• Cattle Grazing Distribution and Efficacy of Strategic Mineral Mix Placement in Tropical Brazilian Pastures

      Goulart, Ricardo C. D.; Corsi, Moacyr; Bailey, Derek W.; Zocchi, Silvio S. (Society for Range Management, 2008-11-01)
      A study was conducted in Brazil to identify factors affecting grazing distribution of yearling Nelore cross heifers and to evaluate the efficacy of placement of a salt-mineral mix away from water to improve uniformity of grazing. Two pastures (25 ha and 42 ha) were evaluated for four 15-d sessions. Mineral mix was placed 590 m to 780 m from water during two sessions and at water for two sessions. Stubble heights were measured at the beginning and end of each session in 1-ha subunits of each pasture. Cattle locations were recorded on day 13 and 14 of each session by horseback observers. Heifers avoided areas with a preponderance of forbs and taller grass (P < 0.001). For the first 15 days of the study cattle avoided subunits farther from water. Thereafter, horizontal distance from water had no affect on grazing use (P > 0.10). Stubble height reduction was more uniform (P < 0.05) when the mineral mix was at water compared to away from water. In contrast, heifers spent less time farther from water when mineral mix was placed at water (P = 0.02) based on visual observations. Strategic placement of a salt-mineral mix away from water does not appear to be a reliable tool to improve cattle grazing distribution in humid tropical pastures from 25 ha to 45 ha in size. 
    • Climate Change and North American Rangelands: Assessment of Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies

      Joyce, Linda A.; Briske, David D.; Brown, Joel R.; Polley, H. Wayne; McCarl, Bruce A.; Bailey, Derek W. (Society for Range Management, 2013-09-01)
      Recent climatic trends and climate model projections indicate that climate change will modify rangeland ecosystem functions and the services and livelihoods that they provision. Recent history has demonstrated that climatic variability has a strong influence on both ecological and social components of rangeland systems and that these systems possess substantial capacity to adapt to climatic variability. Specific objectives of this synthesis are to: 1) evaluate options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and future climate change; 2) survey actions that individuals, enterprises, and social organizations can use to adapt to climate change; and 3) assess options for system transformation when adaptation is no longer sufficient to contend with climate change. Mitigation for carbon sequestration does not appear economically viable, given the small and highly variable carbon dioxide fluxes of rangeland ecosystems and the high transaction costs that would be incurred. In contrast, adaptation strategies are numerous and provide a means to manage risks associated with climate change. Adaptation strategies are diverse, including altered risk perception by individuals, greater flexibility of production enterprises, and modifications to social organizations that emphasize climatic variability, rather than consistency. Many adaptations represent ‘‘no regrets’’ actions because their implementation can be justified without emphasis on pending climate change. Adaptations specific to livestock production systems can include flexible herd management, alternative livestock breeds or species, innovative pest management, modified enterprise structures, and geographic relocation. Social-ecological systems in which adaptation is insufficient to counter the adverse consequences of climate change might undergo transformative change to produce alternative ecosystem services, production enterprises, and livelihoods. The rangeland profession is in a pivotal position to provide leadership on this global challenge because it represents the intersection of management and scientific knowledge, includes diverse stakeholders who derive their livelihoods from rangelands, and interacts with organizations responsibl3e for rangeland stewardship.
    • Climate Change and North American Rangelands: Trends, Projections, and Implications

