• Utah Ranches—An Economic Snapshot

      Workman, John P.; Evans, Scott G. (Society for Range Management, 1993-12-01)
    • Utah's Big Game, Livestock, and Range Relationship Research

      Julander, O. (Society for Range Management, 1951-09-01)
    • Utah—Where the Society for Range Management Was Organized

      Jacobs, James L. (Society for Range Management, 1984-10-01)
    • Utilization and grazing distribution of cattle at 4 stocking densities

      Burboa-Cabrera, F. R.; Schacht, W. H.; Anderson, B. E. (Society for Range Management, 2003-07-01)
      The relationship between stocking density and grazing distribution was studied in eastern Nebraska pastures seeded to a warm-season, tall-grass mixture and grazed at 4 stocking densities: 9, 18, 27, and 54 steers ha-1. Each of 4 pastures was divided into 4 paddocks ranging in size from 0.18 to 1.12 ha. Paddocks within each pasture were grazed rotationally by 10 steers averaging 282 kg during 3 consecutive cycles (12, 36, and 24 days) from early June to late August in 1995 and 1996. Transects 12-m long were established in a grid pattern in each paddock. Six tillers each of big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) were marked permanently in each transect. Height and leaf length of marked tillers were measured before and after grazing in the last 2 grazing cycles in both years. Utilization was estimated by the reduction in tiller height or leaf length. Estimates of grazing distribution were based on a uniformity index, which was calculated by summing the absolute differences of tiller height or leaf length between adjacent transects. Stocking density generally did not affect (P > 0.05) tiller height reduction which ranged from 19 to 22 cm and from 29 to 38 cm among the stocking densities in 1995 and 1996, respectively. In most grazing cycles, leaf length reduction for big bluestem was greater (P < 0.05) than for switchgrass while tiller height reduction was similar between species. Spatial grazing distribution was not affected (P > 0.05) by stocking density but big bluestem was grazed more evenly (P < 0.05) than switchgrass in the last cycle in each year. Stocking densities as high as 54 steers ha-1 on warm-season, tall-grass mixtures do not appear to be a major factor in affecting spatial grazing distribution or forage plant selection.
    • Utilization and Residual Measurements: Tools for Adaptive Rangeland Management

      Society for Range Management, 2018-10
      Utilization levels and residual height are tools for adaptive management, not management objectives. Utilization/residual measurements are subject to many sources of sampling, procedural and personal errors. Season of measurement has a strong influence on interpretation of results. Utilization/residual guidelines are not rigid limits to be met every year, but a tool to identify stocking rate or distribution problems over several years. Utilization/residual data must be relevant to management objectives. Time, location, and protocol for measurement must be documented in plans, reports or management decisions based on the use of the data. The Society for Range Management
    • Utilization Guidelines

      Frost, William E.; Smith, E. Lamar; Ogden, Phil R. (Society for Range Management, 1994-12-01)
    • Utilization of Fringed Sagewort on a Winter Sheep Range

      Spang, E. F. (Society for Range Management, 1954-03-01)
    • Utilization of globemallow (Sphaeralcea) taxa by sheep

