• Woody Plant Community in the Cross Timbers Over Two Decades of Brush Treatments

      Engle, David M.; Bodine, Timothy N.; Stritzke, J. F. (Society for Range Management, 2006-03-01)
      The closed overstory of fire-adapted forests throughout the world precludes surface fires of sufficient intensity to open the overstory. The cross timbers, an upland oak forest that spans an area from Texas to Missouri, developed with frequent fire, but removal of fire since European settlement has increased canopy cover of dominant overstory trees. To assess response of woody plant species cover and plant community compositional trajectories to brush treatments that included herbicides and fire in the cross timbers, we analyzed a 20-year data set (1982-2001) from untreated pastures, pastures treated with tebuthiuron or triclopyr in 1983, and pastures treated with tebuthiuron or triclopyr in 1983 and burned periodically thereafter (tebuthiuron + fire and triclopyr + fire). We used analysis of variance to determine change in overstory canopy cover and understory canopy cover in response to experimental treatment, and we used detrended correspondence analysis to assess trajectories of species composition over time. Overstory canopy cover was reduced from more than 100% to less than 20% following initial herbicide application, but canopy cover increased subsequently to over 60% as herbicide-resistant woody species increased in all but the tebuthiuron + fire treatment. The most striking change in overstory occurred in the tebuthiuron + fire pastures, which contained almost 20% cover of sumac (Rhus spp.) by 1994, and in the tebuthiuron pastures, which contained > 40% cover of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) by 1994. Tebuthiuron, both with and without fire as a follow-up, influenced composition of the overstory more than did triclopyr. Application of tebuthiuron appears to be a long-term unidirectional disturbance in the cross timbers. Composition also remained distinct from pretreatment condition in triclopyr-treated pastures after almost 20 years of postherbicide succession. In contrast, the understory woody plant community was quite resilient to both herbicides. 
    • Woody Plant Control in the Post Oak Savannah of Texas With Hexazinone

      Scifres, C. J. (Society for Range Management, 1982-05-01)
      Hexazinone, applied as spheres or pellets (1.27 cm in diameter) in grid patterns (1.5 or 3 m spacings) at 2 or 4 kg/ha effectively controlled post oak and blackjack oak in east central Texas. The herbicide also appeared promising for control of water oak, American elm, and downy hawthorne. Willow baccharis and winged elm appeared to be moderately susceptible to 2 kg/ha of the herbicide and were controlled by 4 kg/ha. Yaupon canopies were initially reduced by the herbicide but had begun to recover by the second or third growing season after application and replaced the oaks as the primary limitation to range improvement following treatment, regardless of hexazione rate applied. Saw greenbrier, mustang grape, southern dewberry, American beautyberry, and woolly-bucket bumelia were not controlled by hexazinone.
    • Woody Plant Invasion of Unburned Kansas Bluestem Prairie

      Bragg, T. B.; Hulbert, L. C. (Society for Range Management, 1976-01-01)
      Postsettlement invasion of trees and shrubs on the bluestem prairie of Geary County in the Kansas Flint Hills was assessed using aerial photos, General Land Office survey data, and field observations. Tree cover increased 8% from 1856 to 1969 throughout the county, although on regularly burned sites combined tree and shrub cover was effectively maintained at presettlement amounts. On unburned sites, aerial photographs showed that combined tree and shrub cover increased 34% from 1937 to 1969; section-line data showed that tree cover alone increased 24% from 1856 to 1969. Data from two sites suggested that herbicide spraying only slowed the invasion rate. Woody plants increased only slightly on shallow, droughty clay loam soils located on level uplands, ridgetops, and upper slopes. On deeper and more permeable middle- and lower-slope soils, woody plants increased more than 40% from 1937 to 1969. In 1937 trees covered 64% of the unburned, deep, permeable, lowland soils; by 1950 they had increased to 89%; change was slight thereafter. The increase in coverage of the lowland soils from 1856 to 1937 suggests that these soils are rapidly invaded. We conclude that on the Flint Hills bluestem prairie rangeland, (1) burning has been effective in restricting woody plants to natural, presettlement amounts and (2) soil type and topography affect the rate of woody-plant invasion.
    • Woody Plants Reestablishment in Modified Pinyon-Juniper Woodlands, New Mexico