      Polley, H. Wayne; Briske, David D.; Morgan, Jack A.; Wolter, Klaus; Bailey, Derek W.; Brown, Joel R. (Society for Range Management, 2013-09-01)
      The amplified ‘‘greenhouse effect’’ associated with increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases has increased atmospheric temperature by 1 degreesC since industrialization (around 1750), and it is anticipated to cause an additional 2 degreesC increase by mid-century. Increased biospheric warming is also projected to modify the amount and distribution of annual precipitation and increase the occurrence of both drought and heat waves. The ecological consequences of climate change will vary substantially among ecoregions because of regional differences in antecedent environmental conditions; the rate and magnitude of change in the primary climate change drivers, including elevated carbon dioxide (CO2), warming and precipitation modification; and nonadditive effects among climate drivers. Elevated atmospheric CO2 will directly stimulate plant growth and reduce negative effects of drying in a warmer climate by increasing plant water use efficiency; however, the CO2 effect is mediated by environmental conditions, especially soil water availability. Warming and drying are anticipated to reduce soil water availability, net primary productivity, and other ecosystem processes in the southern Great Plains, the Southwest, and northern Mexico, but warmer and generally wetter conditions will likely enhance these processes in the northern Plains and southern Canada. The Northwest will warm considerably, but annual precipitation is projected to change little despite a large decrease in summer precipitation. Reduced winter snowpack and earlier snowmelt will affect hydrology and riparian systems in the Northwest. Specific consequences of climate change will be numerous and varied and include modifications to forage quantity and quality and livestock production systems, soil C content, fire regimes, livestock metabolism, and plant community composition and species distributions, including range contraction and expansion of invasive species. Recent trends and model projections indicate continued directional change and increasing variability in climate that will substantially affect the provision of ecosystem services on North American rangelands.
    • Effect of Previous Experience on Grazing Patterns and Diet Selection of Brangus Cows in the Chihuahuan Desert

      Bailey, Derek W.; Thomas, Milton G.; Walker, John W.; Witmore, Barbara K.; Tolleson, Doug (Society for Range Management, 2010-03-01)
      The ability to adapt to different environments is critical when livestock are moved because of drought or other management considerations. The impact of previous experience on grazing patterns and diet selection of Brangus cows in desert conditions was evaluated. Cows originating from a humid-subtropical environment (Leona, Texas) were brought to the Chihuahuan Desert (native) and evaluated against cows that spent their life in the Chihuahuan Desert (native) and cows that were born and raised in the Chihuahuan Desert but were moved to Leona, Texas during the preceding 3 yr (tourist). In addition, native cows with recent experience in desert conditions were compared with native cows and tourist cows that had not been in the Chihuahuan Desert for at least 3 yr. All cows were mature and had similar pedigrees (n = 21). Cows from the three groups were tracked in three extensive pastures (> 1 000 ha) for three 8-10-d periods during winter, early summer, and later summer. Cows never grazed in the experimental pastures before the study, but native and tourist cows had grazed adjacent pastures. Fecal near-infrared spectroscopy was used to estimate diet quality. Native cows used 335 ha +/- 83 standard error (SE) less area (P = 0.06) and were 479 m +/- 105 SE closer to water (P=0.03) than cows born and raised in the Chihuahuan Desert (native and tourist cows pooled) when first evaluated in winter. After pooling all data, native cows were farther (P = 0.06) from water (730 m +/- 283 SE) and spent less time at water (10.53% +/- 3.93 SE) than cows that did not spend their entire life in the desert (native and tourist pooled). During winter and early summer (drought conditions), native cows selected diets with lower (P < 0.05) crude protein (CP) than cows born in the desert, but during late summer after abundant precipitation native cows selected a diet with higher (P = 0.07) CP. Although Brangus cows are highly adaptable, animals raised in nearby pastures appear to have advantages over native animals when grazing Chihuahuan Desert rangeland. 
    • Evaluation of Low-Moisture Blocks and Conventional Dry Mixes for Supplementing Minerals and Modifying Cattle Grazing Patterns

      Bailey, Derek W.; Welling, G. Robert (Society for Range Management, 2007-01-01)
      Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of low-moisture blocks (LMB) and conventional dry mixes (CDM) for supplementing minerals to cattle on rangeland and to modify grazing patterns. In study 1, cows were fed LMB or CDM on moderate or difficult foothill terrain in Montana during autumn and winter. Cows consumed more CDM in moderate terrain than difficult terrain, but intake of LMB was similar in both terrain types. Using global positioning system (GPS) telemetry data, visits to supplements were defined as collared cow positions within 10 m of placement sites. More cows visited LMB (74%) than CDM (56%). More cows visited supplements (LMB and CDM pooled) when placed in moderate rather than difficult terrain. Cows spent more nonresting time within 100 and 200 m of LMB than CDM. In study 2, CDM and LMB designed to supplement minerals (LMB-M) were compared when cows were also fed LMB designed to supplement protein (LMB-P). Comparisons were made with cows grazing rangeland and with cows fed hay. Intake of LMB-P and CDM was less when cows grazed rangeland than when they were fed hay. Cows consumed less LMB-P when LMB-M was available. More cows visited LMB-M than CDM, and cows visited LMB-M more frequently than CDM. The LMB formulations designed to supplement minerals work well with formulations designed to supplement protein. Both LMB and CDM met estimated deficits of minerals in the forage based on supplement intake (g day-1) and forage evaluations, but cows visited LMB more consistently than CDM. Low-moisture blocks appear to be more attractive to cows than CDM and should be more useful to modify grazing patterns on rangeland. 
    • Evaluation of Low-Stress Herding and Supplement Placement for Managing Cattle Grazing in Riparian and Upland Areas

