• Usable Science for Managing Animals and Rangeland Sustainability

      Meiman, Paul J.; Tolleson, Doug R.; Johnson, Theodora; Echols, Alex; Price, Frank; Stackhouse-Lawson, Kim (Society for Range Management, 2016-12-01)
      On the Ground: • Animals are critical components of rangeland ecosystems, and domestic livestock provide an extremely important management tool on rangelands. • Decades of research have yielded much valuable information to support sustainable and effective grazing management, but increased complexity resulting in part from expanding environmental, economic, and societal pressures demands future investments in usable science focused on rangeland animals. • Three priorities for usable science are recommended: • Proactive drought planning • Better matching livestock production systems to rangeland resources • Comprehensive synthesis of and effective communication concerning environmental impacts (positive, negative, and neutral) of livestock on rangelands.
    • Usable Science for Sustainable Rangelands: Conclusions

      Tanaka, John A.; Maczko, Kristie A.; Hidinger, Lori; Ellis, Chad (Society for Range Management, 2016-12-01)
      On the Ground • Producers and users of scientific knowledge working together can identify future research directions that will produce usable science to address the challenges of managing for sustainable rangelands. • Matching the scale of science to the scale of management and ecological and physical processes was a prominent theme identified. • Similar activities in other regions with participants from the energy sector, wildlife organizations, and recreation enthusiasts can provide additional research directions for sustainable rangelands.
    • Usable Science: Soil Health

      Derner, Justin D.; Stanley, Charles (Chuck); Ellis, Chad (Society for Range Management, 2016-12-01)
      On the Ground • Healthy soils are fundamental to sustainable rangelands, but soils function in obscurity. This is reflected in the belowground black-box mentality often attributed to soils. • Transformational changes get the attention of land managers and the public for example, soil erosion associated with the Dust Bowl of the 1930s. This provides benchmarks for the context of importance in maintaining healthy soils for the productive capacity of rangelands. • Benefits of soil health include enhanced soil water-holding capacity and appropriate nutrient cycling, which increases rangelands resilience to weather variability and predicted climate change. • Future directions of usable science for soil health include: 1) characterization of soil health indicators for sensitivity levels that affect transitions/thresholds of state-and-transition models, 2) influences of management practices, predicted climate change, and extreme events, and 3) impact of prescribed fire and wildfires on soil health.
    • Usable Socio-Economic Science for Rangelands

      Brunson, Mark W.; Huntsinger, Lynn; Kreuter, Urs P.; Ritten, John P. (Society for Range Management, 2016-12-01)
      On the Ground • Because humans depend on rangelands for a wide variety of ecosystem goods and services, they have a large stake in research that explores supply and demand for those goods and services. • Scientists and science users who ranked 142 separate rangeland issues chose a socio-economic concern as most pressing: How to help rural communities plan for, adapt to, and recover from impacts of increased social, economic, and ecological variability. • Cross-jurisdictional stewardship is required to address many rangeland problems, so it is important to find ways to encourage and assist collaborative management efforts. • Decision makers and citizens need better ways to sift through the conflicting claims and conclusions available from a growing number of information sources. • Rangeland communities, and the land itself, require a steady supply of individuals who are both willing and able to choose careers in rangeland occupations.
    • USDA-ARS Global Change Research on Rangelands and Pasturelands

      Derner, Justin D.; Schuman, Gerald E.; Jawson, Michael; Shafer, Steven R.; Morgan, Jack A.; Polley, H. Wayne; Runion, G. Brett; Prior, Stephen A.; Torbert, H. Allen; Rogers, Hugo H.; et al. (Society for Range Management, 2005-10-01)
    • USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory: History and Current Research on Western North American Rangelands

      Pfister, James A.; Cook, Daniel; Panter, Kip E.; Welch, Kevin D.; James, Lynn F. (Society for Range Management, 2016-12-01)
      On the Ground • Poisonous plants on western North American rangelands have historically been troublesome to livestock producers. • Research on toxic plants was initiated by the United States Department of Agriculture in the late 1890s to solve problems for the livestock industry. • TheUnited States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Resource Service Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory in Logan, Utah continues to provide research-based solutions to poisonous plant problems besetting livestock producers, hobby farmers and small holders, veterinarians, and extension personnel. • Principal plants of current research interest include larkspur, lupine, locoweed, selenium accumulating plants, pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants, and ponderosa pine.
    • USDA-SCS Fact Sheet: Prescribed Burning Fact Sheet

