• White-tailed deer and cattle diets at La Michilia, Durango, Mexico

      Gallina, S. (Society for Range Management, 1993-11-01)
      Fecal analysis was used to determine the relationships between white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus couesi [Coues and Yarrow]) and cattle diets (Beef Master, Hereford and criollo), in Durango, Mexico. Deer preferred shrub and tree species (85% of the diet), whereas cattle preferred grasses (61%). Although diets varied seasonally, as did forage availability and quality, the same selective forage pattern was maintained throughout the year. There was a significant difference in the use of different plant groups between the 2 herbivores. The diet overlap index (50.51%) suggested competition during the wet season, but forage was abundant (628 kg/ha dry weight biomass compared with 380 kg/ha in the dry season), thus reducing potential conflicts. Deer and cattle can simultaneously forage in this ares without detriment to either species. The vegetation can maintain a stable composition under higher utilization levels when used by 2 herbivores with different forage patterns than when used by only 1 herbivore.
    • White-Tailed Deer Densities and Brush Cover on the Rio Grande Plain

      Steuter, A. A.; Wright, H. A. (Society for Range Management, 1980-09-01)
      Rio Grande Plain habitats with a range in total brush cover from 10 to 97% were selected from three brush control treatments and native brush types. Deer density in each habitat was determined from helicopter census and observation towers. Three brush cover classes resulted in three levels of white-tailed deer use during summer. Areas with less than 43% total brush cover had a maximum density of 1.4 deer/40.5 ha. Brush cover from 43 to 60% had a maximum density of 3.25 deer/40.5 ha. Highest summer deer use occurred on areas with 60 to 97% total brush cover (7.5 deer/40.5 ha).
    • White-tailed Deer Diets from Pastures in Excellent and Poor Range Condition

      Bryant, F. C.; Taylor, C. A.; Merrill, L. B. (Society for Range Management, 1981-05-01)
      A study was initiated in August, 1975, to examine the forage available to and diet composition of white-tailed deer on pastures of excellent and poor range condition at the Sonora Research Station near Sonora, Texas. Grass and forb standing crop and deer feeding time on these two forage classes were considerably higher on the pasture in excellent range condition than that in poor range condition. Browse standing crop and feeding time was greater from the pasture in poor range condition. The Merrill 4-pasture grazing system appeared to increase the availability and use by deer of grass regrowth. Yearly averages of crude protein and phosphorus were higher in diet samples collected from the pasture in excellent range condition. Digestible energy levels were similar between pastures when averaged over the 1-year period. Digestible energy levels in diets were, however, higher from the excellent condition pasture in every season except winter. In winter, deer fed primarily on the foliage of oak on excellent condition range; but on the pasture in poor range condition, deer used large amounts of foliage and mast from juniper and dead leaves of persimmon in addition to oak foliage. Juniper and persimmon apparently contributed to the higher digestible energy levels observed on the pasture in poor range condition during the winter season. Energy may be a major nutrient limiting deer production on the Edwards Plateau.
    • White-tailed deer habitats in the central Black Hills

      DePerno, C. S.; Jenks, J. A.; Griffin, S. L.; Rice, L. A.; Higgins, K. F. (Society for Range Management, 2002-05-01)
      White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis Zimm.) numbers in the central Black Hills have declined since the middle 1970s. Population status has been documented by a decline in hunter success, deer reproductive success, and fawn survival. Most management agencies believe habitat deterioration is the primary cause of population decline in the Black Hills. We evaluated habitat selection for a white-tailed deer herd in the central Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. From July 1993-July 1996, 73 adult and yearling doe and 12 adult and yearling buck white-tailed deer were radiocollared and visually monitored. Habitat Information was collected at 4,662 white-tailed deer locations and 1,087 random locations. During winter, white-tailed deer selected ponderosa pine- (Pinus ponderosa P. C. Lawson) deciduous and burned pine cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/grass-forb, pine/bear-berry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.), pine/snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus L.), burned pine/grass-forb, and pine/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included sapling-pole pine stands with 70% canopy cover, burned pine sapling-pole and saw-timber stands with 40% canopy cover. During summer, white-tailed deer selected pine-deciduous, aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), aspen-coniferous, spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss), and spruce-deciduous cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/juniper Juniperus communis L.), aspen/shrubs, spruce/juniper, and spruce/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included pine, aspen, and spruce sapling pole stands with all levels (0-40%, 41-70%,71-100%) of canopy cover. Results supported low habitat quality as a factor involved with the decline of the deer population. We recommend that habitat management techniques, such as aspen regeneration and prescribed burns, be used to Improve the habitat base in the central Black Hills.
    • White-tailed Deer Hunting Leases: Hunter Costs and Rancher Revenues

      Butler, Larry D. (Society for Range Management, 1991-02-01)
    • White-tailed Deer Preferences and Hunter Success under Various Grazing Systems

      Reardon, P. O.; Merrill, L. B.; Taylor, C. A. (Society for Range Management, 1978-01-01)
      Preferences of white-tailed deer to various grazing management systems now being tested at the Texas A&M University Agricultural Research Station, Sonora, were evaluated on the basis of deer density and economic returns from hunting. Hunter success was evaluated on the basis of several factors. White-tailed deer definitely preferred a rangeland grazed under a system which included a systematic rotational deferment, and the more frequent the deferment the higher the preference. Hunter success was directly related to deer density, time during the season hunted, brush management, and type of grazing system utilized. Results from this study indicates that good livestock grazing management can also be good big-game range management.
    • White-tailed deer use of rangeland following browse rejuvenation

