• Wheel-Track Planting on Sagebrush-Bunchgrass Range

      Hyder, D. N.; Booster, D. E.; Sneva, F. A.; Sawyer, W. A.; Rodgers, J. B. (Society for Range Management, 1961-07-01)
    • When art and science meet: Integrating knowledge of French herders with science of foraging behavior

      Meuret, M.; Provenza, F. D. (Society for Range Management, 2015-01)
      Landscapes are complex creative systems that continually transform due to ever-changing relationships among environments and organisms including human beings. During the past half-century, those who study these relationships and those who manage them have become increasingly isolated from one another in their attempts to understand and manage landscapes. As we have come to rely on experimental science to understand principles, we have diminished the importance of experiential knowledge in understanding and implementing practices. In this paper, we discuss convergence of the knowledge of herders from Southeastern France with the science of foraging behavior. We review insights of researchers gained through interviews with herders, surveys, and in situ recordings of the foraging behavior of closely herded sheep and goats. Though years of hands-on experience, herders have come to understand processes involved in food and habitat selection. Using a conceptual model of four steps, which represent four intertwined processes for a given herder-herd-fodder resource, we describe how herders 1) teach their animals to use the full range of forages, 2) train the herd to respect the boundaries of grazing areas, 3) modulate what they call the "temporary palatability scoring" of forages, and 4) establish daily grazing circuits to stimulate appetite and intake through meal sequencing. This knowledge is also valuable when the objective is to boost appetite for particular forages, such as coarse grasses, scrub, and invasive species. The practices of herders are consistent with scientific studies that show the importance of plant biodiversity for enabling animals to select nutritious diets and the significance of animal learning and culture on nutrition, production, and health. We conclude by highlighting implications for furthering the exchange between herders and scientists and by providing implications for managing grazing on pastures and rangelands, with or without shepherds and dogs, and targeting grazing on particular plants and habitats. © 2015 Society for Range Management. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    • When the Grass Stood Stirrup-High: Historical Fact or Urban Myth?

      Bradford, David (Society for Range Management, 2004-10-01)
    • Where Are Our Future Ranchers?

      Skinner, Charles (Society for Range Management, 1956-01-01)
    • Where Are the Range Graduates Going?

      Butterfield, Charles; Bell, Scott; Wiedemann, Harold (Society for Range Management, 1990-02-01)
    • Where Do Seasonal Climate Predictions Belong in the Drought Management Toolbox?

      Crimmins, Michael A.; McClaran, Mitchel P. (Society for Range Management, 2016-12-01)
      On the Ground • Seasonal climate predictions, based largely on the status of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, are one such tool but need to be used with prudence, understanding when and where they perform the best. • Advance planning and preparation for drought includes finding the right place for uncertain climate predictions in management decision making, as well as working to reduce overall exposure to drought risks.
    • Where Do We Go From Here?

      Fulton, D. (Society for Range Management, 1952-05-01)
    • Where Have We Been and Where Are We Going in Range Management?

      Sampson, A. W. (Society for Range Management, 1955-11-01)
    • Where Have We Come From? Where Are We? And Where Are We Going?

      Kothmann, Mort (Society for Range Management, 2001-12-01)
    • Where the Prairie Meets the Plains

      Bunch, C. E. (Society for Range Management, 1961-05-01)
    • Which Direction Is Forward: Perspectives on Rangeland Science Curricula

      Thurow, T. L., Kothmann, M. M., Tanaka, J. A., & Dobrowolski, J. P. (Society for Range Management, 2007-12-01)
    • Which Trail for Range Students?

      Parkin, Clem; Anderson, E. William; Adams, Glenn; Hamilton, W. T.; Gifford, G. F. (Society for Range Management, 1982-10-01)
    • While-tailed Deer Food Habits and Nutritional Status as Affected by Grazing and Deer-Harvest Management

      Warren, R. J.; Krysl, L. J. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      White-tailed deer were collected in 1979 and 1980 from two areas in central Texas to determine differences in diets and nutritional status between years, sexes, and areas. Area 1 was more heavily populated with white-tailed deer, exotic big game, and domestic livestock than Area 2. Differences in summer and fall precipitation levels between years were reflected in altered forb and browse consumption by deer as determined from rumen contents. Differences in forb selection, oak mast consumption, and juniper browse consumption were detected between areas and were considered evidence of differences in range condition between areas. White-tails obtained from Area 1 were older than those from Area 2, but were not significantly larger in carcass weights, which also reflected the lower range condition of Area 1. Crude protein levels of rumen contents were greater in females than males and were greater in deer obtained from Area 1 than Area 2. These differences in rumen protein resulted from differences in consumption of acorns, a highly preferred, but low protein food item. Kidney fat indices reflected differences in rainfall patterns between years. Native and exotic big game populations and livestock grazing must be controlled to maintain a high level of nutritional status in the economically important white-tailed deer of central Texas.
    • White Rocks Road Immigrant Forage Kochia Trial Seedings