      Society for Range Management, 1986-08-01
    • Use and Abuse of China's Deserts and Rangelands

      Dahl, Bill E.; McKell, Cyrus M. (Society for Range Management, 1986-12-01)
    • Use of a Crested Wheatgrass Seeding by Black-tailed Jackrabbits

      Westoby, M.; Wagner, F. H. (Society for Range Management, 1973-09-01)
      Black-tailed jackrabbit grazing pressure on a seeding of crested wheatgrass surrounded by native shrub vegetation has been estimated by the use of pellet counts. Grazing pressure falls off rapidly away from the edge of the field, 70% of the total being concentrated in a 300-m band around the edge of the field. By calibrating the pellet counts against others taken in an area of known jackrabbit density, and by using values available in the literature for forage consumption of jackrabbits, an estimate has been made of the absolute grazing pressure on the field in the 300-m band which is predominantly used. The forage removed by jackrabbits in this zone is estimated to be in the order of 60 kg/ha/yr. This is less than 10% of nearly all the yield values found, including those in poor years, in comparable seedings in this area. Apparently jackrabbits do not cause serious damage to established seedings of wheatgrass even when jackrabbit densities are high, as they were at the time of this study.
    • Use of a Metal Detector To Locate Permanent Plots

      Weigel, J.; Britton, C. M. (Society for Range Management, 1986-11-01)
    • Use of a Profile Board in Sand Shinnery Oak Communities

      Guthery, F. S.; Doerr, T. B.; Taylor, M. A. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      A profile board adapted to sand shinnery oak communities gave highly accurate structural profiles of the vegetation. Using actual estimates of percentage screening of strata by foliage was more accurate than using percentage screening classes. The procedures used to adapt the profile board to sand shinnery oak communities can be used in other plant communities.
    • Use of Aerial Photographs and Sub-sampling in Range Inventories

      Harris, R. W. (Society for Range Management, 1951-07-01)
    • Use of an unmanned aerial vehicle - Mounted video camera to assess feeding behavior of raramuri criollo cows

      Nyamuryekung'E, S.; Cibils, A.F.; Estell, R.E.; Gonzalez, A.L. (Society for Range Management, 2016)
      We determined the feasibility of using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) video monitoring to predict intake of discrete food items of rangeland-raised Raramuri Criollo non-nursing beef cows. Thirty-five cows were released into a 405-m2 rectangular dry lot, either in pairs (pilot tests) or individually (experiment tests), that contained 12 food bowls arranged in an open semicircle and placed approximately 1 m apart. Four bowls containing either long alfalfa hay (AH, 200 g), long Sudangrass hay (SH, 200 g), or cottonseed cake (CC, 50 g) were alternated (CC, AH, SH) using the same sequence in all tests. Video footage of all arena tests was acquired with a three dimensional Robotics Y6 Multi-copter fitted with a two-axis brushless gimbal and a GoPro Hero 3 Silver Digital Camera. Video files were processed to extract a total of 4 893 two-second-interval still images that were viewed to determine cow feeding activity. Cows that were naïve to the sound of the UAV fed as frequently (P > 0.05) as their adapted counterparts during 12-min pilot tests. Significant positive correlations (r=0.68-0.91; < 0.05) between video-derived feeding frequency estimates and amount of AH, SH, and CC consumed per bowl were observed during the individual 4-min experiment tests. Our results suggest that UAV video monitoring could be a useful tool to monitor feeding behavior of rangeland cows. © 2016 The Society for Range Management. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Use of artificial mineral licks by white-tailed deer in Louisiana

      Schultz, S. R.; Johnson, M. K. (Society for Range Management, 1992-11-01)
      We examined white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) use of artificial mineral licks on 3 properties in southcentral Louisiana. High deer use of licks extended longer into summer and fall than reported for areas in more northern latitudes. Estimated monthly mineral consumption averaged 538.0 g/deer (SE = 70.8) and was associated with total moisture and crude protein reported for native plants on forest range in central Louisiana. Consumption from individual licks was positively associated with adjacent soil P concentration (P < 0.001).
    • Use of Asphalt-Emulsion Mulches to Hasten Grass-Seedling Establishment