      Rumbaugh, M. D.; Mayland, H. F.; Pendery, B. M.; Shewmaker, G. E. (Society for Range Management, 1993-03-01)
      Globemallows (Sphaeralcea spp.) are well adapted to semiarid and arid environments. They are potentially useful as the forb component of seeding mixtures for rangeland improvement in the western states. However, the degree of acceptability of globemallow forage to livestock has not been well established. We tested 13 globemallow accessions representing 4 species and compared their utilization by sheep (Ovis aries) with that of crested wheatgrass [Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. X A. desertorum (Fisch.) Schult.] and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) during fall 1988 and 1989, and spring 1990 and 1991. Alfalfa consistently produced more forage per plant than wheatgrass or globemallows, and a greater portion of the alfalfa was eaten than of the other species. Sheep utilized wheatgrass more than globemallows in the fall, but the converse was true during spring pasturing. Over the 4 years, sheep ate similar proportions of wheatgrass and individual globemallows. The percentage of S. coccinea (Pursh) Rydb. forage consumed equaled that of crested wheatgrass or alfalfa in the fall but did not equal the percentage of alfalfa consumed in spring. However, S. coccinea produced much less total forage than the other species evaluated. Pre-grazing plant dry weight, dry matter content, and the occurrence of rust caused by Puccinea sherardiana Korn were negatively associated with globemallow utilization. Over-winter mortality of grazed globemallow exceeded that of ungrazed plants. Crested wheatgrass and alfalfa stands were not reduced by grazing. Globemallows are acceptable, but not highly preferred, forbs which can be seeded in environments where alfalfa and other more desirable species are not adapted.
    • Utilization of Grasslands in the Flint Hills of Kansas

      Kansas. , Utilization Of. (Society for Range Management, 1953-03-01)
    • Utilization of larkspur by sheep

      Ralphs, M. H.; Bowns, J. E.; Manners, G. D. (Society for Range Management, 1991-11-01)
      Sheep are more resistent to larkspur (Delphinium spp.) poisoning than are cattle, and may be used as a biological tool to graze larkspur prior to cattle turn-in to reduce the risk of cattle poisoning. Sheep utilization of 3 species of larkspur was measured at 3 phenological growth states (vegetative, bud, and flower) at 5 locations. Utilization of waxy larkspur (D. glaucescens Wats), varied among years at Ruby, Mont. Use of duncecap larkspur (D. occidentals. Wats) at Oakley, Ida., was uniformly higher in all 3 growth stages due to closed herding practices. Use of tall larkspur (D. barbeyi Huth) increased as it matured. Trailing sheep through larkspur patches, or bedding them in patches greatly increased trampling of larkspur stalks and utilization of heads and leaves.
    • Utilization of linear prediction procedures to evaluate animal response to grazing systems

      Winder, J. A.; Beck, R. F. (Society for Range Management, 1990-09-01)
      Best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) procedures were used to separate genetic merit from environmental effects on 205-d weight (205-d wt) of calves produced by cows grazing 2 pasture systems. Phenotypic measures of 205-d wt were statistically partitioned into genetic effects (breeding value) and environmental effects. Means were regressed on year of birth of calf. Analysis of covariance was used to test difference in slope and elevation (means) of the regression lines. The continuously grazed pasture (CC) produced higher 205-d wt than did the rotationally grazed pastures (RG) (P<.10). Rate of change in 205-d wt was similar in the 2 grazing systems. Genetic merit was similar among the animals in the 2 grazing systems. The rate of change per year in genetic merit (genetic trend) was also similar. Means tended to vary sharply from year to year, indicating inequality of genetic merit should be taken into account in this type of data. Mean environmental effects resulted in greater (P<.10) 205-d weight in CG than in RG. Rate of change of environmental quality was similar in the 2 systems. These results indicate, from the animals perspective, the RG system did not improve productivity when compared to CG. The CG system was of higher nutritional quality, but the rate of change was similar to that of the RG system.
    • Utilization of the Major Plant Communities in the Similkameen Valley, British Columbia

      McLean, A.; Lord, T. M.; Green, A. J. (Society for Range Management, 1971-09-01)
      The plant communities of the ponderosa pine zone in southern British Columbia offer best returns from grazing by domestic and wild ungulates. The communities of the douglasfir zone should usually be considered integrated-use areas, having significant values for both grazing and timber production. The subalpine fir zone has its main value for timber production although grazing values usually persist for many years in the lower part of the zone after logging or burning. However, the upper part of the above zone is suited mainly for grazing. Although the alpine tundra has very limited forage production it sometimes provides summer range for bighorn sheep. Since the climate is usually favorable below 3000 feet elevation, arable agriculture should be considered where soils are not restrictive.
    • Utilization of White Locoweed (Oxytropis sericea Nutt.) by Range Cattle

