• Water Harvesting Efficiencies of Four Soil Surface Treatments

      Rauzi, L.; Fairbourn, M. L.; Landers, L. (Society for Range Management, 1973-11-01)
      Water harvesting efficiency of four soil surface treatments was studied for 5 years at Gillette, Wyoming, and the Central Plains Experimental Range near Nunn, Colorado. The surface treatments consisted of rangeland, salt (NaCl), plastic covered with pea gravel, and asphalt roll roofing. Average water harvesting efficiencies ranged from 5% on rangeland at Gillette to 105% from the asphalt roll roofing treatment at the Central Plains Experimental Range. Spring and fall snowstorms resulted in water harvesting efficiencies of over 100% at the Central Plains Experimental Range. Precipitation was highest in April, May, and June and lowest in August.
    • Water Harvesting From Ranch Roads

      Thorpe, Jim (Society for Range Management, 2007-06-01)
    • Water Harvesting: A Source of Livestock Water

      Frasier, G. W. (Society for Range Management, 1975-11-01)
      Water harvesting is a means of supplying stockwater in any area where precipitation is sufficient to grow forage. There are many types of methods and materials which can be used to collect precipitation. Knowledge of the advantages and disadvantages of each treatment is needed to select the method best suited for a given site. Costs of water collected from various treatments range from less than $0.20 per 1,000 gallons to over $6.00 per 1,000 gallons in a 20-inch precipitation zone.
    • Water holding capacity of litter and soil organic matter in mixed prairie and fescue grassland ecosystems of Alberta

      Naeth, M. A.; Bailey, A. W.; Chanasyk, D. S.; Pluth, D. J. (Society for Range Management, 1991-01-01)
      Litter and organic matter accumulations can reduce soil water through interception of precipitation and subsequent evaporation of absorbed water. Interception varies with mass and water holding capacity (WHC) of litter and organic matter, and is highest from small precipitation events. WHC varies with vegetation type, which is affected by grazing regime. Thus long-term grazing could affect WHC of litter and organic matter and would be important in the hydrologic assessment of rangelands subjected to many small precipitation events throughout the growing season. The study was conducted in mixed prairie, parkland fescue, and foothills fescue grasslands in Alberta, Canada. Grazing regimes were of light to very heavy intensities, grazed early, late, and continuously during the growing season. Litter and organic matter were sorted by sieving into various sized categories. Litter-soil cores were also evaluated. WHC of litter and organic matter was lower in mixed prairie than in fescue grasslands. WHC increased with increazed particle size, being higher for roots and standing and fallen litter than for organic matter. WHC of large particle-sized material decreased with heavy intensity and/or early season grazing. WHC was affected more by intensity than season of grazing. Grazing affected WHC through species composition changes, since species have different WHC, and through trampling which affected particle size. It was concluded that litter and organic matter WHC were important in rangeland hydrologic assessments.
    • Water Intake and Runoff as Affected by Intensity of Grazing

      Rauzi, F.; Hanson, C. L. (Society for Range Management, 1966-11-01)
      Water intake rates on differentially grazed rangeland watersheds were nearly linear with the heavily grazed watershed having the lowest and the lightly grazed watershed the highest rate. Annual runoff was greatest from the heavily grazed watersheds and least from the lightly grazed. Storm characteristics were a factor in the production of runoff.
    • Water Intake as Affected by Soil and Vegetation on Certain Western South Dakota Rangelands

      Rauzi, F.; Kuhlman, A. R. (Society for Range Management, 1961-09-01)
    • Water Intake on a Sandy Range as Affected by 20 Years of Differential Cattle Stocking Rates

      Rhoades, E. D.; Locke, L. F.; Taylor, H. M.; McIlvain, E. H. (Society for Range Management, 1964-07-01)
    • Water Intake on Rangeland as Affected by Simulated Grazing Fertilization

      Rauzi, F.; Smika, D. E. (Society for Range Management, 1963-05-01)
    • Water Management in Northwestern Egypt

      Frasier, Gary (Society for Range Management, 2005-04-01)
    • Water Properties of Caliche