      Page, Richard J.; Rasmussen, V. Philip; Horton, Howard H.; Newhall, Robert L.; Wilson, Duane E.; Kidd, Gary W.; Roberts, Thomas C. (Society for Range Management, 1994-08-01)
    • White Sands Ranchers Can Take Aim with Figures for Losses

      Prow, Tina M. (Society for Range Management, 1984-02-01)
    • White-tailed deer and cattle diets at La Michilia, Durango, Mexico

      Gallina, S. (Society for Range Management, 1993-11-01)
      Fecal analysis was used to determine the relationships between white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus couesi [Coues and Yarrow]) and cattle diets (Beef Master, Hereford and criollo), in Durango, Mexico. Deer preferred shrub and tree species (85% of the diet), whereas cattle preferred grasses (61%). Although diets varied seasonally, as did forage availability and quality, the same selective forage pattern was maintained throughout the year. There was a significant difference in the use of different plant groups between the 2 herbivores. The diet overlap index (50.51%) suggested competition during the wet season, but forage was abundant (628 kg/ha dry weight biomass compared with 380 kg/ha in the dry season), thus reducing potential conflicts. Deer and cattle can simultaneously forage in this ares without detriment to either species. The vegetation can maintain a stable composition under higher utilization levels when used by 2 herbivores with different forage patterns than when used by only 1 herbivore.
    • White-Tailed Deer Densities and Brush Cover on the Rio Grande Plain

      Steuter, A. A.; Wright, H. A. (Society for Range Management, 1980-09-01)
      Rio Grande Plain habitats with a range in total brush cover from 10 to 97% were selected from three brush control treatments and native brush types. Deer density in each habitat was determined from helicopter census and observation towers. Three brush cover classes resulted in three levels of white-tailed deer use during summer. Areas with less than 43% total brush cover had a maximum density of 1.4 deer/40.5 ha. Brush cover from 43 to 60% had a maximum density of 3.25 deer/40.5 ha. Highest summer deer use occurred on areas with 60 to 97% total brush cover (7.5 deer/40.5 ha).
    • White-tailed Deer Diets from Pastures in Excellent and Poor Range Condition

      Bryant, F. C.; Taylor, C. A.; Merrill, L. B. (Society for Range Management, 1981-05-01)
      A study was initiated in August, 1975, to examine the forage available to and diet composition of white-tailed deer on pastures of excellent and poor range condition at the Sonora Research Station near Sonora, Texas. Grass and forb standing crop and deer feeding time on these two forage classes were considerably higher on the pasture in excellent range condition than that in poor range condition. Browse standing crop and feeding time was greater from the pasture in poor range condition. The Merrill 4-pasture grazing system appeared to increase the availability and use by deer of grass regrowth. Yearly averages of crude protein and phosphorus were higher in diet samples collected from the pasture in excellent range condition. Digestible energy levels were similar between pastures when averaged over the 1-year period. Digestible energy levels in diets were, however, higher from the excellent condition pasture in every season except winter. In winter, deer fed primarily on the foliage of oak on excellent condition range; but on the pasture in poor range condition, deer used large amounts of foliage and mast from juniper and dead leaves of persimmon in addition to oak foliage. Juniper and persimmon apparently contributed to the higher digestible energy levels observed on the pasture in poor range condition during the winter season. Energy may be a major nutrient limiting deer production on the Edwards Plateau.
    • White-tailed deer habitats in the central Black Hills

      DePerno, C. S.; Jenks, J. A.; Griffin, S. L.; Rice, L. A.; Higgins, K. F. (Society for Range Management, 2002-05-01)
      White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis Zimm.) numbers in the central Black Hills have declined since the middle 1970s. Population status has been documented by a decline in hunter success, deer reproductive success, and fawn survival. Most management agencies believe habitat deterioration is the primary cause of population decline in the Black Hills. We evaluated habitat selection for a white-tailed deer herd in the central Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. From July 1993-July 1996, 73 adult and yearling doe and 12 adult and yearling buck white-tailed deer were radiocollared and visually monitored. Habitat Information was collected at 4,662 white-tailed deer locations and 1,087 random locations. During winter, white-tailed deer selected ponderosa pine- (Pinus ponderosa P. C. Lawson) deciduous and burned pine cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/grass-forb, pine/bear-berry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.), pine/snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus L.), burned pine/grass-forb, and pine/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included sapling-pole pine stands with 70% canopy cover, burned pine sapling-pole and saw-timber stands with 40% canopy cover. During summer, white-tailed deer selected pine-deciduous, aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), aspen-coniferous, spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss), and spruce-deciduous cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/juniper Juniperus communis L.), aspen/shrubs, spruce/juniper, and spruce/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included pine, aspen, and spruce sapling pole stands with all levels (0-40%, 41-70%,71-100%) of canopy cover. Results supported low habitat quality as a factor involved with the decline of the deer population. We recommend that habitat management techniques, such as aspen regeneration and prescribed burns, be used to Improve the habitat base in the central Black Hills.