      Severson, K. E. (Society for Range Management, 1986-09-01)
      Pinyon (Pinus edulis Engelm.), one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma (Engelm.) Sarg.), and alligator juniper (J. deppeana Steud.) woodlands in southwestern New Mexico were thinned, were pushed with bulldozers leaving slash in place, and were pushed and then slash piled and burned. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in densities of these trees 13 and 18 years later between untreated (379 trees/ha) and thinned (489 trees/ha) plots or between pushed/left (67 trees/ha) and pushed/piled/burned plots (49 trees/ha). Differences between bulldozed treatments and untreated/thinned treatments were significant (P<0.05). Total shrubs, 75% of which were gray oak (Quercus grisea Liebm.) and hairy mountainmahogany (Cercocarpus breviflorus Gray), were significantly more abundant in untreated areas (672 shrubs/ha), than in any of the treatments. No differences were noted among treatments (493, 393, 329 shrubs/ha for thinned, pushed/left, and pushed/piled/burned, respectively). Rates of pinyon reestablishment increased slowly up to the mid-1960's (from 1.1 to 1.3 trees/ha/year) then accelerated to 10 to 13 trees/ha/year. Pinyon and juniper densities were about 120 trees/ha when reestablishment rates increased.
    • Woody Vegetation Persistence and Disturbance in Central Texas Grasslands Inferred From Multidecadal Historical Aerial Photographs

      Murray, Darrel B.; White, Joseph D.; Swint, Pamela (Society for Range Management, 2013-05-01)
      Woody vegetation encroachment has been assumed to occur uniformly over the past century across the southern Great Plains of the United States. To assess this assumption, we evaluated changes in pixels classified as woody vegetation from aerial photographs from 1937 to 2004 that were acquired approximately every 13 yr for a 7 109-ha wildlife refuge located in the eastern Edwards Plateau region of central Texas. We found that the percentage of total area classified as woody vegetation changed minimally (62.0-64.2%) from 1937 to 2004. However, on average, 32% of the study area changed classification between woody vegetation and nonwoody vegetation pixels between each photograph date. To assess potential causes of woody vegetation change, we analyzed contiguous pixels with area =1 ha and area 1 ha representing small- and large-scale disturbances, respectively. Small-scale woody vegetation pixel loss was found to be moderately low, ranging between 11.1% and 12.6% of the study area for the period of analysis, indicating relatively constant levels of canopy-level disturbance. Large-scale woody vegetation pixel loss peaked in the 1951-1964 time interval, where we identified 98 patches averaging 8.1 ha and covering 7.6% of the study area. The timing and area of these potential disturbances were correlated with drought and increased fire frequency within our study area. This methodology, which includes careful georectification and radiometric standardization of the historical photographs, can be used to detect interdecadal variability related to changes in types of disturbance over longer periods of time. This study also shows that repeated observations, such as those from aerial photographs, may be required to adequately characterize woody plant encroachment, particularly in subhumid grasslands, where disturbance and regrowth of woody plants may occur at decade time scales.
    • Woody vegetation response to various burning regimes in South Texas

      Ruthven, Donald C.; Braden, Anthony W.; Knutson, Haley J.; Gallagher, James F.; Synatzske, David R. (Society for Range Management, 2003-03-01)
      Responses of woody plant communities on native rangelands in the western South Texas Plains to fire are not clearly understood. Our objective was to compare woody plant cover, density, and diversity on burned and nontreated rangelands. Five rangeland sites that received 2 dormant-season burns, 5 rangeland sites that received a combination of 1 dormant-season and 1 growing-season burn, and 5 sites of nontreated rangeland were selected on the Chaparral Wildlife Management Area, Dimmit and La Salle Counties, Tex. Woody plant cover was estimated using the line intercept method, and stem density was estimated in 25-x 1.5-m plots. Species richness did not differ among treatments. Percent woody plant cover was reduced by 50 and 41 % on winter and winter-summer combination burned sites, respectively. Honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.), twisted acacia (Acacia schaffneri S. Wats.), Texas persimmon (Diospyros texana Scheele), lotebush [Ziziphus obtusifolia (Hook.) T. & G.], wolfberry (Lycium berlandieri Dunal), and tasajillo (Opuntia leptocaulis Cand.) canopy cover was greatest on nontreated sites. Woody plant density declined by 29 and 23% on winter and winter-summer combination burned sites, respectively. Density of guayacan (Guajacum angustifolium Engelm.), wolfberry, and tasajillo was less on all burning treatments. Percent cover of spiny hackberry (Celtis pallida Torr.) and density of Texas pricklypear (Opuntia engelmannii Salm-Reif.-Dyck) declined on winter burned sites. Inclusion of summer fire into the burning regime did not increase declines in woody plants. Fire created a post-fire environment which resulted in the decline of many woody plant species. It is unclear to what degree other environmental factors such as herbivory and competition between woody plants and among woody and herbaceous vegetation may have interacted with fire in producing woody plant declines. Fire may be a useful tool in managing woody vegetation on native south Texas rangelands, while maintaining woody plant diversity.
    • Working with the United States Congress