      Bailey, Derek W.; VanWagoner, Harv C.; Weinmeister, Robin; Jensen, Delyn (Society for Range Management, 2008-01-01)
      Management practices are often needed to ensure that riparian areas are not heavily grazed by livestock. A study was conducted in Montana during midsummer to evaluate the efficacy of low-stress herding and supplement placement to manage cattle grazing in riparian areas. Three treatments were evaluated in three pastures over a 3-yr period in a Latin-square design (n = 9). Each year, naïve 2-yr-old cows with calves were randomly assigned to the three treatments: 1) free-roaming control, 2) herding from perennial streams to upland target areas, and 3) herding to upland sites with low-moisture block supplements. Stubble heights along the focal stream were higher (P = 0.07) in pastures when cattle were herded (mean +/- SE, 23 +/- 2 cm) than in controls (15 +/- 3cm). Global positioning system telemetry data showed that herding reduced the time cows spent near (< 100 m) perennial streams (P = 0.01) and increased the use of higher elevations (P = 0.07) compared with controls. Evening visual observations provided some evidence that free-roaming cows (44% +/- 19%) were in riparian areas more frequently (P=0.11) than herded cows (23% +/- 6%). Fecal abundance along the focal stream was less (P=0.07) with herding (61.9 +/- 11.4 kg ha-1) than in controls (113.2 +/- 11.4 kg ha-1). Forage utilization within 600 m of supplement sites was greater (P=0.06) when cows were herded to low-moisture blocks (18% +/- 6%) compared with controls and herding alone (8% +/- 2%). Moving cattle to uplands at midday using low-stress herding is an effective tool to reduce use of riparian areas. Herding cattle to low-moisture blocks can increase grazing of nearby upland forage but may not provide additional reduction in cattle use of riparian areas compared with herding alone. 
    • Grazing Distribution and Diet Quality of Angus, Brangus, and Brahman Cows in the Chihuahuan Desert