      Hennessy, J. T.; Gibbens, R. P.; Tromble, J. M.; Cardenas, M. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      Water absorption and retention by hard caliche nodules (rocks) collected from soils in southern New Mexico were determined. The rate of water uptake by the caliche rocks was rapid and water content at saturation was 13.0% by weight (24.7% by volume). At a matrix potential of -0.7 MPa, the rocks retained 10.6% water by weight, an 18% loss from saturation. Water loss from saturated rocks to a dry atmosphere was slow, but most of the absorbed water was released. The rocks contained only 0.6% water by weight (1.1% by volume) after 34 days in a desiccator. Both laboratory and field trials indicated that, although indurated caliche layers will absorb large amounts of water, the water does not pass through the layers to the soil below.
    • Water Quality and Rangelands—A Viewpoint

      Burford, Robert F. (Society for Range Management, 1988-08-01)
    • Water Quality at Wildlife Water Sources in the Sonoran Desert, United States

      Rosenstock, Steven S.; Bleich, Vernon C.; Rabe, Michael J.; Reggiardo, Carlos (Society for Range Management, 2005-11-01)
      Surface water is an important limiting factor for wildlife populations in desert environments where water sources are uncommon or have been lost or degraded due to human activities. To address this need, wildlife water developments have been constructed in many areas of the southwestern United States, particularly in the Sonoran Desert. Previous studies of wildlife water developments are limited and critics have asserted that water quality at these facilities may be deleterious to animal health. Water quality was evaluated at natural, modified natural, and constructed water sources in the Sonoran Desert of southwestern Arizona and southeastern California. Samples were taken from primary sources of surface water available to wildlife, including natural tinajas (rock basins), modified tinajas, springs, rainwater catchments (‘‘guzzlers’’), and wells. Water samples were tested for 21 chemical constituents known to affect animal health, blue-green algal toxins, and a presumed waterborne pathogen, the protozoan avian parasite Trichomonas gallinae. Seven chemical constituents were absent or below detection limits. The majority of constituents detected (10/13, 77%) occurred at levels below recommended guidelines for domestic animals. Elevated pH, alkalinity, and fluoride were found in rainwater catchments, springs, and wells, respectively, but at relatively low levels unlikely to affect animal health. Blue-green algal toxins were not detected and there was no evidence of Trichomonas. Although specific water quality guidelines for wildlife are lacking, these results do not support hypothesized negative impacts to wildlife populations from developed water sources. 
    • Water Quality Effect of Rangeland Beef Cattle Excrement

      Nader, Glenn; Tate, Kenneth W.; Atwill, Robert; Bushnell, James (Society for Range Management, 1998-10-01)
    • Water quality effects on stability and phytotoxicity of picloram and clopyralid

      Whisenant, S. G.; Bovey, R. W. (Society for Range Management, 1993-05-01)
      Water quality effects on stability of picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid) and clopyralid (3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid) were evaluated by determining their concentrations in spray mixtures 0, 48, and 168 hours after mixing. Gas chromatography was used to evaluate picloram and clopyralid concentrations in spray solutions mixed with different water sources or buffered water solutions. At 168 hours picloram concentrations in water from La Copita and Midland, Texas, were 11 and 12% lower than at 0-hour and 5 and 6% lower than picloram concentrations in distilled water at 168 hours. Water quality effects on phytotoxicity to honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) were evaluated at 0 and 168 hours after mixing the spray solution. Water quality had no effect on clopyralid phytotoxicity to honey mesquite at either 0 or 168 hours after mixing. Phytotoxicity to honey mesquite was reduced 42% when picloram mixtures were used 168 hours after mixing with water from La Copita. This indicates the potential for reduced phytotoxicity from picloram when prepared spray solutions are not used for 7 days.
    • Water Quality Implications of Cattle Grazing on a Semiarid Watershed in Southeastern Utah

      Buckhouse, J. C.; Gifford, G. F. (Society for Range Management, 1976-03-01)
      During 1973 and 1974 wildland water quality analyses were performed on a semiarid, chained and seeded, pinyon-juniper site in southeastern Utah. The area was treated in 1967 and protected from grazing until 1974. In 1974 livestock grazing was introduced and investigations continued to determine if any deleterious land use effects were present from fecal contamination by cattle. No significant changes were noted in fecal and total coliform production (fecal pollution bacterial indicators) from grazing use. There is an element of risk involved whenever data generated from a small area are projected to larger land areas. However, it appears that this level of livestock grazing (2 ha/AUM) did not constitute a public health hazard in terms of fecal pollution indicators on the semiarid watershed.
    • Water Quality in Wyoming – The Sage Creek Project

      Shirley, Mark D. (Society for Range Management, 2003-06-01)
    • Water relations and transpiration of honey mesquite on 2 sites in west Texas