      Ritchie, Dee; Nelson, Don; Boe, Deen; Housley, Ray; Child, Dennis (Society for Range Management, 1990-10-01)
    • Working With Wildlife

      Pitre, John (Society for Range Management, 2002-10-01)
    • Writing Book Reviews for the Journal Of Range Management and Rangelands

      Scarnecchia, David L. (Society for Range Management, 2004-07-01)
      Effective, analytical reviews of recently published books inform readers of their essential content, and evaluate and communicate the value of their content to professional disciplines and the reading public. Such book reviews are widely read contributions to the Society for Range Management's publications, the Journal of Range Management and Rangelands, and are important elements of evaluation and communication within the Society. This paper is designed to assist writers in developing book reviews for the Journal of Range Management and Rangelands. Much of its analysis is relevant to book reviews for other publications. It begins with preliminary considerations for prospective authors. The functions of a book review are explained. Important considerations concerning reading the book are examined. The paper emphasizes the importance of finding a theme for a review. The common parts of a written review, i.e., the introduction, description of content, analysis and evaluation, and closing are considered individually. The paper then examines aspects of editing a review, and addresses some matters of style in writing. It concludes with a brief discussion of the importance of synthesis in developing an effective book review.
    • Writing for the reader

      Hart, Richard H. (Society for Range Management, 1988-09-01)
    • Writing for your audience

      Young, James A. (Society for Range Management, 1988-09-01)
    • Wyoming big sagebrush control with metsulfuron and 2,4-D in northern New Mexico

      McDaniel, K. C.; Anderson, D. L.; Balliette, J. F. (Society for Range Management, 1991-11-01)
      Field experiments conducted between 1982 to 1988 compared 2,4-D [(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid] and metsulfuron [2-[[[[(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl) amino)carbonyl]amino]sulfonyl]benzoic acid) for control of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis Beetle and Young) in northern New Mexico. Precipitation was near or above normal during years of herbicide applications. Broadcast sprays of 2,4-D at 2.2 kg/ha were most efficacious during rapid shoot elongation, but mortality averaged less than 38% from treatments applied over 4 separate years. Wyoming big sagebrush shoot growth was greatest in April and May compared to other months, but growth was highly variable among shrubs and probably reduced effectiveness of 2,4-D sprays. The optimum application timing for metsulfuron was during the late-flower growth and fruiting stages. Fall-applied metsulfuron at 0.035 kg/ha provided 65% Wyoming big sagebrush mortality compared to 27% when spring-applied. When metsulfuron was fall-applied at 0.07 kg/ha or higher, control averaged 88% following 3 annual applications. Combining metsulfuron at .0175 kg/ha plus 2,4-D at 1.1 kg/ha was comparable to or more effective than either herbicide applied alone in spring or fall. Total standing crop of grasses increased by nearly 300% after 1 or 2 growing seasons when Wyoming big sagebrush canopy cover was reduced by at least 75% following herbicide treatments.
    • Wyoming Big Sagebrush Recovery and Understory Response With Tebuthiuron Control