      Russell, Morgan L.; Bailey, Derek W.; Thomas, Milt G.; Witmore, Barbara K. (Society for Range Management, 2012-07-01)
      Grazing distribution can be improved by using adapted cattle breeds that travel to distant areas of extensive pastures. A 2-yr study was conducted to evaluate grazing distribution and diet quality of Angus, Brangus, and Brahman cows (seven cows per breed group) in the Chihuahuan Desert during three seasons (winter, early summer, and late summer) using three pastures. Two GPS collars were randomly assigned to each breed group and cow positions were logged every 10 min for 10- to 14-d periods in each pasture (3 periods season-1). In 2008, breed groups were evaluated in separate pastures and data were analyzed as a 3 X 3 Latin square design. In 2009, all breed groups were evaluated at the same time in the same pastures. Fecal samples were collected in 2008 and analyzed using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to estimate diet quality. If positions recorded when cows were resting were excluded, Brahman cows traveled greater distances per day than Angus cows throughout the study and greater (P<0.10) than Brangus cows in all but one season during 2009. No differences in average distance to water were detected (P>0.10) among breed groups. During early summer in 2008 and early and late summer in 2009, Angus cows maintained a more linear grazing path (P<0.10) than Brangus or Brahman cows. Brahman cows displayed more sinuous grazing paths (P<0.10) than other breeds during early and late summer seasons in 2009. In 2008, no differences in crude protein content of diets were detected (P>0.10) among breed groups during all seasons. Spatial movement patterns of Brahman cows appeared to differ from Angus and Brangus cows; however, there was no evidence to suggest that there was any advantage in use of areas far from water by any breed group./La distribución del pastoreo puede ser mejorada usando razas de ganado que se adapten a caminar largas distancias en potreros grandes. Se realizó un estudio de dos años para evaluar la distribución del pastoreo y calidad de la dieta de vacas Angus, Brangus, y Brahman (siete vacas por grupo racial) en el Desierto Chihuahuense durante tres temporadas (invierno, inicio, y finales de verano) usando tres potreros. Dos collares con GPS fueron asignados aleatoriamente a cada grupo racial y la posición de las vacas fue anotada cada 10 minutos por periodos de 10 a 14 días en cada potrero (tres periodos por temporada). En 2008, los grupos raciales fueron evaluados en porteros separados y los datos fueron analizados en un diseño de cuadro latino de 3 X 3. En 2009, todos los grupos raciales fueron evaluados al mismo tiempo en los mismos potreros. En 2008 se recolectaron muestras fecales y se analizaron usando espectroscopia infrarroja (NIRS) para estimar la calidad de la dieta. Sí se excluye el tiempo registrado de cuando las vacas estuvieron descansando, las vacas Brahman recorrieron mayores distancias por día que las vacas Angus a través del estudio y mayor (P< 0.10) que las vacas Brangus en todos pero una temporada durante el 2009. No se encontró diferencia (P>0.10) en distancia a el agua en promedio entre los grupos raciales. Durante el inicio del verano de 2008 e inicio y final del verano de 2009 las vacas Angus mantuvieron un patrón de pastoreo más lineal (P<0.10) que las vacas Brangus y Brahman. Las vacas Brahman mostraron un patrón mas sinuoso de pastoreo (P<0.10) que las otras razas durante elinicio y final del verano en 2009. En 2008 no se encontraron diferencias con relación al contenido de proteína cruda en las dietas (P>0.10) entre los grupos raciales en todas las temporadas. El movimiento espacial de las vacas Brahmas parece diferir de las vacas Angus y Brangus; sin embargo, no hubo evidencia que sugiera de alguna ventaja en el uso de áreas distantes del agua para ningún grupo racial.
    • Identification and Creation of Optimum Habitat Conditions for Livestock

      Bailey, Derek W. (Society for Range Management, 2005-03-01)
      Optimum habitat condition is a concept typically used for wildlife rather than livestock. The definition for optimal livestock habitat will vary with management objectives. Abiotic factors, such as topography, water availability, and thermal cover, affect animal performance and uniformity of grazing. Livestock usually prefer gentle slopes and avoid traveling long horizontal and vertical distances to water. Shade and nearby water are used for thermoregulation when temperatures are high, and topographic relief and woody vegetation can be used for thermal cover during cooler temperatures. Biotic factors, such as forage quality and quantity, influence spatial grazing preferences and affect animal performance. Livestock prefer areas with higher forage quality and quantity. Uniformity of grazing may be greater in homogeneous vegetation, but animal performance may be greater in heterogeneous vegetation, especially at lower stocking rates. Livestock grazing patterns have been predicted using multiple regression and other models, but their success has typically been limited to a specific site. Managers can improve livestock habitat conditions by changing abiotic attributes of the pastures, such as developing water, building structures for thermal cover, and changing biotic attributes of the pasture through burning, fertilizing, varying stocking rates, and manipulating grazing systems. Managers can also choose animals that are more adapted to specific rangeland conditions. Practices such as strategic supplementation and herding can modify livestock behavioral patterns to use more of the available habitat. The spatial and temporal variability of rangeland requires multiple management practices to optimize use of livestock habitat.  
    • Individual Animal Selection Has the Potential to Improve Uniformity of Grazing on Foothill Rangeland