      Bement, R. E.; Hervey, D. F.; Everson, A. C.; Hylton, L. O. (Society for Range Management, 1961-03-01)
    • Use of degree-days in multiple-temperature experiments

      Romo, J. T.; Eddleman, L. E. (Society for Range Management, 1995-09-01)
      This research compared results from germination and growth when the experiment duration was chronologically set or based on degree-days. Seeds of smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.), plains rough fescue (Festuca altaica Trin. subsp. hallii (Vasey) Harms), prairie coneflower (Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Woot. and Standl.), and silver sagebrush (Artemisia cana Pursh.) were germinated at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 degrees C for 28 days or 400 degree-days (Base temperature = 0 degrees C). Root and shoot weights of seedlings of these species were compared at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 degrees C after growing them 20 days or 200 degree-days. With the exception of prairie coneflower, optimal temperatures for germination were 2 to 4 degrees C lower when incubated 400 degree-days compared to 28 days. Total germination for prairie coneflower was not significantly different (P = 0.454) at 28 days or 400 degree-days. Interacting effects of the duration of experiments and temperature significantly (P less than or equal to 0.001) influenced root and shoot weight of all species. Except for shoot weight of smooth brome, predicted optimum temperatures for root and shoot growth were 7 to 21 degrees C lower at 200 degree-days than 20 days. These experiments illustrate that results from germination and growth studies can vary substantially depending on whether chronological time or degree-days are used as the end point. Thus, ecological interpretations or management recommendations can be quite different. Degree-days may be more meaningful than chronological units for germination and growth studies because they integrate time and temperature. The use of degree-days as an end point for experiments rather than chronological time deserves further consideration by researchers.
    • Use of dry-weight rank multipliers for desert vegetation

      Mazaika, R.; Krausman, P. R. (Society for Range Management, 1991-07-01)
      The dry-weight rank technique has been used to measure vegetation in various habitats but has not been evaluated in desert shrub habitats. We sampled browse, forb, and grass in the palo-verde (Cercidium microphylum [Toff.] Rose and Johnston)-saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea [Engelm.) Britt and Rose) mountain slope vegetation association in the Sonoran Desert to determine if rank multipliers derived by 't Mannetje and Haydock differ from mean dry weights from different ranks. Previously derived multipliers were similar to those derived for mountain slope habitat.
    • Use of Ecological Sites in Managing Wildlife and Livestock: An Example with Prairie Dogs

      Hendrickson, John R.; Johnson, Patricia S.; Liebig, Mark A.; Sedivec, Kevin K.; Halvorson, Gary A. (Society for Range Management, 2016-12-01)
      On the Ground • The perception of prairie dogs among Native Americans living on the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation is mixed. Some Native Americans focus on the loss of forage productivity, whereas others are interested in the cultural and ecological aspects of prairie dogs. • The use of ecological sites may provide a mechanism for developing a management framework that would consider both livestock and prairie dogs. • The three ecological sites we surveyed had large differences in off-colony standing crop, but in 2 of the 3 years we surveyed, there were no differences between standing crop on-colony. • This suggests that management of prairie dogs on rangelands should focus on limiting prairie dogs on more productive ecological sites with less productive sites receiving less emphasis.
    • Use of Ecology on Range Land

      Dyksterhuis, E. J. (Society for Range Management, 1951-09-01)
    • Use of Equations to Predict the Nutritive Value of Tropical Grasses

      Butterworth, M. H.; Diaz L., J. A. (Society for Range Management, 1970-01-01)
      Literature values for the digestibility of tropical grass species were used to compute equations to predict apparent digestibility of crude protein and total digestible nutrients from proximate analyses. It was found that effective predictions could be obtained for the apparent digestibility of crude protein and that values varied considerably among individual grass species. Large differences were not found either among methods of preparation (i.e. silage, hay, fresh material) nor among species of animal used. The equations for TDN accounted for a minor part of the total variation and were of little value for prediction. The results are discussed in relation to the hypotheses underlying the various criteria used in the determinations.