      Bozzo, J. A.; Beasom, S. L.; Fulbright, T. E. (Society for Range Management, 1992-09-01)
      Mechanical top growth removal of certain shrub species stimulates sprouting and temporarily increases nutritional quality, availability, and yield of browse. We determined the effects of (1) roller chopping separate portions of rangeland, dominated by guajillo (Acacia berlandieri Benth.) and blackbrush acacia (A. rigidula Benth.), during consecutive years and (2) disking separate portions of rangeland, dominated by dense whitebrush (Aloysia lyciodes Cham.) thickets, during consecutive years on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Raf.) use of the treated areas. Separate, adjacent portions of guajillo and blackbrush acacia-dominated rangeland were roller chopped in a pattern of alternating treated and untreated strips each year during summer for 4 consecutive years (1985-1988) on an area in Duval County, Tex., and for 2 years (1988-1989) on areas in Duval and McMullen counties, Texas. Whitebrush-dominated rangeland was disced in a similar pattern during 2 years (1988-1989). Twenty percent of each study site was treated each year. Estimated deer density in the roller-chopped area in Duval County was higher than estimated deer density in an untreated area during 1985-1987 and in 1989. Roller chopping in study areas in Duval and McMullen counties increased deer fecal pellet-group densities (groups ha-1 day-1) relative to untreated sites in winter, spring, and summer 1989 and when averaged over the 21-month study. Discing dense whitebrush-dominated sites increased pellet-group densities relative to untreated sites in spring and summer 1989 and when averaged across the 21-month study period. Increased deer use of treated areas was probably a function of several factors, including increased forb availability and increased nighttime visibility for predator detection.
    • Whitehorse Butte Allotment—Controversy to Compromise

      Holbert, Michael R. (Society for Range Management, 1991-06-01)
    • Whitehorse Butte Allotment—Poor Public Range Policy?

      Wuerthner, George (Society for Range Management, 1990-12-01)
    • Whitelined Sphinx Moth Larvae on Rangeland Vegetation

      Mock, D. E.; Ohlenbusch, P. D. (Society for Range Management, 1981-09-01)
      Larvae of whitelined sphinx [Hyles lineata (Fab.)] caused heavy defoliation and other injury to several species of range plants in a newly seeded stand of brome grass [Bromus inermis Leyss.] near Lakin, Kearny County, Kansas. Although larvae of this species are rather general feeders on broadleafed plants, they had a sequence of preference and completely ignored the brome grass. Species commonly eaten included prairie evening-primrose [Oenothera albicaulis (Pursh)] and spotted beebalm [Monarda punctata L.]. It is conjectured that feeding by whitelined sphinx larvae may sometimes influence the composition of range plant communities on the short grass prairie of the North American Great Plains.
    • Who Knows the SRM in Texas? Who Cares?

      Hart, Charles R.; Rollins, Dale (Society for Range Management, 1999-04-01)
    • Who's Eating the Flowers of a Rare Western Nevada Range Plant?

      Longland, William S.; Aten, Melany; Swartz, Maryke; Kulpa, Sarah (Society for Range Management, 2009-03-01)
    • Why Haven't Farmers Taken to Regrassing?

      Harris, H. L. (Society for Range Management, 1950-10-01)
    • Why Not Say It the Way It Is!

      Cook, C. Wayne (Society for Range Management, 1971-07-01)
    • Why Proper Grazing Use?

      Anderson, E. W. (Society for Range Management, 1969-09-01)
      Proper grazing use is paramount in attaining efficiency of rangeland production. Numerous scientific studies provide the basic reasons for practicing proper use. Results of grazing intensity studies are being reported from the West. The reasons for proper grazing use are emphasized. The benefits are enumerated.
    • Why Some Cattlemen Overgraze—and Some Don't

      Shoop, M. C.; McIlvain, E. H. (Society for Range Management, 1971-07-01)
      Cattle can make high gains on overgrazed range for a few years-if they are fed enough hay, grain, or protein. The supplements mask the low and declining production of overgrazed range. This combination of overgrazing and extra supplements can be profitable until the plant and soil resources are badly damaged, or until a series of drouth years combined with low or dropping cattle prices "terminate" the business or put it on a subsistence level. Over the long term, moderate grazing is more profitable than overgrazing, and in the short term, is much more stable financially./Los bovinos pueden producir mucho en pastizales sobrepastoreados si están suplementados con bastante heno, grano o proteínas. Pero un bajo nivel de producción puede estar escondido por la suplementación. La combinación de sobrepastoreo y suplementación puede ser aprovechable hasta que los recursos naturales tales como las plantas y el suelo están dañados seriamente o cuando hay una sequía combinada con precios bajos y que pueden perjudicar seriamente el negocio de la ganadería. El pastoreo moderado es más aprovechable que el sobrepastoreo si lo consideramos a largo plazo y se refleja en una situación más estable en el corto plazo.
    • Why Some Westerners Fear “Protection” of Biodiversity

      Smith Thomas, Heather (Society for Range Management, 1996-10-01)
    • Why Squirreltail Is More Tolerant to Burning than Needle-and-Thread

      Wright, H. A. (Society for Range Management, 1971-07-01)
      Squirreltail plants have a low density of dead plant material; consequently, they burn quickly, and heat penetration to the growing points is at a minimum. By contrast, the greater density of dead plant material in needle-and-thread bunches causes them to burn at higher temperatures for longer periods, so that many plants are killed. Squirreltail is also more tolerant than needle-and-thread to herbage removal by clipping.
    • Wild Game in Texas

      Payne, Jack M.; Brown, Robert D.; Guthery, Fred S. (Society for Range Management, 1987-10-01)
    • Wild Horses: Legends or Burdens on Our Rangelands?

      Russell, Morgan L. (Society for Range Management, 2004-12-01)
      Reducing wild horse herd numbers with the proper management tools can improve rangeland health