      Wan, C.; Sosebee, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1991-03-01)
      Transpiration rates and internal water relationships of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) were investigated weekly during May through September 1986 on sandy loam and clay loam, both upland sites in west Texas. Average transpiration rates peaked at approximately 7 mmol m-2 s-1 at 1100 hr during wet periods and reached a plateau between 4 and 5 mmol m-2 s-1 between 1200 and 1400 hr. During dry periods, the average transpiration rates reached their maximum plateau of 2 mmol m-2 s-1 at 1000 hr and declined between 1200 and 1600 hr. The transpiration rates ranged from an average of 3.28 +/- 2.05 mmol m-2 s-1 for trees on a sandy loam site to an average of 3.85 +/- 1.94 mmol m-2 s-1 for those on a clay loam site. Stomatal closure in midsummer caused a substantial increase in leaf temperature. Mesquite has developed other means, such as leaf orientation, wax accumulation, and reduction in canopy development, to avoid drought. Stomatal conductance of mesquite is very responsive to soil water availability and dryness of the air, and is less responsive to internal water status. This research further substantiates that mesquite behaves like a facultative phreatophyte in west Texas.
    • Water Relations in Soils as Related to Plant Communities in Ruby Valley, Nevada

      Miller, R. F.; Branson, F. A.; McQueen, I. S.; Snyder, C. T. (Society for Range Management, 1982-07-01)
      Distinct patterns of vegetation on ancient lake sediments in Ruby Valley, Nev., define differences in soil-water-plant relations resulting either from differences in depth to ground water or from differences in water-retention capacities of soils deriving water only from precipitation. In order of increasing depth to ground water, dominant plant species are Juncus balticus, Distichlis stricta, Potentilla fruticosa, Elymus cinereus, Sarcobatus vermiculatus, and Chrysothamnus nauseosus. Dominant species on soils in order of increasing water-retention capacity are Artemesia tridentada nova, Chrysothamnus viscidiflorous pumilus, Ceratoides lanata, Artemesia tridentada tridentada, Atriplex nuttallii gardneri, and Atriplex confertifolia. Minimum and maximum levels of soil-water stress measured were systematically related to water-retention capacities of soils. A relationship was defined that permits approximation of amounts of water evapotranspired by different plant communities from percent of area under live plant cover. There are separate relationships, relating plant cover to amounts of plant stress or to amount of water evapotranspired, for habitats that receive water from the water table and those that do not. Levels of osmotic stress encountered in surface soils appear to influence plant-community distribution.
    • Water relations of honey mesquite following severing of lateral roots: influence of location and amount of subsurface water

      Ansley, R. J.; Jacoby, P. W.; Cuomo, G. J. (Society for Range Management, 1990-09-01)
      Location and amount of subsurface water may ifiuenee the degree of dependence of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) on shallow lateral roots to supply water. The objective of this study was to determine influence of lateral roots on water relations of honey mesquite on 2 sites which differed in location and amount of subsurface water. Lateral roots were severed with barriers placed to 1.5 m depth and completely surrounding individual trees in February 1985, during mesquite winter dormancy. Stomatal conductance and predawn leaf water potential were signifiicantly reduced in root-severed trees during the following growing season (May-September) at both sites, but reduction was greater on the site with less subsurface water. Daytime leaf water potential was bigger in root-severed than control trees on tbe site with less subsurface water, but not on the other site. By mid-summer 1986, no difference in stomatal conductance between treatments were detected at either site, yet daytime leaf water potential remained higher in root-severed than control trees at the site with less subsurface water. Predawn leaf water potential was greater in root-severed than control trees in 1986, which was a reversal of 1985 trends. Leaf abscission was not observed in either treatment during either growing season. These results suggest that: (1) when less subsurface water was available, trees were more dependent on lateral roots to supply water, (2) treatment effects were minimized by the second growing season following root severing, possibly from new root growth within or below the root barrier region, and (3) the lateral root system may play a significant role in regulating leaf water relations on sites with limited subsurface water.
    • Water Repellency of Soils under Burned Sagebrush

      Salih, M. S. A.; Taha, F. K.; Payne, G. F. (Society for Range Management, 1973-09-01)
      Burning of sagebrush produces water repellency in soils. Maximum repellency occurs at soil temperatures between 1400 and 1800 degrees F. The field test indicated that repellency is produced as a result of the burning of the sagebrush leaf mulch under the shrub rather than the burning of the live plant material.