      Ralphs, M. H.; James, L. F.; Pfister, J. A. (Society for Range Management, 1986-07-01)
      Utilization studies conducted on a high mountain range determined the quantity and timing of white locoweed (Oxytropis sericea Nutt.) consumption by cattle. Paired plots (one caged and one grazed) were clipped at the end of the grazing season to determine seasonal utilization. Biweekly visual appraisals were used to estimate percentage leaf grazed and number of reproductive stalks grazed and thus determine utilization patterns as the season progressed. Loco comprised 26% of the standing crop. Thirty-four percent of the available loco was utilized during the grazing season. Loco flower and pods (heads) were preferred to leaves. Utilization of loco heads increased linearly as the season progressed. Loco leaves were not consumed until the last 3 weeks of the grazing season. Loco heads also contained the highest concentration of the toxic alkaloid, swainsonine.
    • Utilization of Winter Range Forage by Sheep

      Green, L. R.; Sharp, L. A.; Cook, C. W.; Harris, L. E. (Society for Range Management, 1951-07-01)
    • Utilization patterns by Angora goats within the plant canopies of two Acacia shrubs

      Owens, M. K. (Society for Range Management, 1991-09-01)
      Uneven distribution of livestock in large pastures results in some areas receiving more use than the average and some areas receiving little or no use. Six 2-ha experimental pastures on a shallow ridge site were stocked with 2, 4, or 6 Angora goats per ha to reflect different levels of use found in large pastures of south Texas. Two additional pastures on a sandy loam site were stocked with 2 goats per ha. Utilization estimates were made in each pasture using a twig diameter-weight relationship. Estimates of utilization of guajillo (Acacia berlandieri) and blackbrush (A. rigidula) were made in canopy strata which the goats could reach in a quadrupedal stance (low), a bipedal stance (middle), and from the zone above the bipedal stance (high). These measurements were repeated 3 times during the grazing season. Nonlinear regressions of diameter on weight (Y = aXb) collected from plants in control pastures provided a better fit than log-log regressions in almost every instance. Fit index values, which are analogous to R2 values for linear equations, ranged from 0.82 to 0.94 for nonlinear equations and from 0.62 to 0.88 for the log-log regressions. Goats exhibited different grazing strategies by using the canopy strata differently for the 2 plant species. Percent utilization in the middle strata was higher than in either of the other 2 canopy strata within each grazing treatment and for each plant species. Cumulative use in the middle strata for guajillo was 79% compared to 63% in the low and 28% in the high strata. Blackbrush also had highest use in the middle strata with 39% use compared to 27 and 9% for the low and high canopies, respectively. By the third sampling period, use of guajillo in the 2 lowest canopy strata declined and use of blackbrush increased over the first 2 sampling periods. Average grazed twig diameter within each grazing treatment did not vary significantly in the low strata throughout the growing season. On heavily used sites, averaged grazed twig diameter increased in the 2 highest canopy layers as the season progressed. The size of grazed twigs in the middle zone on the heaviest grazed sites was significantly higher than in any other canopy strata.
    • Utilization Practices and the Returns from Seeding an Area to Crested Wheatgrass

      Godfrey, E. B. (Society for Range Management, 1979-05-01)
      Numerous studies have estimated the benefits and costs of various types of range improvements, including seedings. However, the results reported have varied widely. One of the reasons why these estimates have varied is that the effect of utilization (season and amount) has generally not been explicitly considered. In an effort to provide some insight into the effect utilization has on returns, a study of the Point Springs seedings in south-central Idaho was undertaken. This study indicated that: (1) spring utilization of crested wheatgrass seedings is a necessary prerequisite to favorable net returns; (2) grazing patterns involving heavy utilization had the shortest life, but the highest net returns; (3) fall only utilization had the lowest net returns; (4) the net returns from seeding the area were greater than the investment costs for nearly all utilization patterns considered; and (5) seeding an area to crested wheatgrass can yield returns which may be greater than the returns from investing scarce investment dollars in other range improvement alternatives.
    • Utilizing National Agriculture Imagery Program Data to Estimate Tree Cover and Biomass of Piñon and Juniper Woodlands