      McDaniel, Kirk C.; Torell, L. Allen; Ochoa, Carlos G. (Society for Range Management, 2005-01-01)
      Field data collected over a 20-year period at 8 sites in northwestern New Mexico was used to determine Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis Beetle and Young) recovery following control with tebuthiuron (N-[5-(1,1- dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl]-N-N9-dimethylurea) and to relate understory perennial grass yield to overstory canopy cover. Tebuthiuron killed between 80% and 95% of mature Wyoming big sagebrush plants within 18 months of chemical treatment, but through recruitment plant numbers equaled or exceeded pretreatment density (plants/m2) at 3 of the 8 sites and were increasing at other locations near the study’s end. Wyoming big sagebrush canopy cover averaged <2% the first 10 years after herbicide treatment but had returned to near pretreatment levels (>15%) at 2 sites, to between 5% and 10% at 4 sites, and to less than 3% at the remaining 2 sites. Treatment life was projected to exceed 35 years for 6 of the 8 study sites. Higher rates of tebuthiuron generally extended treatment life. Annual average perennial grass yield increased on treated areas relative to untreated rangeland at all study sites over the 20-year study period. Grass yield was highly variable between years, with pronounced increases when weather and environmental conditions were favorable for grass growth. A nonlinear S-shaped curve best described overstory-understory relationships and also defined the time path of Wyoming big sagebrush recovery, which differed by study site.  
    • Wyoming big sagebrush seed production from mined and unmined rangelands

      Booth, D. T.; Bai, Y.; Roos, E. E. (Society for Range Management, 2003-09-01)
      Wyoming Coal Rules and Regulations require shrubs be returned to mined land and that revegetation "...be self renewing." We evaluated seed production and seed quality of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle Young)) by measuring the effect of mining, herbivory, and environmental modification on seed production at 5 sites on the Dave Johnston Coal Mine near Glenrock, Wyo. Mined-land stands ranged in age from 5 to >20 years. Single sagebrush plants on mined, and adjacent unmined land were treated by: (1) fabric mulch around the base, (2) windbreak on the north and west, (3) both mulch and windbreak, and (4) neither windbreak nor mulch. Plants were fenced and compared with unfenced, untreated, neighboring plants. Seeds were harvested for 3 years and data were collected on seed-stalk numbers, bulk weight of seeds produced, and seed quality. Fenced mined-land plants produced several times more seeds than fenced plants on adjacent unmined land. There was no difference in seed quality. Treatments to modify the plant environment resulted in some benefits but fencing had a greater effect on seed-quality parameters than did planned treatments. We conclude the sagebrush seed-production potential on reclaimed lands such as those of the Dave Johnston Coal Mine is equal to, and often several times greater than that of adjacent unmined lands. However, browsing by wild ungulates can eliminate the mined-land yield advantage.
    • Wyoming Panel Discusses Role of SRM

      Hart, Dick (Society for Range Management, 1982-10-01)
    • Wyoming Wild Horse and Cattle Grazing Research

      Sowell, B. F.; Krysl, L. J.; Hubbert, M. E.; Plumb, G. E.; Jewett, T. K.; Smith, M. A.; Appelgate, S. L.; Waggoner, J. W. (Society for Range Management, 1983-12-01)
    • Wyoming's Aven Nelson and Range Management

      Beetle, A. A. (Society for Range Management, 1954-09-01)
    • Wyoming's Land Managers

      Schwartz, Jim (Society for Range Management, 1991-02-01)
    • Wyoming’s Aging Agricultural Landscape: Demographic Trends Among Farm and Ranch Operators, 1920–2007

      Glick, Henry B.; Bettigole, Charles (Society for Range Management, 2014-12-01)
      On the Ground • Across the United States, farmers and ranchers are getting older, and fewer young operators are entering the agricultural workforce than in the past. • We statistically and cartographically explored demographic trends among farm and ranch operators in Wyoming to see if and how the agricultural community was aging. • Census records indicate that Wyoming’s agricultural community is in fact aging, and that the relative proportions of younger operators are dwindling rapidly. • With a changing local agricultural community, we face risks associated with loss of local knowledge, loss of tradition, and loss of investment that stem from a deep-rooted sense of place. • We face a fundamental challenge in inspiring young agriculturalists to take up residence in the state to help replace those of retirement age. • This might be accomplished through shifts in education, public policy, economic incentives, or through targeted cultivation of personal connections to the land.