazing on the Arizona Strip—An Observation

      Hughes, Lee E. (Society for Range Management, 1990-06-01)
    • Twenty-Five Years and Still Counting

      Frasier, Gary (Society for Range Management, 2003-12-01)
    • Twice-Over Rotational Grazing and Its Impacts on Grassland Songbird Abundance and Habitat Structure

      Ranellucci, Cristina L.; Koper, Nicola; Henderson, Darcy C. (Society for Range Management, 2012-03-01)
      The majority of native prairie has been lost throughout North America. Much of the remaining prairie is used for livestock grazing, so conservation of prairie species depends on sustainable grazing practices. Our objective was to evaluate the benefits of twice-over rotational grazing, in comparison with continuous season-long grazing and ungrazed ‘‘idle’’ fields, in conserving prairie songbirds. Northern mixed-grass prairie in southwest Manitoba, Canada is near the northern range limits for many endangered grassland birds, and thus is an important area for evaluating the contribution of twice-over grazing in the conservation of songbirds, including species at risk. In 2008 and 2009, we compared the relative abundances and diversity of grassland birds on 22 twice-over rotation, 15 season-long, and 8 ungrazed sites, using multiple 100-m fixed-radius point-count plots per site. Analyses were conducted using generalized linear mixed models. Although one obligate grassland bird, Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis), had significantly higher relative abundances on twice-over than season-long sites in 2009, season-long pastures had higher species richness and diversity of obligate grassland birds in both years. Season-long grazing may actually benefit grassland bird communities by creating spatially heterogeneous but temporally stable areas of high and low livestock use within the pasture, thus increasing diversity of microhabitats. We found little evidence that twice-over grazing contributed to the conservation of grassland songbirds in subhumid northern mixed-grass prairies./La mayoría de los pastizales nativos de Norteamérica se han perdido. Sin embargo, la mayor parte del resto de los pastizales se utiliza para el pastoreo del ganado, así que la conservación de las especies del pastizal depende de prácticas de pastoreo sostenibles. Nuestros objetivos fueron evaluar los beneficios del sistema de pastoreo de rotación doble, en comparación con el pastoreo continuo estacional y no pastoreo en potreros en descanso en la conservación de aves canoras. La parte norte de los pastizales mixtos en el suroeste de Manitoba, Canadá se localiza cerca del rango de los límites de muchas especies de aves canoras de pastizales en peligro de extinción. Por tal razón es una área muy importante para evaluar la contribución del sistema de pastoreo de rotación doble en la conservación de aves de canoras, incluyendo especies en peligro. En 2008 y 2009, comparamos le relativa abundancia y diversidad de las aves de los pastizales en 22 sitios con doble rotación, 15 sitios de pastoreo continuo-estacional y 8 sitios sin pastoreo, usando múltiples puntos de 100 m de radio fijo, por parcela por sitio. Los análisis se realizaron usando modelos mixtos lineales generalizados. Aunque una especie obligada del pastizal, Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis), tuvo una abundancia relativa significativamente mayor en sitios de doble rotación que en los sitios de continuo estacional en el 2009, los pastizales en el continuo estacional presentaron una mayor riqueza de especies y diversidad de aves obligadas de pastizales en ambos años. El pastoreo estacional de periodo largo, puede de hecho beneficiar a las comunidades de aves de pastizales mediante la creación de espacios con áreas heterogéneas pero temporalmente estables con alto y bajo índice de uso por el ganado dentro del pastizal. Produciendo en consecuencia, un incremento en la diversidad de micro-hábitats. Encontramos poca evidencia que el sistema de pastoreo de doble rotación contribuye a la conservación de aves canoras en los pastizales mixtos sub-húmedos del Norte.
    • Twig Diameter-Length-Weight Relations Of Bitterbrush

      Basile, J. V.; Hutchings, S. S. (Society for Range Management, 1966-01-01)
      Relations between bitterbrush twig diameters and their lengths and weights are sufficiently consistent to enable wildlife technicians to estimate browse utilization solely from postbrowsing measurements of the diameters and lengths or weights of the remaining portion of twigs.
    • Two Companies—One Goal

      Truax, Jim; Jensen, Mark (Society for Range Management, 2003-04-01)
    • Two Modifications to the Vegetation Photographic Charting Method

      Claveran Alonso, R. (Society for Range Management, 1966-11-01)
      Two modifications to the vegetation photographic charting method are suggested: The use of Polaroid film to identify species and density in the field and the use of stereoscopic pairs to facilitate detailed analysis of vegetation and site characteristics in the laboratory.
    • Two New Factors Affecting Resistance of Grasses to Grazing

      Branson, F. A. (Society for Range Management, 1953-05-01)
    • Two New Mobile Apps for Rangeland Inventory and Monitoring by Landowners and Land Managers

      Herrick, J. E.; Karl, J. W.; McCord, S. E.; Buenemann, M.; Riginos, C.; Courtright, E.; Van, Zee, J.; Ganguli, A. C.; Angerer, J.; Brown, J. R.; et al. (Society for Range Management, 2017-04)
      Opportunities for rangeland inventory and monitoring have been transformed by innovations in both indicator and methods standardization and new technologies. These technologies make it easier to collect, store, access, and interpret inventory and monitoring data. The Land-Potential Knowledge System (LandPKS) platform and apps help users with little or no soils knowledge to describe their soil, and for those with little botanical knowledge to monitor key shifts in the relative dominance of plant structural groups. The system also allows users to easily share and compare their data with others. © 2017
    • Two Reports of Interest

      Hidinger, Lori (Society for Range Management, 2013-04-01)
    • Two Types of Cages Found Satisfactory for Pasture Studies

      Stelfox, H. B. (Society for Range Management, 1957-09-01)
    • Two Unique Cattle Farming Programs in Costa Rica

      Mondrus-Engle, Margarita (Society for Range Management, 1982-02-01)
    • Two-step Sampling Technique for Estimating Standing Crop of herbaceous Vegetation

      Anderson, D. M.; Kothmann, M. M. (Society for Range Management, 1982-09-01)
      Standing crop of vegetation may be estimated by sampling foliar cover per unit area and then determining mass per unit of cover. Multiplying foliar cover per unit area by mass per unit of cover gives mass per unit area (standing crop). By this method standing crop is estimated rapidly with low variance while minimizing the amount of actual harvesting required. Standing crop of both major and minor species can be estimated adequately without over sampling major species and under-sampling minor species. The technique is most easily applied to herbaceous plant communities of low stature.