      Hulet, A.; Roundy, B. A.; Petersen, S. L.; Bunting, S. C.; Jensen, R. R.; Roundy, D. B. (Society for Range Management, 2014-09)
      With the encroachment of piñon (Pinus ssp.) and juniper (Juniperus ssp.) woodlands onto sagebrush steppe rangelands, there is an increasing interest in rapid, accurate, and inexpensive quantification methods to estimate tree canopy cover and aboveground biomass. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the relationship and agreement of piñon and juniper (P-J) canopy cover estimates, using object-based image analysis (OBIA) techniques and National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP, 1-m pixel resolution) imagery with ground measurements, and 2) to investigate the relationship between remotely-sensed P-J canopy cover and ground-measured aboveground biomass. For the OBIA, we used eCognition® Developer 8.8 software to extract tree canopy cover from NAIP imagery across 12 P-J woodlands within the Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) network. The P-J woodlands were categorized based on the dominant tree species found at the individual sites for the analysis (western juniper, Utah juniper, and mixed P-J community). Following tree canopy cover extractions, relationships were assessed between remotely-sensed canopy cover and ground-measured aboveground biomass. Our OBIA estimates for P-J canopy cover were highly correlated with ground-measured tree canopy cover (averaged across all regions r=0.92). However, differences between methods occurred for western and Utah juniper sites (P<0.05), and were more prominent where tree canopy cover was >40%. There were high degrees of correlation between predicted aboveground biomass estimates with the use of remotely-sensed tree canopy cover and ground-measured aboveground biomass (averaged across all regions r=0.89). Our results suggest that OBIA methods combined with NAIP imagery can provide land managers with quantitative data that can be used to evaluate P-J woodland cover and aboveground biomass rapidly, on broad scales. Although some accuracy and precision may be lost when utilizing aerial imagery to identify P-J canopy cover and aboveground biomass, it is a reasonable alternative to ground monitoring and inventory practices. © 2014 The Society for Range Management.
    • Utilizing Remote Sensing and GIS to Detect Prairie Dog Colonies

      Assal, Timothy J.; Lockwood, Jeffrey A. (Society for Range Management, 2007-01-01)
      The locations of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus [Ord]) colonies on a 550-km2 study site in northeastern Wyoming, United States, were estimated using 3 remote sensing methods: raw satellite imagery (Landsat 7 ETM+), enhanced satellite imagery (integration of imagery with thematic layers via a Geographic Information System), and aerial reconnaissance (observations taken from a small plane). A supervised classification of the raw satellite imagery yielded an overall accuracy of 64.4%, relative to ground-truthed locations of prairie dog colonies. The enhanced satellite imagery, resulting from a filtering of the data based on an index derived from the sum of weighted ecological factors associated with prairie dog colonies (slopes, land cover, soil, and ‘‘greenness’’ via the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) yielded an overall accuracy of 69.2%. The aerial reconnaissance method provided 65.1% accuracy. The highest rate of false positives resulted from the aerial reconnaissance method (39.9%). The highest rate of false negatives resulted from the raw satellite imagery (60.0%), a value that was markedly reduced via the enhancement with ecological data from thematic layers (45.8%). Given the accuracy, interpretability of results, repeatability, objectivity, cost, and safety, the enhanced satellite imagery method is the recommended approach to large-scale detection of black-tailed prairie dog colonies. If a greater accuracy is required, this method can be employed as a coarse filter to narrow the scale and scope of a more costly and laborious fine-scale analysis effectively. 
    • Utilizing the Balanced Scorecard in Range Management: Cattle Production Systems Perspective

      Patterson, H. H.; Richardson, Clinton (Society for Range Management, 2007-04-01)