      Bailey, Derek W.; VanWagoner, Harv C.; Weinmeister, Robin (Society for Range Management, 2006-07-01)
      Uneven grazing distribution is a concern in rugged topography, because resources may be adversely impacted if livestock concentrate in gentle terrain near water. A study was conducted to determine if removing cattle with undesirable distribution patterns has the potential to increase uniformity of grazing. Before the study, 2 herds of cattle were observed by horseback observers during early mornings to establish terrain use patterns of individual animals. Cows were ranked on slope use and observed vertical and horizontal distance to water. Based on these rankings, cows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments, hill climbers (observed on steeper slopes and farther from water) or bottom dwellers (used gentler slopes near water). Hill climber and bottom dweller cows grazed similar, but separate, pastures at 2 ranches during the 3-year study for a total of 8 comparisons. Based on a normalized and integrated index of terrain use from visual observations, hill climber cows used steeper and more distant areas from water (P = 0.06) than bottom dwellers. Hill climber cows tracked by global positioning system collars used steeper and more distant areas from water than bottom dwellers (P 0.09) during the first 4 weeks of the 6 weeks that pastures were grazed based on a normalized index of terrain use. Forage utilization was more uniform (P < 0.05) across slopes and varying horizontal distances to water in pastures grazed by hill climbers than by bottom dwellers. Stubble heights in riparian and coulee bottom areas were higher (P = 0.01) when grazed by hill climber cows (13.3 cm) than by bottom dwellers (8.1 cm). This study demonstrates that cattle with divergent grazing patterns when observed in the same pasture continue to use different terrain when separated, and it suggests that individual animal selection has the potential to increase uniformity of grazing. 
    • Method of Supplementation May Affect Cattle Grazing Patterns

      Bailey, Derek W.; Jensen, Delyn (Society for Range Management, 2008-01-01)
      Supplement placement can be used to manipulate livestock grazing patterns. The objective of this case study was to compare the effect of low-moisture blocks (LMB) and range cake (barley-based cylindrical cubes, 2 cm in diameter, and 2 to 8 cm long) supplementation on cattle grazing patterns in Montana foothill rangeland. One group of nonlactating cows (n = 79) was fed cake 3 times per week (1.8 kg cow-1 feeding-1), and the other group (n = 81) had continuous access to LMB in separate pastures using a crossover design. Movement patterns of cows were recorded with global positioning system collars during four periods (2 wk period-1) during autumn. Range cake was fed on accessible areas, and LMB were placed in higher and steeper terrain. Intake of LMB averaged (mean +/- SE) 318 +/- 50 g d-1. Cows fed LMB (8.07 degrees +/- 0.20 degrees) were observed on steeper slopes (P = 0.08) than cows fed range cake (6.96 degrees +/- 0.19 degrees). Forage utilization decreased as slope increased to a greater degree when range cake was fed than when LMB was fed (P=0.001). Cows spent more time (P=0.05) within 100m of LMB (274 +/- 23 min d-1) than at range cake feeding sites (67 +/- 24 min d-1). Strategic placement of LMB on high, steep terrain appears to be a more practical and effective approach than traditional hand-feeding range cake on intermediate terrain to improve uniformity of cattle grazing on rugged rangeland. 
    • Potential of Kochia prostrata and Perennial Grasses for Rangeland Restoration in Jordan

      Bailey, Derek W.; Al Tabini, Raed; Waldron, Blair L.; Libbin, James D.; Al-Khalidi, Khalid; Alqadi, Ahmad; Al Oun, Mohammad; Jensen, Kevin B. (Society for Range Management, 2010-11-01)
      Six varieties of forage kochia (Kochia prostrata [L.] Schrad.), two Atriplex shrubs native to North America, and four drought-tolerant perennial grass varieties were seeded and evaluated under arid rangeland conditions in Jordan. Varieties were seeded in December 2007 and evaluated in 2008 and 2009 at two sites. Conditions were dry with Qurain receiving 110 mm and 73 mm and Tal Rimah receiving 58 mm and 43 mm of annual precipitation during the winters of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009, respectively. Plants were more abundant and taller (P < 0.001) at Qurain than Tal Rimah in 2008. Forage kochia frequency was 48% and 30% in 2008 at Qurain and Tal Rimah, respectively. However, no seeded plants were observed at Tal Rimah in 2009, suggesting that 58 mm and 43 mm of annual precipitation are insufficient to allow plants to persist over multiple years. At the wetter site, forage kochia abundance in 2009 was similar (P=0.90) to that observed in 2008 and plant height increased (P < 0.001) from 2008 (14.4 cm +/- 1.1 SE) to 2009 (38.4 cm +/- 1.1 SE). Sahro-select and Otavny-select were the most abundant forage kochia varieties (P<0.05), suggesting that these experimental lines could be more adapted to the environmental conditions of Jordan than the commercially available cultivar Immigrant. Frequency of perennial grass varieties declined (P<0.001) at Qurain from 82% +/- 4 SE to 39% +/- 4 SE between 2008 and 2009, respectively. Among grasses, Siberian wheatgrass had better stands than crested wheatgrass, with Russian wildrye being intermediate. Based on this study, forage kochia appears to have great potential for establishing palatable perennial shrubs in arid rangeland conditions in Jordan if annual precipitation is at least 70 mm. Arid-adapted perennial grass varieties might also be useful in rangeland restoration if annual precipitation is over 100 mm. 
    • Research observation: Daily movement patterns of hill climbing and bottom dwelling cowsfull access

      Bailey, Derek W.; Keil, Martina R.; Rittenhouse, Larry R. (Society for Range Management, 2004-01-01)
      Individual animal selection has been proposed as a tool for increasing uniformity of grazing on rugged rangeland. Daily grazing patterns of cows previously identified as preferring steeper slopes and higher elevations (hill climbers) were compared to cows preferring gentler slopes and lower elevations (bottom dwellers). Cows were ranked for slope use and vertical distance traveled to water during late summer in 1997 using horseback observers. In 1998, 9 extreme cows based on 1997 rankings (4 hill climbers and 5 bottom dwellers) were tracked using Global Positioning System (GPS) collars for 3 weeks during late summer on foothill rangeland. Hill climbers (1027 hours) arrived at water about 1 hour later (P = 0.04) than bottom dwellers (0928 hours). Hill climbers and bottom dwellers left water at the same time (1801 hours, P = 0.3). During this interval, 90% and 98% of the observations were within 100 and 200 m of water, respectively. While cattle were away from water (1901 to 0846 hours), 56%, 77%, and 87% of the observations were within 200, 300, and 400 m, respectively, from the cow's location at 0700 hours. Hill climbers spent 14% of their time on steeper slopes (20 to 30 degrees) while bottom dwellers spent 7% (P = 0.01), and hill climbers (41%) tended (P = 0.07) to spend less time on gentler slopes (0 to 10 degrees) than bottom dwellers (47%). Hill climbers (1323 m) were observed at higher elevations (P = 0.01) than bottom dwellers (1277 m). Horizontal distance traveled to water (633 m) was similar (P > 0.1) for hill climbers and bottom dwellers. Cow location during the early morning (0700 hours) was a good predictor of terrain used during the morning and previous evening grazing bouts. Cows tracked in this study did not appear to regularly associate with each other. They usually grazed in different areas of the pasture and regularly used different water sources. Individual cows within a herd can use different terrain even though many aspects of the grazing patterns are similar. Location of cows during the early morning and perhaps the time that cows travel to water can be used to identify differences in terrain use among individual animals.
    • Rotational Grazing Systems and Livestock Grazing Behavior in Shrub-Dominated Semi-Arid and Arid Rangelands

      Bailey, Derek W.; Brown, Joel R. (Society for Range Management, 2011-01-01)
      Rotational grazing systems (RGS) are often implemented to alleviate undesirable selective grazing by livestock. At both fine and coarse scales, livestock selectively graze individual plants, patches, communities, and landscapes. Smaller pastures, increased stocking density, and rotation allow managers to constrain livestock movement and determine season and frequency of grazing, potentially limiting selectivity and preventing repeated grazing of preferred plants. However, in arid and semi-arid rangelands, forage growth is limited primarily by precipitation rather than defoliation frequency. When soil moisture is adequate, forage is abundant and defoliation levels are typically low, and repeated, intensive defoliation of preferred plants is less likely than in more mesic areas where more consistent precipitation and soil moisture storage allows animals to establish and maintain spatial hierarchies of grazing patterns. Many southwestern rangelands contain diverse vegetation, which provides quality forage during different times of the year. These spatial and temporal patterns of forage distribution may not be amenable to manipulation with RGS. Tracking data show that livestock often alternate among locations within pasture boundaries and can opportunistically exploit areas with higher quality forage when they are available. Higher stock densities combined with higher stocking rates can increase livestock use of less preferred areas, but overall distribution patterns of intensive-rotational and extensive grazing systems are often comparable at similar stocking rates and distances from water. Management that ensures that grazing of riparian areas does not occur during the critical late summer period may be more beneficial than RGS that periodically defers livestock use throughout the grazing season. In arid and semi-arid shrublands, timely adjustments to animal numbers and practices that improve grazing distribution at regional and landscape scales are more likely to be effective in maintaining or improving rangeland health than fencing and RGS.